Information Processing And Implications To Teaching And Learning

Information Processing And Implications To Teaching And Learning

In Journal 1, the research worker carefully examines the construction of the information

treating theoretical account. This is done so that we can understand how each of the construction works and to see the connexion between cognitive schemes and tactic and how it influences the efficiency of acquisition.

Learning is done in a assortment of ways. Some instructors would desire their pupils to memorise certain information, or even utilize some expressions like in topics like Mathematicss and Science to work out jobs or have the accomplishments to utilize certain equipment or tools to execute a undertaking. For case, the usage of power point for undertaking work, the usage of any musical instruments in playing music, usage of cock or wrench in mending occupations and so on. Therefore, the scholar shapes his cognition by retrieving, memorizing, practising and others.

In both the diaries, they emphasize on the importance of Information-Processing Model and how or what happens when the information is received by the scholar.

Harmonizing to Babadogan ( 1995 ) and Ozden ( 1998 ) in Ali Ozel ( 2009 ) , larning is the scholar ‘s ascription to the things go oning or environing the person like his past life, memory and theoretical account. The person is described as active and looking for information. The learner than interprets the information with his progress cognition and attempts to do a meaningful apprehension of the cognition he has gained.

In Information-Processing Model, the chief accent is the scholar and the environment harmonizing to both diaries. The scholar interacts with the environment when the simulation activates the receptors. The information is so transferred to the short-run memory ( STM ) . It merely keeps of import information in STM with the aid of selective perceptual experience.

In the Journal 2 by Ali Ozel ( 2009 ) , the research worker negotiations about larning schemes used and gives accent on them and on how to larn and what to larn to organize one ‘s ain acquisition ( Weinstein & A ; Mayer, 1956, Wittrock, 1986 ) . These larning schemes are the key

points in forming of an single information processing theoretical account.

The person ‘s cognitive tactics determines the signifier of storage like in the signifier of tabular arraies, diagrams, charts or images.

These can be done by repeat, forming, remembering, directing knowledge consistently in order to better our ability to understand, retrieve and memorise the information for subsequently demands. In short, it helps in organizing the information received in a systematic manner.

Both the diaries wrote about cognitive schemes and how these schemes help in bettering a more systematic acquisition signifier. A cognitive scheme is a combination of a figure of cognitive tactics.


Short-run memory is besides called working memory and relates to what we are believing about at any clip. In Freudian footings, this is witting memory. It is created by our paying attending to an external stimulation, an internal idea, or even both ( Huitt, W. ,2003 ) .

Another major bound on information processing in Short-term memory is in footings of the figure of units that can be processed at any one clip. Harmonizing to Miller ( 1956 ) , he gave the figure as 7 + 2, but more recent research suggests the figure may be more like 5 + 2 for most things we are seeking to retrieve. Because of the variableness in how much persons can work with. For some persons it could be three and for some it could be seven. Therefore, it is necessary to indicate out of import information. If some pupils can merely treat three units of information at a clip, so as pedagogue we must do it a point to do them understand that of import three units of information.

Each person has different reading of the information received. Therefore, it may differ from one person to another ( Gagne et al, 1993 ) .

In the Short Term Memory, the information received corsets for a short period of clip like 15-20 seconds ( George Miller, 1956 ) . By transporting out coding and forming information

good, the information in our Short Term Memory can be transferred to the Long Term memory ( LTM ) . In the Long Term Memory, the capacity is limitless and the continuance is much longer in maintaining the information. Here is where meaningful acquisition signifiers take topographic point.

The theoretical account below proposes that information is processed and stored in 3 phases.

Figure 2.1: The information processing attack to knowledge ( Huitt, W. ,2003 ) .

It is critical that the scholar attends to the information at this initial phase in order to reassign it to the following 1. There are two major constructs for acquiring information into the Short Term Memory.

First, persons are likely to pay attending to a stimulation if it has an interesting characteristic. We are more likely to acquire an orienting response if this is present.

Second, persons are more likely to pay attending if the stimulation activates a known form. Students try to retrieve relevant anterior cognition.

There are four major types of organisation that are most frequently used in instructional design:

Component ( part/whole ) — categorization by class or certain facet ( e.g. , when learning a diagram or theoretical account )

Sequential — chronological ; ( e.g. , transporting out an experiment measure by measure )

Relevance – manage thoughts to do it meaningful.

Transitional ( conjunction ) – words or phrases that is related and doing meaningful connexion with the alterations over clip ( Huitt, 2003 ) .

Chunking is a major technique for maintaining information in short-run memory ; it is besides helps in hive awaying information into the long-run memory.

Repeat or rote-learning is a technique we all use to seek to larn something. Simply memorising something does non take to larning. We all have anecdotal grounds that we can retrieve something we memorized, for illustration an essay or short verse form, but the truth is how much or are we able to retrieve it after some clip?


Long-run memory is besides called preconscious and unconscious memory in

Freudian term. Preconscious means that the information is easy recalled or remembered while unconscious refers to informations that is non available during normal consciousness. It is preconscious memory that is the focal point of cognitive psychological science as it relates to long-run memory.

