Industry Analysis of Pharmaceutical Industry in Bangladesh In Bangladesh the pharmaceutical sector is one of the most developed hi-tech sectors which is contributing in the country’s economy. After the promulgation of Drug Control Ordinance – 1982, the development of this sector was accelerated. The professional knowledge, thoughts and innovative ideas of the pharmaceutical professionals working in this sector are the key factors for these developments. Due to recent development of this sector it is exporting medicines to global market including European market.
This sector is also providing 97% of the total medicine requirement of the local market. Leading pharmaceutical companies are expanding their business with the aim to expand export market. Recently few new industries have been established with high tech equipments and professionals which will enhance the strength of this sector. Two organizations, one government (Directorate of Drug Administration) and one semi-government (Pharmacy Council of Bangladesh) control pharmacy practice in Bangladesh.
The Bangladesh Pharmaceutical Society is affiliated with international organizations International Pharmaceutical Fede The Bangladesh pharmaceutical market in 2004 stood at approximately US $ 560 million, which is very small when compared to the population base of the country, which currently stands at about 140 million. To put this number on a proper perspective, the total global pharmaceutical sale in 2004 was $430 billion. This is expected to grow at 8. 1% to about $530 billion in 2005.
Of course the majority of the sale in 2004 was in brand products, the market segment where Bangladesh does demonstrate safety and efficacy through clinical trials, rather they would have to demonstrate that the drug products that they are filing are therapeutically equivalent to the Reference Listed Drug. One of the major barriers that pharmaceutical companies must overcome to enter the regulated market is to be fully compliant with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs).
Although many of the firms are ISO certified, it is a fact that virtually none of the pharmaceutical manufacturing plants that are currently in operation in Bangladesh fully complies with cGMP regulations as described in the US Code of Federal Register (CFR). FDA inspections of manufacturing operations are meant to evaluate a firm’s cGMPs, and to verify documents, data and manufacturing records submitted in the ANDA. This inspection is a critical part of the drug application approval process.
The firms must demonstrate substantial compliance to the satisfaction of the FDA investigators if they are to avoid receiving FDA observations (483’s) and approval of their ANDAs. Ration and Commonwealth Pharmaceutical Association. Cross sectional Analysis Pharmaceutical industries are an important means of bringing drug information to health care professionals (1). Their primary goal is to convince clinicians to prescribe their products. These ads often cite external documents in support of their claims (2).
Pharmaceutical companies worldwide are heavily involved in aggressive drug promotions through advertisements. But the scientific claims made for drugs are often inaccurate and not based on proper scientific evidences (2, 3, 4). As with many countries worldwide, drug promotion and marketing make up a very large part of the activities of pharmaceutical companies in Bangladesh. It is generally believed that overstatements and misinformation are common promotional activities of drug companies in Bangladesh (5).
In a study, drug promotion through industry in promotional brochures showed 50 per cent of claims were based on debatable scientific evidence, while 12 per cent were fake (6). The MediMedia Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS) Bangladesh is an index of important information of available drugs in Bangladesh, mostly used by physicians as a practical reference for daily prescribing. It is a widely available commercial source published two times a year by MediMedia, Singapore. Beside drug information, each issue of MIMS Bangladesh contains a large number of advertisements, mostly on drugs and medical devices.
The extent and types of these advertisements vary in content and size. We conducted a descriptive study to investigate the sources of drug information or claims presented in the advertisements of MIMS Bangladesh. * Materials and methods We selected a convenience sample of the MIMS Bangladesh second issue (2006) for this descriptive study. At first, advertisements on all drugs were separated on the basis of their allocation in the pages. Advertisements containing at least one medical or pharmaceutical claim were considered for evaluation.
Other pharmaceutical advertisements containing only drug and company names with no medical or pharmaceutical claims were excluded. Also, some industry on herbal medicines was excluded as well. The competent industry was analyzed for the sources of information provided in support of their claims. The relevant extracted data were presented in the predesigned data forms in a personal computer. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed using Microsoft Excel 2002 on Windows XP Professional. * Results This descriptive study was conducted to measure the sources of information in drug in industry Bangladesh.
Advertisements containing at least one medical or pharmaceutical claim were extracted from a convenience sample of the second issue of MediMedia Index of Medical Specialities (MIMS) Bangladesh in 2006. Descriptive statistical analyses including frequency distribution and percentage were performed for data analysis. Of the total 112 industry about 82 per cent did not provide any references in support of their claims. Only 17. 9 per cent did; of which 65 per cent of the references included journal articles, which was followed by “data on file” in 25 per cent of cases.
Superlative claims were commonly used without any scientific evidence. The study reported that medical or pharmaceutical claims made in the drug industry in MIMS Bangladesh are mostly not supported by scientific evidence. * Discussion Our study reported a high number of industries with no scientific evidence to substantiate promotional claims. Journal articles were found to be most cited sources of drug information in the advertisements, which was followed by “data on file”. Books and other sources are rarely used.
Extreme claims were frequently used in most of the advertisements, which were not substantiated by proper scientific evidence. In an analytical study, 62. 1 per cent pharmaceutical industry did not cite references for their claims (7). Villanueva and colleagues showed about 44 per cent unsubstantiated claims in Spanish medical journals’ advertisements (8). The most striking report of unsubstantiated pharmaceutical advertisements was found in Germany where 94 per cent of the industry materials were reported to have no scientific evidence (9).
A cross-sectional study reported the figure for the US to be 61 per cent (10). Drug advertisements in Russian medical journals showed quite a small number (2 per cent) with references (11). We also found quite a large number of advertisements in MIMS with no scientific basis to support their claims. Journal articles are the major source of drug information in pharmaceutical industry. In an Indian study journal articles accounted for 76 per cent of the sources, whereas books and “data on file” accounted for 15 and 2 per cent respectively (7).
Another similar study from Canada showed figures of 98 per cent for journal articles, 86 per cent for books, and 20 per cent for “data on file” as references (2). This study also reports journal articles as the most cited sources of drug information. In contrast to others, the use of books as references was found insignificant in our study. We also report significant use of “data on file” information as major evidence of information. Besides unsubstantiated information, unnecessary adjectives were commonly used in the advertisements without proper scientific basis.
Major players of the world pharmaceutical industry The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by a high level of concentration with fifteen multinational companies dominating the industry. Table 1. 1 contains information about these major pharmaceutical companies that are sorted in the order of their 2004 revenues from the sales of pharmaceutical products. Numbers provided in this table include sales of all subsidiaries and affiliated companies that are consolidated in annual reports of the corresponding companies.
