Kurt Lieberknecht The similarities and difference between inductive and deductive arguments. The best way to describe the similarities and difference between inductive and deductive arguments, it would be best if the term “argument” had a definition. Everyday people have arguments. For these everyday conversations “argument” means “dispute”. In this Logic class an argument consists of claims or statements followed by a final claim. The statements that articulates the reason for agreement of the final claim called “the premises” (Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007, Argument).
This class uses this definition of “argument” to determine how to build a position on certain subjects, and reasoning to convince others to accept the final claim or conclusion (Hurley, P. A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e, 2012, 2). If more logical arguments were presented, there might be fewer non-logical arguments or nonarguments. This gets to the main subject of comparing and contrasting inductive and deductive arguments. Statements can be considered arguments or nonarguments. Arguments can be either inductive or deductive. An argument leads to a conclusion led by a premise or premises.
The premises can be true or false, in which case will change a deductive argument from sound to unsound and vice versa. The same is true for inductive arguments but the wording is cogent or uncogent. These arguments also have a terminology that describes them even further. A deductive argument can be valid or invalid, and an inductive argument can be strong or weak. Some of the biggest difference between the two includes; that an inductive argument includes new information into the argument to make the final conclusion, deductive arguments use repeating information to get to a conclusion, and wording (Smith, Mathew 2012, Logical Argument).
The subject of what constitutes as an argument, it needs to consist of one or more premises and a conclusion (Hurley, P. A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e, 2012, 14). When the premises present high-quality reasons to accept the conclusion it is stated that it is an argument. If the premises fail to support the conclusion it is still considered an argument as it has a premise and a conclusion. Being an argument does not always make the conclusion true; that only predetermines that the conclusion follows from the premises.
If the premises are reasonable, and the final claim relates to the premises, the conclusion is very likely to be true (Hurley, 16). In other words, it is necessary for a statement to have a premise and a conclusion to be recognized as an argument in this Logic class. The argument needs to be checked if the premises are true or reasonable to believe, and if the statements are clear. If all this is the case, it is a logical argument. If there logical argument that is deductive it is called sound. If there is a logical argument that is inductive it is called cogent.
In a deductive argument, a person states that the conclusion must be correct if, and only if, the premises are true. If the premises support the final claim, it is a valid argument: 1. Dogs have whiskers. 2. Animals with whiskers are mammals. C. Dogs are mammals. This is a deductive argument that is valid and has true premises it is called a sound argument. If the premises are false but the conclusion is true it is considered an unsound argument. This is a valid argument, but it is unsound. Here is an example. 1. All birds can fly. 2. A penguin is a bird. C. A penguin can fly.
This is a valid argument because the premises support the conclusion, but a penguin clearly cannot fly. The premise “all birds can fly” is false making it an unsound argument. If a deductive argument has bad or incorrect logic, the premises do not support the conclusion even if the premises are true, the argument is invalid. 1. All humans are mammals. 2. Mike’s dog is a mammal. C. Mike’s dog is a human. 1. When Tim takes a shower, Tim gets wet. 2. Tim is wet. C. Tim must have taken a shower. Both conclusions are false: Mike’s dog, clearly, is not a human, and Tim could have just fallen in a ditch, or even was sprayed by a water gun.
These examples show that truth of the premises is irrelevant for the validity of an argument and that validity relies solely on the logical form and if the premises support the conclusion. When a deductive argument has false premises and a true conclusion or if it has true premises but bad logic, the argument is flawed and we should reject its conclusion. It is unsound. If a deductive argument is clear, valid and has all true premises, it is a valid sound argument and there is a reason to accept its conclusion. In an inductive argument, a person claims that the conclusion is true and it is highly likely if the premises are true.
If an inductive argument is logical, we call it a strong argument. If an inductive argument has bad or incorrect logic, the argument is weak. Here are a few examples: 1. Most students at a community college live within a 20 mile radius of the campus. 2. OJC is a community college. 3. Kurt is a student at OJC. C. He must live within a 20 mile radius of OJC. This conclusion is very probable because the premises are germane to the conclusion. Only because, all of the premises are true it is a cogent argument. We may say that this argument is true. . Taylor and Ana are both students at OJC. 2. Ana is tall and so is Taylor. 3. Ana and Taylor are both 20 years old. 4. Ana majors in math, and so does Taylor. 5. Ana is on the volleyball team. C. Taylor must be on the team, too. This conclusion comes from outer space, nowhere. There are no premises that pertain to our conclusion, except maybe that Ana and Taylor are both tall. This makes it an uncogent argument. The argument says nothing about athletic abilities, which Ana probably has because she is on the volleyball team.
This does not mean that Taylor is athletic and can play volleyball. In order for an inductive argument to be strong and cogent, it should have reasonable and true premises that are relevant to the conclusion. If one or more premises are false it is a weak and uncogent argument. Reasonable people should believe the conclusions of sound and strong arguments because a sound or strong argument is that it is clear or defined as free from ambiguity or vagueness, has good logic and true premises (“The Traditional Square of Opposition,” Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy).
If an argument has good logic, its conclusion must be true if all the premises are true, it is obvious that the conclusion of a sound or strong argument is true. It is obvious that any human with reason should accept the conclusion of a sound or strong argument. A few more differences between inductive and deductive arguments are the wording and the ability to use special abilities to distinguish between a good or bad logic arguments. A deductive argument states that it is impossible for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. These require necessary reason.
An inductive argument states that it is improbable for the conclusion to be false given that the premises are true. They include probabilistic reasoning. There are key words in argument that play a key role in determining if the argument is Inductive or Deductive. A deductive argument could include different words such as necessarily, certainly, absolutely, or definitely (Hurley, P. A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e, 2012, 33). Inductive arguments probably include words such as probably, improbable, plausible, implausible, likely, or unlikely (Hurley, 33).
Deductive arguments have many different forms. These forms are usually considered a deductive argument but each can be considered on a case-by-case bases. Arguments that usually include mathematics, definitions, or syllogism are considered deductive. There are also different forms of syllogism. Categorical, hypothetical and disjunctive are three that were taught. Inductive arguments also contain different forms and those include: predictions, analogies, generalizations, authorities, signs, and casual inference. Some arguments become hard to determine which is deductive and which is inductive (Hurley, P.
A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e, 2012, 34). There is a list of steps to follow just like the order of operations in math. First, does the premise provide absolute support for the conclusion? If so this is a deductive argument. Next, if an argument has a specific deductive character or form. It is obviously deductive. The third indicator is having an inductive character or form. This would be considered an inductive argument. The fourth factor is that it could contain inductive language such as the list of words above. The next indicator is if it contains deductive language.
The last factor is if the premise provides only probable support for the conclusion. It can truly be difficult to determine between inductive and deductive arguments if they are incomplete and not in a correct form (Hurley, 36). There are definitely differences between inductive and deductive arguments. The best way to determine if it is inductive or deductive is to follow the six rules. It is much easier to determine if the argument is in a correct form and logical. The wording of each is very important and their definitions of being cogent, strong, valid, or sound is a very good way of determining the type of argument.
BIBLOGRAPHY Parsons, Terence 2012, the Traditional Square of Opposition. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (http://plato. stanford. edu/entries/square/) Retrieved Feb. 2, 2013. Smith, Mathew 2012, Logical Argument, (http://www. actdu. org. au/archives/actein_site/logarg__. html) Retrieved Feb. 2 2013. Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2007, Argument. (http://www. actdu. org. au/archives/actein_site/logarg__. html) Retrieved Jan. 30, 2013. Hurley, P. 2012, A Concise Introduction to Logic 11/e. Retrieved Jan. 31, 2013.