The two procedures most likely to travel information into long-run memory are amplification and pattern.

There are several illustrations of amplification that are normally used in the instruction and acquisition procedure. Some illustrations are as below:

Imaging – to be able to make a mental image.

Method of locations-to be able to recover information which is good organized and located.

Rhyming – information to be remembered is arranged in a rime.

As information is stored in long-run memory, it is organized utilizing one or more constructions like indicative mood, procedural, or imagination.

Declarative Memory is information that we can speak about.

Semantic Memory are facts, problem-solving schemes and larning schemes.

Schema / Schemata is about linking thoughts of a specific experience into a meaningful system.

Script is a declaratory cognition that captures general information about a everyday series of events ( Stillings et al. , 1987 )

Program is a set of regulations that explains what to make in a peculiar state of affairs

Model is a set of propositions that describes some facets of our experience.

Episodic Memory is our personal experience.

Procedural Memory is a accomplishment that we learn like driving a auto or siting a motorcycle.

Imagination is from images


The diaries reviewed are quantitative and qualitative diaries. Journal 1 is a qualitative diary whereby the research worker gives feedback on his reappraisals on information processing and its deductions to learning and larning. On the other manus, Journal 2 is a quantitative diary where the research worker negotiations about the pattern of information processing theoretical account in the instruction of cognitive schemes and examines which schemes are most normally used by primary school instructors.

In Journal 1, gives a image of how information is stored and how an person can do a meaningful larning out of an effectual scheme used in hive awaying information. As mentioned earlier, both the research workers in both the diaries talk about the importance of environment and how it influences an person ‘s learning procedure.

In Journal 1, the research worker says that each person has different ways of construing information received. For illustration, when utilizing the hearing stimulation, for one person, the sound of birds peeping may be fantastic and quieting but for another person the same sound may annoy him as he finds them upseting.

Therefore the information received may differ from one person to another person. In Journal 1, the research worker besides talks about the procedure how information is transferred from the short-run memory to the long-run memory.

The research worker explains the term cognitive tactics and cognitive schemes. Below is

an illustration of what is cognitive maneuver used by a pupil who is fixing for an English scrutiny. In this instance, the pupil prepares for the Unified Chinese School Examination ( UEC ) . The pupil looks through all the past twelvemonth inquiries in order to fix for the scrutiny particularly looking at the composing subjects and the linguistic communication constituents tested in the past old ages. The pupil so tries to foretell inquiries that might come out for that peculiar twelvemonth by analysing the inquiries carefully. After that, taking the past twelvemonth inquiries, he will fix the replies for each inquiry by memorising what is already in the mention books or will seek to reply the inquiries by using the cognition that he has gathered from larning that peculiar subject.

Hence, the scholar is transporting out rote-learning or memorizing and besides critical thought takes topographic point based on his prior cognition which he has assimilated throughout his acquisition procedure. Therefore, the scholar applies his cognitive scheme by transporting out all these tactics.

A scholar has to make up one’s mind which cognitive maneuver is suited to be used in certain state of affairss in order to hold a meaningful acquisition. Learning schemes processed harmonizing to the information processing theoretical account can supply a more meaningful and lasting acquisition.

In journal 1, the research worker besides emphasizes the importance of meaning-making and understanding what is taught and learnt.

As an pedagogue, it is our duty in assisting the scholars to develop information processing accomplishments and use them efficaciously. As it was mentioned in 3.0, there are a figure of techniques that a scholar can utilize in assisting to hive away information consistently and understand the memorized information good.

Again in diary 1, the research worker has given importance and stressed on the usage of cognitive schemes in steering the scholars ‘ when thought, memorising and taking the most suited cognitive tactics that can be used. This is because a scholar has to cognize which maneuver is used for a peculiar state of affairs as non every maneuver is suited. This is where metacognitive is really of import because a metacognitive scholar will be able to supervise and look into his ain acquisition schemes and to look into if it works for him.

Therefore it is of import for instructors to learn her pupils to utilize cognitive tactics metacognitively. However, harmonizing to Biggs ( 1988 ) and Schoenfeld ( 1987 ) , to utilize develop these accomplishments are non that easy and it takes clip.

That is why it is of import for instructors to utilize assorted learning techniques that will assist their pupils with. This will heighten their apprehension, retrieval and problem-solving accomplishments.

The deductions of information processing in instruction and acquisition have been summarized as below harmonizing to the diary reviewed:

Learners will be metacognitively in control of their ain acquisition

Learners are more motivated to larn because they have a clearer end.

Good scholars will be able to utilize selective perceptual experience to larn the most of import things in a topic or subject.

Good scholars will be able to differenciate between the more of import inside informations and the less of import 1s.

Good scholars will cognize how to utilize information and when to utilize it.

Metacognitive scholars will be able to invent cognitive tactics to assist them remember something easy.




1. Derive the pupils ‘ attending.

Use cues to signal when you are ready to get down like voice projection to bespeak you are get downing a lesson.

2. Bring to mind relevant anterior acquisition.

Revision on the old twenty-four hours ‘s lesson.

3. Stress of import information.

Provide handouts or compose on the board.