In order to facilitate a comparison of different companies revenues of all of them are shown in US dollars; financial data of the companies with headquarters outside of the U. S. was converted to US dollars using average 2004 . Table 1. 2. Company| Revenue of pharmaceutical segment, (tk. 000)| Total sales, (Tk. 000)| Beximco Pharmaceutical Ltd| 46,133| 52,516| Square Pharmaceutical Ltd| 31,434| 37,324| Aristo Pharmaceutical Ltd| 22,190| 47,348| Glaxco Pharmaceutical Ltd| 21,494| 22,939| Opsonim Pharmaceutical Ltd| 21,426| 21,426| Acme Pharmaceutical Ltd| 18,497| 28,247| ACI Pharmaceutical Ltd| 17,861| 18,711|
Key Challenges The main challenges for drug companies come from four areas. First, they must deal with competition from within and without. Second, they must manage within a world of price controls that dictate a wide range of prices from place to place. Third, companies must be constantly on guard for patent violations and seek legal protection in new and growing global markets. Finally, they must manage their product pipelines so that patent expirations do not leave them without protection for their investment. * Competition The pharmaceutical industry currently represents a highly competitive environment.
One can distinguish three layers of competition for “Big Pharma” companies: First, obviously, “Big Pharma” companies compete among themselves. Although not all leading pharmaceutical companies cover all segments of pharmaceutical market, almost all of them are active in R;D and production of drugs in the segments with the highest potential – such as treatment of infectious, cardiovascular, psychiatric or oncology diseases. Secondly, “Big Pharma” companies experience significant profit losses due to competition from the generic drug manufacturers.
Opposite to the research-oriented pharmaceutical companies, which invest significant financial resources and time to develop new medicines, generic drug manufacturers spend minimum resources on R;D, and start manufacturing already developed by other companies drugs after their patent expiration. Because generic drug manufacturers do not have to recoup high R;D costs, prices of their products are usually much lower then those of major pharmaceutical companies; as the result, after patent expiration, generic drugs manufacturers capture significant market share, dramatically decreasing revenues of the “Big Pharma” companies.
Finally, the whole pharmaceutical industry competes with other health care industries. In this case, pharmaceutical companies should not only demonstrate high efficiency of their products, but also provide obvious proof of cost advantages in comparison with other forms of care. * Protection of patents Generic drugs manufacturers represent a significant threat to research-based pharmaceutical companies. Moreover, generic drugs manufacturers sometimes start production of patent-protected drug analogues even before a patent expires. Although research-oriented companies in many cases are able to rotect their patents, they do suffer from lost revenues. Therefore, protection of patents is one of the key conditions necessary for further development of the pharmaceutical industry. At the same time, non-efficient legislation that does not provide the necessary level of patent protection is one of the factors that hamper expansion of “Big Pharma” companies to the developing countries. * Drugs portfolio management Drug portfolio management is one of the most important determinants of long-term prosperity of research-oriented pharmaceutical companies.
First, it takes an extremely long time to develop a new drug, and only a very small portion of all projects is successful. Projects that the company starts today will determine its financial performance 10-15 years later. Therefore, careful planning of R;D projects is very important for the long-term stability of the company. Second, insofar as patents keep exclusivity of drugs only during a limited time, and soon after the expiration of the patent the sales of the drug sharply go down, the company has to carefully monitor its patent expiration dates, and insure that new products become available by that date.
Definitely, planning errors or rapidly changing demand in the industry can be corrected by acquisition of smaller research companies or patents from competitors, but in any of these cases the company will have to pay a premium price, thus reducing its profitability. Bangladesh in the World Market for Pharmaceuticals In 2004 Bangladesh’s Pharmaceutical exports reached $971 million. That made it Indiana’s sixth largest export industry – accounting for about 5% of all Indiana exports.
Between 2002 and 2004, BANGLDESHI Pharmaceutical exports increased by $425 million – an increase of 78%. The key components are described as medications, hormones, and antibiotics. Bangladesh exports most of these products to Europe – the leading destinations in 2004 were France, Spain, the UK, and Germany. Those four countries took almost 59% of bangladeshi’s Pharmaceutical exports that year. The remaining top 10 destinations were Canada, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Ireland, Mexico, and Austria.
Indiana’s Pharmaceutical export profile is very similar to the nations – the United States and Indiana are almost totally focused on NAFTA partners and Europe. Who buys the world’s Pharmaceutical products? The United Nation’s Statistics Division publishes annual values for Pharmaceutical imports and exports for most countries. The key world importers include the United States and Europe. Below we report statistics for 2003 for these two areas as well as for other key areas and countries. There are several things to note from this table.
First, the United States is the largest importer of Pharmaceutical products followed by EU15 (the fifteen countries that comprised the European Union before the recent expansion to 25 countries) and Switzerland. Japan and Canada are important destinations but each import less than Switzerland. China imported less than $2 billion in 2003 but remains an interesting destination because of its remarkable growth and development. Table 1. 3. Pharmaceutical industry – international trade Importer| 2003 imports, thousands| Exporter|
USA| 31,739,624| 79% from Europe; 13% from Asia; 7% from North America| EU15| 28,351,731| 52% from North American; 35% from Europe| Switzerland| 9,718,628| 88% from Europe; 10% from North American| Japan| 6,193,127| 69% from Europe; 23% from North America| Canada| 6,064,628| 49% from Europe; 48% from North America| China| 1,705,632| 65% from Europe;8% from North America| Table note: These data refer to Standard Industrial Trade Classification (SITC Rev: 3) data for codes 54. 1 and 54. 2. These two codes cover what is traditionally thought of as Pharmaceutical products.
EU15 refers to the 15 members of the European Union – those that were members before the increase to 25 members. Europe refers to a very large and wide definition of countries in western and east/central Europe. Switzerland is part of Europe but is not a member of the EU. The data is in thousands of dollars. The next table shows the largest changes that occurred in Pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003. The largest change was the almost $22 billion increase of imports to the United States from Europe. The United States also received large inflows of Pharmaceutical products from Asia ($3. 5 billion) and North America ($1. billion). EU15 also shows up three times in the table with a total of about $28 billion – from N. America, Europe, and Asia. Canada has two entries showing increased Pharmaceutical imports from Europe ($2. 5 billion) and the N. America ($2 billion). Switzerland, Japan, and China’s largest imports came from Europe. Table 1. 4. Changes in pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003, dollar change Imports to| Imports from| Dollar Change In thousands, 1995 to 2003| USA| Europe| 21,968,851| EU15| N. America| 14,786,491| EU15| Europe| 10,041,165| Switzerland| Europe| 6,853,882| USA| Asia| 3,518,057|
EU15| Asia| 3,024,816| Canada| Europe| 2,465,464| Canada| N. America| 1,969,847| USA| N. America| 1,904,983| Japan| Europe| 1,601,565| China| Europe| 859,540| While the above table shows where most of the goods are going, the next one features the hot flows – those that have grown the fastest between 1995 and 2003. Notice that this list is a lot different from the one above. Japanese imports from Africa showed huge percentage growth, as did China’s imports from Central ; South America and Africa. The United States is listed four times with triple digit import growth from Europe, North America, Asia, and Oceana.
