Intro to Operating Systems Student: Gabriel Guevara Chapter: 5 Exercises Exercise #2 Give at least two “real life” examples (not related to a computer system environment) of each of these concepts: deadlock, starvation and race. Describe how the deadlocks could be resolved. 2 real life examples of the concept of deadlock: A. In a presidential election 2 candidates reach an electoral deadlock when neither candidate get a majority of the 270 electoral votes required to win the presidency.
This is resolved by the House of Representatives, with each state delegation having one vote. Senators would elect the vice-president. B. Diet deadlock occurs when calories are restricted when a human being is dieting , as a consequence the body’s metabolism slows down; The reason is the body is worried about going into starvation mode and is trying to holdown to leftover body fat. The solution to diet deadlock is to: 1. Eat more protein to boost metabolism. 2. Lift weights to increase muscle mass, the more muscle mass the more calories burned in a 24 hour period (day). . Do more cardio to burn more calories. 2 Real life examples of Starvation: Hypoxia is the name given to oxygen starvation, for example of this condition is when brain tissue is deprived of oxygen-rich-blood, if this condition lingers a range of events could follow such as permanent brain damage or death. The solution is to restore the flow of oxygen-rich-blood to the brain via any surgical procedure that would unlock the deadlock or flow of vital oxygen enriched blood back into the brain.
Aviation Fuel starvation occurs when there is a supply problem to the engine for various reasons such as a blocked fuel filter or gradual fuel pump failure. But the most popular problem with fuel starvation is with aircraft with water contaminated fuel being delivered to the engine instead of none-contaminated fuel resulting in fuel starvation within the engine. This is corrected by replacing the fuel filter or fuel pump and testing the fuel for the presence of water prior to use for a flight. 2 Examples of the term race: Exploitative competition is when 2 organisms vie for the same resources.
One way for nature to solve this condition is to naturally develop habitat conditions to induce mutualistic bonds between the 2 organisms so that one cannot survive in their natural habitat without the other, therefore perhaps reversing deadlock conditions. Organism competition: Utilization of the same resources by organisms of the same or different species living together in a community resulting in a sort of deadlock competition for said resources. One way to relief this deadlock condition is for one organism to develop a method of eliminating the other by intelligently depriving it from the resource in question.
Advance exercise 14 A system that is in an unsafe state is not necessarily deadlock. Explain why this is true? Give an example of such system (in an unsafe state) and describe how all the processes could be completed without causing deadlock to occur. Answer 1: An unsafe state doesn’t suggest a realistic deadlock is presently occurring it appears this term is used to described that a sequence of events have now set favorable condition(s) to suggest a deadlock is highly likely to occur.
Answer 2: An example of an unsafe state within a system could be where a system has jobs in its request queue greater than what is available in memory to handle the jobs waiting to be executed, setting ideal conditions for a deadlock. The concept of avoidance suggest that the system can remove one of the deadlock conditions if it knew ahead of time the sequence of a request associated with each of the active processes. There must exist at least one allocation of resources sequence that would allow jobs to continue without becoming deadlocked.