4. Information organized decently.

Use logical sequence to constructs and accomplishments.

Travel from simple to complex when showing new stuff.

5. Show pupils how to lump information.

Present information in classs.

Teach inductive logical thinking.

6. Give chances to pupils to lucubrate on new information.

Connect new information to something already known.

Expression for similarities and differences among constructs.

Have group treatments.

7. Show pupils how to utilize coding when memorising lists.

Use mental imagination techniques such as the keyword method, acronyms and etc.

8. Give chance for repeat of acquisition.

State of import points several times in different ways during presentation of information ( STM ) .

Have points on each twenty-four hours ‘s lesson from old lesson ( LTM )

9. Give chances to larn of import concepts/skills.

Drill on of import facts daily.

Table 4.1: Using the Information Processing Approach in the schoolroom ( Huitt, W. ,2003 )

In Journal 2, as it is a quantitative survey, the research worker surveies which learning scheme is spent more clip in organizing information processing, how clip intervals are spared for larning schemes and if there is a meaningful difference between the schemes at the facet of the clip for learning larning schemes?

In this quantitative attack, the research worker had used a general study to see if there is a difference between the spared clip for learning larning schemes by category instructors in primary schools and organizing and treating information processing theoretical account.

About 260 instructors in primary schools working in Istanbul Directory of Education were chosen based on convenience sampling. 51.9 % were females and 48.1 % were males. All of them were alumnuss from different subdivisions. A bulk of them have an experience between 6-10 old ages.

The scheme learning tactics developed by Weinstein and Mayer ( 1986 ) and applied by Ozturk about learning larning schemes was used. The facets tested are attending, repeat, meaning, forming, callback, directing knowledge and instruction perceptual experience


The study comprises two parts. The first portion is the clip span spared for learning larning schemes by instructors participated in the study. The 2nd portion is to find which larning schemes out of the seven tested has the most clip spared.

The research worker used SPSS 7 bundle plan to find the meaningful differences of frequence, per centum and discrepancy.

Data was collected utilizing the study method. Likert Scale of five was used to change over the replies into numeral informations.

Harmonizing to the consequences of this survey, instructors spent more clip for repeat schemes ( 41.2 % ) and the least clip for forming. Teachers besides spend more clip to develop attending schemes ( 35.9 % ) . Therefore, the survey indicates that instructors want to organize an information processing profile related to attending schemes. They do this in every lesson and some instructors ne’er taught larning schemes at all from the survey conducted.

Time spent for repeat and attending schemes were the highest because they provided pupils to organize a information processing theoretical account supplying them to mean their progress information with their anterior cognition at the facet of the clip spared for learning meaning schemes.

From the research, it was besides found that there is a meaningful difference in instructors who spend more clip in learning schemes and instructors who spend less clip in learning schemes.


The decision after reexamining both diaries are, larning schemes should be

taught to pupils in every lesson as they can steer in determining and organizing their acquisition consistently particularly when we use the learner-centered attack. Students should be taught to utilize organisation schemes and follow it decently. They should besides utilize the information processing theoretical account with the schemes that belongs to these tactics.

The information processing theoretical accounts in learning and larning schemes should be

developed and pupils should be encouraged to alter harmonizing to the current state of affairs and be independent scholars and minds. A good scholar will be able to utilize the information gathered and will cognize when and how to utilize it when they taught the effectual attacks of information processing.

Information processing is of import and every instructor has to be familiar with this as by cognizing this, we can help our pupils in relation to retrieving things more efficaciously within the schoolroom scene.

In information processing, the system involves the procedure of encoding, retrieval and storage whereby it explains how our centripetal registries and how the short-run and long-run operates.

It is impossible to learn pupils new information in a short period of clip but we can learn them in “ balls ” to better their overall memory.

This will assist pupils to be more focussed in their attending on acquisition by doing it more meaningful to them. It is besides of import to utilize acknowledgment in which instructor will demo their pupils how to utilize their imaginativeness or the procedure of association in order to retrieve new things. Encoding enables pupils to larn and retrieve and associate new information to old information. Use of images, concrete words and ocular AIDSs in the schoolroom will heighten this farther.

Organization is a scheme used to better pupils ‘ memory and acquisition. This can be done by learning pupils an sum of information over certain period of clip. Rehearsing what has been taught is besides an effectual manner to increase memory. One could retrieve new stuff through practising, reiterating and associating new information to prior cognition.

As an pedagogue, it is indispensable to ever happen new and interesting methods in assisting pupils retrieve new information that is taught to heighten their understanding better. As mentioned in Journal 2, clip spent more for repeat and attending schemes were the highest. However, it depends on the instructors ‘ lesson programs, course of study and instruction manners in order to run into the demands of single pupils. It is of import to utilize a assortment of schemes and attacks to assist pupils with retrieving what they have learnt particularly the new stuffs that they have learnt.

It is a known fact that every pupils is able to larn and retrieve good if we provide them with the proper tools, techniques and counsel. Learning is an on-going procedure and every twenty-four hours in our lives we are larning new information. Therefore it is of import how we organize our acquisition and absorb new information on top of the old information that we already have.