It is interesting that Europe15 is not on this list. Switzerland is mentioned once with rapidly growing imports from Asia. A look at the second column is instructive. Africa shows up three times – suggesting that Africa is becoming a more important exporter of Pharmaceutical products. Africa has had good luck selling to Japan, China, and Canada. Asia is also included with strong exports – primarily to the U. S. and Switzerland. Table 1. 5. Changes in pharmaceutical imports between 1995 and 2003, percent change Importer| Exporter| Percent Change, 1995 to 2003| Japan| Africa| 270,477| China| C;S America| 16,370|
China| Africa| 11,256| Canada| Africa| 1,036| USA| Europe| 487| USA| N. America| 431| USA| Asia| 395| China| N. America| 386| Switzerland| Asia| 382| USA| Oceana| 367| The Business Cycle and Industry Sectors Economic trends can and do affect industry performance. By identifying and monitoring key assumptions and variables, we can monitor the economy and gauge the implications of new information on our economic outlook and industry analysis. Cyclical changes in the economy arise from the ups and downs of the business cycle. Structure changes occur when the economy undergoes a major change in organization or how it functions.
Rotation strategy is when one switches from one industry group to another over the course of a business cycle. Economic Variables and Different Industries are:- * Inflation: Higher inflation causes a negative impact for pharmaceutical industries because it increases the market interest rate and uncertainty of future costs. It reduces the purchasing power of the buyers. * Interest Rates: The higher bank interest rate causes a adverse effect on the borrowing of the pharmaceutical industry. * International Economics: To some extend the ups and downs of international economics effects the pharmaceutical industry. Consumer Sentiment: Now a day’s consumer sentiments also make a great impact on the pharmaceutical industry. As a result they introducing herbal products to meet the huge demand Environmental Analysis (PEST) Technological advancements, tighter regulatory-compliance overheads, rafts of patent expiries and volatile investor confidence have made the modern pharmaceutical industry an increasingly tough and competitive environment. Below is an analysis of the structure of the pharmaceutical industry using the PEST (political, economic, social and technological) model? Economic Value Added:
In the decade to 2003 the pharmaceutical industry witnessed high value mergers and acquisitions7. With a projected stock value growth rate of 10. 5% (2003-2010) and Health Care growth rate of 12. 5% (2003-2010), the audited value of the global pharmaceutical market is estimated to reach a huge 500 billion dollars by 2004. Only information technology has a higher expected growth rate of 12. 6%. Majority of pharmaceutical sales originate in the US, EU and Japanese markets. Nine geographic markets account for over 80% of global pharmaceutical sales these are, US, Japan, France, Germany, UK, Italy, Canada, Brazil and Spain.
Of these markets, the US is the fastest growing market and since 1995 it has accounted for close to 60% of global sales. In 2000 alone the US market grew by 16% to $133 billion dollars making it a key strategic market for pharmaceuticals. Structural Economic Changes and Alternative Industries: Structural Economic Changes and Alternative Industries is influenced by the factors: * Demographics * Lifestyles * Technology * Politics and regulations But our pharmaceutical Industry of Bangladesh is only affected by demographic and technological forces, which we discuss in the below. Demographic Growing health awareness among the population has also had an influence on market expansion. Unlike in other markets, the Bangladesh pharmaceutical distribution network tends to be more retail-orientated and the bulk of distribution is done by the companies themselves. However, despite the country possessing huge manufacturing capabilities which supply 96% of domestic need, the complete lack of R;D in domestic companies could cause the market to stagnate, especially if companies have not evolved by the time the TRIPS agreement comes into effect.
Multinationals should view Bangladesh as a possible manufacturing base. The balance of pharmaceutical trade remains negative, but it is difficult to project how the balance will change throughout the forecast period. * Technology While a particular new technology may either increase or decrease health care spending, researchers generally agree that, taken together, advances in medical technology have contributed to rising overall Bangladesh health care spending. Whether a particular new technology will increase or reduce total health expenditures depends on several factors.
One is its impact on the cost of treating an individual patient. Does the new technology supplement existing treatment, or is it a full or partial substitute for current approaches? Do these changes result in higher or lower health spending for each patient treated? In looking at the impact on cost per patient, consideration needs to be given to whether the direct costs of the new technology include any effect on the use or cost of other health care services such as hospital days or physician office visits.
It is not possible to directly measure the impact of new medical technology on total health care spending; innovation in the health care sector occurs continuously, and the impacts of different changes interrelate. The size of the health sector (16% of gross domestic product in 2005) and its diversity (thousands of procedures, products, and interventions) also render direct measurement impractical. Economists have used indirect approaches to try to estimate the impact of new technology on the cost of health care. In an often-cited article, New house estimates the impact of medical technology on health care spending by first estimating the impact of factors that can reasonably be accounted for (e. g. , spread of insurance, increasing per capita income, aging of the population, supplier-induced demand, low medical sector productivity gains). The continuing flow of new medical technology results from other factors including the desire by professionals to find better ways to treat their patients and the level of investment in basic science and research.
Direct providers of care may incorporate new technology because they want to improve the care they offer their patients, but they also may feel the need to offer the “latest and best” as they compete with other providers for patients. Health care professionals, like people in other occupations, also may be motivated by professional goals (e. g. , peer recognition, tenure, prestige) to find ways to improve practice. Commercial interests (such as pharmaceutical companies and medical device makers) are willing to invest large amounts in research and evelopment because they have found strong consumer interest in, and financial reimbursement for, many of the new products they produce. In addition, public and private investments in basic science research lead directly and indirectly to advancements in medical practice; these investments in basic science are not necessarily motivated by an interest in creating new products but by the desire to increase human understanding. Industry Life Cycle Life cycle models are not just a phenomenon of the life sciences. Industries experience a similar cycle of life.
Just as a person is born, grows, matures, and eventually experiences decline and ultimately death, so too do industries. The stages are the same for all industries, yet industries cycle through the stages in various lengths of time. Even within the same industry, various firms may be at different life cycle stages. Strategies of a firm as well as of competitors vary depending on the stage of the life cycle. Some industries even find new uses for declining products, thus extending the life cycle. Others send products abroad in hopes of extending their life. The growth of an industry’s sales over time is used to chart the life cycle.
The distinct stages of an industry life cycle are: introduction, growth, maturity, and decline. Sales typically begin slowly at the introduction phase, and then take off rapidly during the growth phase. After leveling out at maturity, sales then begin a gradual decline. In contrast, profits generally continue to increase throughout the life cycle, as companies in an industry take advantage of expertise and economies of scale and scope to reduce unit costs over time. Industry life cycle has five stages : * Pioneering development * Rapidly accelerating industry growth Mature industry growth * Stabilization and market maturity * Deceleration of growth and decline Our pharmaceutical industry in Bangladesh is in Rapidly Accelerating Industry Growth Stage in industry life cycle. * Rapidly accelerating industry growth This stage starts when the product of the industry is accepted by the market. Further demand increases rapidly. The number of firms in the industry is limited at this stage and hence the firms can experience substantial backlogs of orders. Hence prices can be increased or discounts can be decreased and therefore profit margins are high.
The capacity utilization goes up and even though productive capacity is increased, sales increase more rapidly. Hence high profit margins occur simultaneously with high sales growth. Profits explode. Sales growth can be high up to even 50 percent year and profits can grow over 100 percent a year as a result of the low earnings base and high profit margins and increasing efficiency of the firms. The growth potential of pharmaceutical industry is enormous. As urban population is increasing and people are getting educated, they are now more concerned about healthcare.
So the demands of medical products are rising. In Bangladesh unhygienic conditions and poor health maintenance plans provide vast scope for the pharmaceutical firms to sell their products. On the other hand, the constant natural disasters provide opportunities to pharmaceutical companies to boost its sales. The industry is growing the protection of national Drug Policy 1982. But after the GATT regulation, changes are bound to take place. Furthermore, the trend & growth of this industry tends to be positive as the demand of medicines is rising, which have mentioned earlier.
Analysis of Industry Competition Competition and Expected Industry Returns, Porter’s concept of competitive strategy is described as the search by a firm for a favorable competitive position in an industry * To create a profitable competitive strategy, a firm must first examine the basic competitive structure of its industry * The potential profitability of a firm is heavily influenced by the profitability of its industry * Porter’s five forces Porter’s five forces is a framework for the industry analysis and business strategy development developed by Michael E.
Porter of Harvard Business School in 1979. It uses concepts developing, Industrial Organization (IO) economics to derive five forces that determine the competitive intensity and therefore attractiveness of a market. Attractiveness in this context refers to the overall industry profitability. An “unattractive” industry is one where the combination of forces acts to drive down overall profitability. A very unattractive industry would be one approaching “pure competition”. For our pharmaceutical Industry Competition we use porters five forces model in the below: Threats of new entrants is low because- Capital requirement is high. * Hard to have access to the distribution channels of excising companies. Bargaining power of buyer is low because- * Undifferentiated or standard product offering competitive price * No potential threats of backward integration by buyer * Customers are fewer prices sensitive. Bargaining power of supplier is high because- * There is little number of suppliers who regulate the market according to their own association. * Lack of substitute product (raw materials) * Credible threats of forward integration by suppliers Threats of substitute are low because- There is minimum substitute product such as herbal products. Industry rivalry is high because- * The market is large. * Industry is growing at a slow rate and yet to attain its best so supply gap is evident. * Fixed costs are high which make it hard for exiting from the market. * Strong capital based and technologically company is in operation and grabbing major market shares. Growth & Trends: The growth potential of pharmaceutical industry is enormous. As urban population is increasing and people are getting educated, they are now more concerned about healthcare.
So the demands of medical products are rising. In Bangladesh unhygienic conditions and poor health maintenance plans provide vast scope for the pharmaceutical firms to sell their products. On the other hand, the constant natural disasters provide opportunities to pharmaceutical companies to boost its sales. The industry is growing the protection of national Drug Policy 1982. But after the GATT regulation, changes are bound to take place. Furthermore, the trend & growth of this industry tends to be positive as the demand of medicines is rising, which have mentioned earlier.
Company Analysis Libara Infution Ltd Libra Infusions Ltd – At a Glance Board of Directors: • Begum Shamsun Nahar Ahsanullah – Chairperson | | • Dr. Roushon Alam – Director & Founder | | • Begum Ayesha Alam – Managing Director| | • Saira Mariam Alam – Director| | • Monami Alam – Director| | Company Secretary: • M. A. Rashid | | Auditors: M/s. Muhammad Shaheeddullah & Co. | | Chartered Accountants | | 19 Bangabandhu Avenue | | Dhaka House (2nd Floor)| | Dhaka-1000. | | Bankers: Agrani Bank | Amin Court Branch | 62-63 Motijheel C/A, | Company Profile
There was always a scarcity of Intravenous (I. V. ) Fluid in the market as Govt. could not manufacture enough to fulfill the local demand. Before 1985, the major portion of the local demand was being covered by the imported I. V. Fluid. To overcome this situation LIBRA made its debut in February 1985 under the strong leadership of Dr. Roushon Alam with a view to provide quality products. The company is situated on approx. 2 acres of land at Mirpur I/E, Dhaka . The factory is housed in a centrally Air Conditioning modern building having all necessary facilities. I. V.
Fluid, the product of the company is a life saving and a basic medical necessity used in all medical situations involving diarrhoeal disease, surgical operation, loss of blood, weakness and hospitalization in general. LIBRA’s I. V. Fluid being a quality product has a tremendous demand in the market. The technology has been supplied by M/S Vifor S. A. , Geneva , Switzerland under a Technical Collaboration Agreement. In addition, implementation of ISO 9001 Quality Management System has ensured customer satisfaction by guaranteeing good design, reliable product quality, safe performance, prompt delivery and efficient service.
LIBRA employed a team of highly qualified and motivated staff. Since LIBRA came first in this segment of pharmaceuticals, the company had to struggle with a lot of adverse situations. But today, LIBRA is known to the medical profession and general public as the best and largest manufacturer of I. V. Fluid in Bangladesh. Quality Policy | We at “LIBRA” are committed to provide total customer satisfaction for all products formulated ; processed. This is achieved by: • Implementing defined quality management system Continuous up gradation of technology • Creating quality awareness ;active participation of employees at all levels | | Manufacturing Technology | Libra always uses modern technology for manufacturing I. V. Fluid a life saving product. The production is based on imported raw ; packing materials our Quality Assurance System ensure full quality control testing in accordance with product requirements Technical support including LAL test, validation and stability studies are available as a part of our commitment to quality. | | Human Resource |
Libra has a experienced dedicated staff members which included pharmacists, chemists, doctors, engineers, accountants and other professionals. Libra’s success depends on sincerity, hard labor and team efforts of employees at all levels. Libra invests in personal and professional development of its employees through training and workshop. | Vision All of our activities should benefit the society to take health care. We strongly believe that in the final analysis we are accountable to our employees, our customers, citizen of our country and shareholders. | Mission To attain Vision will devote its resources to m manufacture world class products using modern technology. | | Commitment * Committed manufacturing world class Quality Products using modern technology. * Committed maintaining Quality Management System (QMS) through documentation of all activities of the Company complying with International standard require ment of ISO 9001 through developing employees at all levels by regular training participation. * Committed customer satisfaction through service upto their level of expectation. Libra reviews activities and performance of its operation to ensure compliance with commitment| SWOT Analysis: This section identifies the main strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats associated with the Libra Pharmaceutical Company LTD. It involves monitoring the internal (strengths ; weaknesses) and external (opportunities ; threats) marketing environment. Strength The main strengths of Libra Pharmaceutical Co. LTD are: * Higher quality product with lower price. * Focused on the Customer’s satisfaction. * To meet the required specification it maintain the standard and quality. Using modern technology * To enrich the systems they appoint a huge experienced, motivated professionals * It is already been recognized by WHO and ISO 9001 certified as world class manufacturer of I. V. fluid. * To increased sales thy introduced new product every year. * To ensure high quality control facilities they has installed state of art equipment. * The company continuously focusing on expanding sales networks to meet the demand. Weakness The main weaknesses of Libra Pharmaceutical Co. LTD are: * High risk of facing losses, in case of purchasing raw materials in advance, as price is unstable. They can not increase the selling price as the cost of product increased. * Supplier has ultimate control over the material market * Government initiative or incentive in this sector is very insufficient. * The increase of bank interest rate. * The cot of fuel and oil, promotional expenses, transportation expenses are increasing day by day. * Law and order restrictions are quit alarming. Broad environmental analysis Competitive analysis Internal organizational analysis Strengths ; weaknesses of an organization Opportunities for ; to an organization Need for strategic action
Organizational long-range objectives Opportunities: The main opportunities faced by Libra Pharmaceutical Co. LTD are: * Company can introduced new product line or improved quality product. * Available customers. * Demand is huge and increasing day by day. * Profit percentage is high. * Company can invest their rest of retain earnings in other projects. * International trading scope is increasing specially in Middle East. * Expand their activities to the root level of the county Threats: The main threats faced by Libra Pharmaceutical Co. LTD are: * Change in technology (i. e. quipments, sharing and cutting machine change). * Threat of new entrance. * Political unrest. * Labor problem * Increasing Tax rate * Increasing cost of product * Increasing bank interest rate * Lower competitive power Market Condition Libra Infusions Ltd Price Change % Change Open High Low Business Segment LIBRAINFU Financial Performance Year| Earning per share | Net Asset Value Per Share | Net Profit After Tax (mn) | Price Earning Ratio | % Dividend | % Dividend Yield | 2009| 34. 93 | 689. 13 | 4. 37 | 45. 81 | 15. 00 | 0. 94| 2008| 51. 25 | 671. 70 | 6. 41 | 28. 24 | 17. 50 | 1. 1| 2007| 48. 14 | 637. 95 | 6. 02 | 11. 00 | 17. 50 | 3. 3| 2006| 47. 36 | 589. 81 | 5. 93 | 10. 20 | 17. 50 | 4| 2005| 45. 46 | 559. 94 | 5. 69 | 12. 34 | 17. 50 | 3. 12| 2004| 43. 30 | 531. 99 | 5. 42 | 14. 81 | 17. 50 | 2. 73| 2003| 36. 33 | 550. 38 | 4. 55 | 8. 08 | 15. 00 | 5. 11| 2002| 30. 36 | 530. 55 | 3. 80 | 11. 20 | 15. 00 | 4. 41| 2001| 21. 82 | 515. 18 | . 73 | 10. 08 | 12. 50 | 5. 68| 2000| 18. 42 | 510. 86 | 2. 30 | 10. 59 | 5. 00 | 2. 56| Analysis of Financial Statement Of Libra Infusion Common-Size Statement Analysis: Common-Size Statement of Balance Sheet
LIBRA INFUSIONS LTD particular| 2007(tk in %)| 2008(tk in %)| 2009(tk in %)| Assets| Non-current assets| 62. 87| 64. 12| 66. 66| Property, plant and equipmentAt cost/ Revaluation| 96. 64| 97. 43| 91. 78| Accumulated deprecation| (33. 77)| (33. 31)| (25. 12)| Current Assets| 37. 14| 35. 89| 33. 34| Inventories| 18. 57| 17. 59| 19. 17| Account Receivables| 7. 50| 5. 68| 7. 06| Loans , Advance and Deposits| 9. 46| 10. 51| 5. 31| Cash and Cash Equivalents| 1. 61| 2. 11| 1. 80| Total Assets| 100%| 100%| 100%| Share holders Equity| 27. 97| 27. 50| 20. 31| Share Capital| 4. 38| 4. 19| 2. 95|
General Revenue| -| 1. 31| 0. 94| Revaluation Reserve| 13. 03| 12. 17| 8. 76| Retain Earnings| 10. 55| 9. 93| 7. 66| Non-Current Liabilities| 26. 40| 29. 75| 31. 37| Term Borrowings| 11. 68| 14. 73| 20. 96| Due to-directors| 7. 55| 7. 97| 5. 03| Other Liabilities| 7. 17| 7. 05| 5. 38| Current Liabilities| 45. 63| 42. 74| 48. 32| Shot term Borrowing| 32. 62| 27. 53| 37. 65| Creditors and others payable| 9. 90| 11. 51| 8. 97| Taxation Payable| 3. 11| 3. 70| 1. 70| Total Liabilities and Shareholders Equity| 100%| 100%| 100%| LIBRA INFUSIONS LTD Common-Size Statement of Profit and Loss Account
Particular| 2007| 2008| 2009| Net Sales RevenueCost of Goods SoldGross ProfitOperating ExpensesAdministrative Exp. Selling, Marketing ; Distribution ExpProfit from OperationFinance Cost. NP before Contribution to WPPFWelfare fundsProfit Before TaxProvision for Income TaxNP After Income Tax| 100%(64. 91%)35. 08%(26. 96%) (3. 64%)(23. 32%)| 8. 12%(5. 22%)2. 90%(0. 13%)2. 77%(0. 82%)1. 95%| 100%(67. 01%)32. 99%(26. 15%) (3. 05%)(23. 10%)| 6. 84%(4. 59%)2. 25%(0. 11%)2. 14%(0. 58%)1. 56%| 100%(63. 64%)36. 36%(28. 75%) (3. 38%)(25. 37%)| 7. 61%(5. 88%)1. 73%(0. 09%)1. 64%(0. 45%)1. 19%| Ratio Analysis:
A: Internal Liquidity Ratios| Liquidity refers to the ability of a firm to meet its short-term financial obligations when and as they fall due. The main concern of liquidity ratio is to measure the ability of the firms to meet their short-term maturing obligations. Failure to do this will result in the total failure of the business, as it would be forced into liquidation. Current Ratio The Current Ratio expresses the relationship between the firm’s current assets and its current liabilities. Current assets normally include cash, marketable securities, accounts receivable and inventories.
Current liabilities consist of accounts payable, short term notes payable, short-term loans, current maturities of long term debt, accrued income taxes and other accrued expenses (wages). 2007| 2008| 2009| .79| 1. 50| 1. 41| Comments: 2007: The current ratio of . 79:1 means that for every taka of current liabilities Libra Infusions Ltd. has . 79 taka of current assets, which is unacceptable comparing to the standard 2:1. 2008: The current ratio of 1. 50:1 means that for every taka of current liabilities Libra Infusions Ltd. has 1. 50 taka of current assets, which is unacceptable comparing to the standard 2:1. 009: The current ratio of 1. 41:1 means that for every taka of current liabilities Libra Infusions Ltd. has 1. 41 taka of current assets, which is unacceptable comparing to the standard 2:1. Quick Ratio/ Acid Test Ratio Measures assets that are quickly converted into cash and they are compared with current liabilities. This ratio realizes that some of current assets are not easily convertible to cash e. g. inventories. The quick ratio, also referred to as acid test ratio, examines the ability of the business to cover its short-term obligations from its “quick” assets only (i. . it ignores stock). The quick ratio is calculated as follows Ouicke Ratio=(Cash+Marketable securites+Recivables)/ Current Libilities 2007| 2008| 2009| .20| . 18| . 18| Comment: 2007: The quick ratio in 2007 of Libra Infusions was . 20:1 which is unacceptable for the company o comparing the standard of 1:1 2008: The quick ratio in 2007 of Libra Infusions was . 18:1 which is unacceptable for the company o comparing the standard of 1:1 2009: The quick ratio in 2007 of Libra Infusions was . 18:1 which is unacceptable for the company o comparing the standard of 1:1 Cash ratio:
The most conservative liquidity ratio is the cash ratio, which related the firm’s cash and short-term marketable securities to its current liabilities as follows: Ouicke Ratio=(Cash+Marketable securites)/ Current Libilities 2007| 2008| 2009| .035| . 049| . 037| Receivable Turnover: This ratio shows the number of times accounts receivable are paid and reestablished during the accounting period. The higher the turnover, the faster the business is collecting its receivables and the more cash the client generally has on hand. The formula is: Net Annual SalesAccounts Receivable 2007| 2008| 2009| 16. 86| 21. 86| 15. 2| Average Receivable Collection Period The average collection period measures the quality of debtors since it indicates the speed of their collection. The shorter the average collection period, the better the quality of debtors, as a short collection period implies the prompt payment by debtors. The average collection period should be compared against the firm’s credit terms and policy to judge its credit and collection efficiency. An excessively long collection period implies a very liberal and inefficient credit and collection performance. The delay in collection of cash impairs the firm’s liquidity.
On the other hand, too low a collection period is not necessarily favorable, rather it may indicate a very restrictive credit and collection policy which may curtail sales and hence adversely affect profit. The calculation is follow: Average Receivable Collection Period = (365/ average account receivable turnover) 2007| 2008| 2009| 21. 65| 17. 10| 23. 51| Comment: 2007: Average collection period of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 21. 65 days. That means the company had to wait 21. 65 days after making a sales before it receives cash. This is comparatively lower than the industry average of 45. 5 days. That means the customers are paying their bill in time. 2008: Average collection period of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 17. 10 days. That means the company had to wait 17. 10 days after making a sales before it receives cash. This is comparatively lower than the industry average of 45. 45 days. That means the customers are paying their bill in time. 2009: Average collection period of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 23. 51 days. That means the company had to wait 23. 51 days after making a sales before it receives cash. This is comparatively lower than the industry average of 45. 5 days. That means the customers are paying their bill in time. Inventory Turnover This ratio measures the stock in relation to turnover in order to determine how often the stock turns over in the business. It indicates the efficiency of the firm in selling its product. It is calculated by dividing the cost of goods sold by the average inventory. The ratio shows a relatively high stock turnover which would seem to suggest that the business deals in fast moving consumer goods. 2007| 2008| 2009| 5. 65| 5. 16| 2. 87| Comment: 2007: Inventory turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 5. 5 which are comparatively higher than the industry average 1. 26. That mean the company have maintained liquidity of its inventory and I is productive. 2008: Inventory turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 5. 16 which are comparatively higher than the industry average 1. 26. That mean the company have maintained liquidity of its inventory and I is productive. 2009: Inventory turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 2. 87 which are comparatively higher than the industry average 1. 26. That mean the company have maintained liquidity of its inventory and I is productive.
Cash Conversion Cycle The Cash Conversion Cycle (CCC) measures how long a firm will be deprived of cash if it increases its investment in resources in order to expand customer sales. It is thus a measure of the liquidity risk entailed by growth. However, shortening the CCC creates its own risks: while a firm could even achieve a negative CCC by collecting from customers before paying suppliers, a policy of strict collections and lax payments is not always sustainable. Payable Turnover= COGS/Average Trade Payable 2007| 2008| 2009| 12. 91| 14. 99| 10. 03| Payable Payment period
A payment period to average inventory period above 1:1 (100%) indicates that the inventory is sold before it is paid for (inventory does not need to be financed). the average inventory period is also known as the inventory holding period. . Payable payment period = 365 day / payable turnover 2007| 2008| 2009| 28. 27| 24. 35| 36. 16| B. Evaluating operational Performance| The ratios that indicate how well the management is operating the business can be divided into tow subcategories: * Operation Efficiency Ratio * Operation Profitability Ratio These two ratios are discussed in the below:- * Operation Efficiency Ratio Total Assets Turnover
Asset turnover is the relationship between sales and assets:- * The firm should manage its assets efficiently to maximize sales. * The total asset turnover indicates the efficiency with which the firm uses all its assets to generate sales. * It is calculated by dividing the firm’s sales by its total assets. * Generally, the higher the firm’s total asset turnover, the more efficiently its assets have been utilized. Total asset turnover = Net Sales / Total assets 2007| 2008| 2009| 1. 17| 1. 39| 1. 01| Comments 2007: Total assets turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ld. In 2007 was 1. 17, which is higher than the industry average of 1. 5. That means the company is generating sufficient level of business. 2008: Total assets turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ld. In 2007 was 1. 39, which is higher than the industry average of 1. 15. That means the company is generating sufficient level of business. 2009: Total assets turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ld. In 2007 was 1. 01, which is lower than the industry average of 1. 15. That means the company is not generating sufficient level of business. Fixed Asset Turnover The fixed assets turnover ratio measures the efficiency with which the firm has been using its fixed assets to generate sales.
Generally, high fixed assets turnovers are preferred since they indicate a better efficiency in fixed assets utilization. It is calculated by dividing the firm’s sales by its net fixed assets as follows: Fixed asset turnover = Net Sales / Average Net fixed asset 2007| 2008| 2009| 3. 90| 4. 92| 4. 26| Comments: 2007: Fixed assets turnover ratio f Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 3. 90, which is higher than the industry average of 3. 06. That means the company is generating sufficient level of business. 2008: Fixed assets turnover ratio f Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 4. 2, which is higher than the industry average of 3. 06. That means the company is generating sufficient level of business. 2009: Fixed assets turnover ratio f Libra Infusions Ltd. in 2007 was 4. 26, which is higher than the industry average of 3. 06. That means the company is generating sufficient level of business. Equity Turnover Equity Turnover is a firm’s annual sales divided by its average stockholders’ equity. Equity turnover is used to calculate the rate of return on common equity, and is a measure of how well a firm uses its stockholders’ equity to generate revenue.
The higher the ratio is, the more efficiently a firm is using its capital. Also known as capital turnover. Equity Turnover = Annual Sales / Average Equity 2007| 2008| 2009| 4. 05| 5. 05| 4. 31| Comments: 2007: Equity turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. In 2007 was 4. 05. Which is lower than the industry average of 6. 88. that means the company not efficiently using its capital. 2008: Equity turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. In 2007 was 5. 05. Which is lower than the industry average of 6. 88. that means the company not efficiently using its capital. 009: Equity turnover ratio of Libra Infusions Ltd. In 2007 was 4. 31 which is lower than the industry average of 6. 88. that means the company not efficiently using its capital. * Operation Profitability Ratio Gross Profit Margin * Normally the gross profit has to rise proportionately with sales. * It can also be useful to compare the gross profit margin across similar businesses although there will often be good reasons for any disparity. Gross profit Margin=Gross profit/ Net Sales 2007| 2008| 2009| 35. 09%| 35. 36| 32. 98%| Comments: 2007: Gross profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 35. 9% which is lower than the industry average 55. 75%. That means the firm is not profitable. 2008: Gross profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 35. 36% which is lower than the industry average 55. 75%. That means the firm is not profitable. 2009: Gross profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 32. 98% which is lower than the industry average 55. 75%. That means the firm is not profitable Operating profit Margin ratio Analysis The operating profit margin indicates how much profit a company makes after paying for variable costs of production such as wages, raw materials, etc.
It shows the efficiency of a company controlling the costs and expenses associated with its business operations. Operating profit margin = Operating income ? Net sales 2007| 2008| 2009| 8. 13%| 6. 84%| 7. 60%| Comments: 2007: Operating profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 8. 13% which is lower than the industry average 11. 02%. That means the firm is not satisfactory at all. 2008: Operating profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 6. 84% which is lower than the industry average 11. 02%. That means the firm is not satisfactory at all. 009: Operating profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 7. 60% which is lower than the industry average 11. 02%. That means the firm is not satisfactory at all. Net Profit Margin This is a widely used measure of performance and is comparable across companies in similar industries. The fact that a business works on a very low margin need not cause alarm because there are some sectors in the industry that work on a basis of high turnover and low margins, for examples supermarkets and motorcar dealers. What is more important in any trend is the margin and whether it compares well with similar businesses.
Net profit Margin= Net Income/Net Sales 2007| 2008| 2009| 1. 93%| 1. 55%| 1. 19%| Comments: 2007: Net profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 1. 93% which is lower than the industry average 8. 30%. That means the firm is not profitable. 2008: Net profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 1. 55% which is lower than the industry average 8. 30%. That means the firm is not profitable. 2009: Net profit margin of Libra Infusions Ltd in 2007 is 1. 19% which is lower than the industry average 8. 30%. That means the firm is not profitable. Return on paid up capital
This ratio shows the profit attributable to the amount invested by the owners of the business. It also shows potential investors into the business what they might hope to receive as a return. The stockholders’ equity includes share capital, share premium, distributable and non-distributable reserves. The ratio is calculated as follows: Return on paid up capital =Net Income+Gross InterestAverage Total Capital 2007| 2008| 2009| 48. 10| 51. 25| 34. 93| Risk Analysis of Libra Infusion: * Risk analysis examines the uncertainty of income for the firm and for an investor * Total firm risks can be decomposed into two basic sources: Business risk: The uncertainty in a firm’s operating income, highly influenced by industry factors * Financial risk: The added uncertainty in a firm’s net income resulting from a firm’s financing decisions (primarily through employing leverage). * liquidity Risk : it considers another aspect of risk from an investor’s Business Risk Variability of the firm’s operating income over time. It can be measured by calculating the standard deviation of operating income over time or the coefficient of variation. In addition to measuring business risk, we want to explain its determining factors.
Two primary determinants of business risk: * Sales variability * The main determinant of earnings variability * Cost Variability and Operating leverage * Production has fixed and variable costs * Greater fixed production costs cause greater profit volatility with changes in sales * Fixed costs represent operating leverage Greater operating leverage is good when sales are high and increasing, but bad when sales fall. Business risk =( cofficient of variiation of operating earning) =( OE-OE)2/nOE/N ( OE-OE)2/n| 3636504| OE/N| 25498574| ( OE-OE)2/nOE/N| 14. 26%| Operating leverage= %? oe%? sn %? e%? s| 2. 08739| n| 3| %? oe%? sn| . 70| Financial Risk Interest payments are deducted before we get to net income, these are fixed obligations. Similar to fixed production costs, these lead to larger earnings during good times, and lower earnings during a business decline, fixed financing costs are called financial leverage. The use of debt financing increases financial risk and possibility of default while increasing profitability when sales are high. Two sets of financial ratios help measure financial risk * Balance sheet ratios * Earnings or cash flow available to pay fixed financial charges
Acceptable levels of financial risk depend on business risk. A firm with considerable business risk should likely avoid lots of debt financing. * Proportion of debt (balance sheet) ratios: Long-term debt can be related to Equity (L-t D/Equity) how much debt does the firm employ in relation to its use of equity? And Total Capital [L-t D/ (L-t D +Equity)] How much debt does the firm employ in relation to all long-term sources of funds? Debt to Equity Ratio =Total long term debttotal eqity 2007| 2008| 2009| .94| 1. 08| 1. 54| * Total debt Ratio : Total debt ratio refers to Assessment of overall debt load, including short-term.
The formula of calculation is: Debt to Equity Ratio =current Liabilities+Total Long term debtTotal Debt-Total equity 2007| 2008| 2009| .720| . 725| . 975| Comments: 2007: We analyze debt ratio of company from its balance sheet and found that year 2007 company’s debt ratio is 72% this value indicates that the company has financed more than half of is assets with debt. The higher this ratio greater he firms degree of indebtedness and the more finance leverage it has. 2008: We analyze debt ratio of company from its balance sheet and found that year 2007 company’s debt ratio is 72. % this value indicates that the company has financed more than half of is assets with debt. The higher this ratio greater he firms degree of indebtedness and the more finance leverage it has 2009: We analyze debt ratio of company from its balance sheet and found that year 2007 company’s debt ratio is 97. 5% this value indicates that the company has financed more than half of is assets with debt. The higher this ratio greater he firms degree of indebtedness and the more finance leverage it has. * Earnings or Cash Flow Ratios It is Relate operating income (EBIT) to fixed payments required from debt obligations, higher ratio means lower risk.
Interest Coverage or Times Interest Earned Ratio Measures the number of times Interest payments are “covered” by EBIT Interest Coverage = EBIT/Interest Expense. May also want to calculated coverage ratios that reflect other fixed charges Lease obligations (Fixed charge coverage). Interest Coverage =EBITDebt Interest Change 2007| 2008| 2009| 1. 53| 1. 47| 1. 28| * Cash flow ratios Fixed financing costs such as interest payments must be paid in cash, so these ratios use cash flow rather than EBIT to assess the ability to meet these obligations, Relate the flow of cash available from operations to: * Interest expense Total fixed charges * The face value of outstanding debt Cash flow coverage of fixed financial cost=Net cash flow provided by operating activities+Interest Expense+Estimated Lease Inertest ExpenseInertest Expense+Estimated lease Interest expense 2007| 2008| 2009| 1. 51| 2. 49| 2. 29| Comments: Cash flow is used o determine whether a borrower is going to be able to service interest payment on a loan. Generally lender prefers a cash flow ratio more than 1. Here we can see that the cash flow ratio of Libra Infusion Ltd. in 2007 was 1. 51 and it increases 2. 9 in 2008. and decrease in 2009 at 2. 29. Liquidity Risk Market Liquidity is the ability to buy or sell an asset quickly with little price change from a prior transaction assuming no new information. External market liquidity is a source of risk to investors. The most important factor of external market liquidity is the dollar value of shares traded. This can be estimated from the total market value of outstanding securities. It will be affected by the number of security owners. Numerous buyers and sellers provide liquidity. Analysis of Growth Potential:
Want to determine sustainable growth potential Important to both creditors and owners, * Creditors interested in ability to pay future obligations, * For owners, the value of a firm depends on its future growth in earnings, cash flow, and dividends. Determinants of Growth * Sustainable Growth Model: Suggests that the sustainable growth rate is a function of two variables: * What is the rate of return on equity (which gives the maximum possible growth)? * How much of that growth is put to work through earnings retention (rather than being paid out in dividends)? g = Percentage of Retain earning * Return on Equity|
Formula: year| Percentage of Retain earning=1-Dividend DeclearedOperating earnig After Tax| ROE=Net Income After TaxShareholdres Equity| g = Percentage of Retain earning Return on Equity| 2007| . 64| 7. 55| 4. 83| 2008| . 66| 7. 57| 4. 50| 2009| . 57| 5. 10| 2. 91| DuPont Analysis DuPont Analysis is A method of performance measurement that was started by the DuPont Corporation in the 1920s. With this method, assets are measured at their gross book value rather than at net book value in order to produce a higher return on equity (ROE). It is also known as “DuPont identity”.
DuPont analysis tells us that ROE is affected by three things: – Operating efficiency, which is measured by profit margin – Asset use efficiency, which is measured by total asset turnover – Financial leverage, which is measured by the equity multiplier year| EBIT/Sales (%)| Sales/ Total Assets (Times)| EBIT/ Total Assets (%)| Interest Expense/ Total Assets (%)| NBT/ Total Equity (%)| Total Assets/ Common Stock Equity (times)| NBT/ Common Stock Equity(%)| Tax Retention Rate| Return On Equity (ROE)| 2007| 8. 13| 1. 09| 8. 86| 5. 85| 3. 01| 3. 58| 1078| 0. 70| 7. 55| 2008| 6. 84| 1. 35| 9. 23| 6. 34| 2. 89| 3. 64| 10. 52| 0. 72| 7. 7| 2009| 7. 60| 0. 07| . 53| (. 89)| 1. 42| 4. 92| 6. 99| 0. 73| 5. 10| It is believed that measuring assets at gross book value removes the incentive to avoid investing in new assets. New asset avoidance can occur as financial accounting depreciation methods artificially produce lower ROEs in the initial years that an asset is placed into service. If ROE is unsatisfactory, the DuPont analysis helps locate the part of the business that is underperforming. Comparative analysis Ratio| Formula| Years| IndustryAverage| Evaluation| | | 2007| 2008| 2009| | Cross Section| Time Series| Overall| Current Ratio| Current assets/ current liabilities| . 9| 1. 50| 1. 41| 1. 11| Poor| Ok| Ok| Quick Ratio| (Cash+Marketable securites+Recivables)/ Current Libilities| . 20| . 18| . 18| 0. 56| Poor| Poor| Poor| Cash ratio| Cash+Marketable securites)/ Current Libilities| . 035| . 049| . 037| 0. 12| Poor| Poor| Poor| Receivable turnover| Net Annual Sales/ Accounts Receivable| 16. 89| 21. 35| 15. 52| 13. 42| Good| Good| Good| Average Receivable Collection Period| 365/Average A/R collection period| 21. 65| 17. 10| 23. 51| 45. 45| Poor| Poor| Poor| Inventory Turnover| cost of goods sold /average inventory| 5. 65| 5. 16| 2. 87| 1. 6| Good| Good| Good| Cash Conversion Cycle | COGS/Average Tra