Introduction to Psychology

Introduction to Psychology


DO BEHAVIOURS THAT PROMOTED SURVIVAL IN EARLY EVOLUTION OF HUMANBEINGS STILL INFLUENCE THE WAY PEOPLE BEHAVE TODAY? DISCUSS Nature plays a role in determining personality. These personality traits help determine the paths people take in their environment (nurture), which in turn effects their specific behaviours. Behaviours that promoted survival in early evolution still influence the way people behave today. Evolutionary psychologists believe that evolutionary processes designed our mind for life in an environment.

They say that the human brain consists of specialized neural circuits designed by evolution to unconsciously solve problems that our ancestors faced during our evolutionary history. 3EXPLAIN HOW TWINS DEVELOP AND WHY TWIN STUDIES ARE IMPORTANT TO PSYCHOLOGISTS. CAN BEHAVIOUR TRAITS SUCH AS SHYNESS AND AGGRESSIVENESS BE INHERITED? DISCUSS The scientific study of twins began in the 1870’s. Twins provide a natural control for experiments because respect for each twin’s feelings, privacy and personhood is easy for even the best intentioned scientist to compromise.

Behaviour traits such as shyness and aggressiveness cannot be inherited. This is because they are not genetical 4. DEFINE THE TERM LEARNING AND EXPLAIN HOW PSYCHOLOGISTS DETERMINE WHEN LEARNING HAS OCCURRED. Learning is a relatively permanent change in behavior or knowledge as a result of experience or practice. It comes about due to the combination of these factors: change in behavior, change in knowledge, results of experience and permanency. Learning is said to have occurred by observation of the behavior before and after learning.

Once something is learned, an organism can exhibit a behavior that indicates learning has occurred. 5. DEFINE CONDITIONING AND EXPLAIN HOW CLASSICALLY CONDITIONED RESPONSES ARE LIKE AND UNLIKE REFLEXES (HINT: AUTOMATIC, LEARNED AND NOT LEARNED) Conditioning is the acquisition of behavior in the presence of a well defined stimulus. Classical conditioning is a type of learning in which a stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a reflexive response that was originally evoked by a different stimulus. 6 . DESCRIBE CLASSICAL CONDITIONING AND DEFINE THE VARIOUS TYPES OF STIMULI AND RESPONSES INVOLVED.

Classical conditioning is the acquisition of behavior in the presence of well defined stimuli. a) Unconditioned stimulus – a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without any prior conditioning example food b) Unconditioned response – an unlearned reaction/response to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning example salivating c) Conditioned stimulus – an originally neutral stimulus that now elicits a conditioned response example ringing the bell d) Conditioned response – behavior that the animal has learnt in response to conditioned stimulus. . DESCRIBE HOW EXTINCTION AND SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY AFFECT CLASSICALY CONDITIONED RESPONSES. Extinction is the result of eliminating the unconditioned stimulus and repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus alone. Eventually the conditioned stimulus will no longer elicit the conditioned response. If the conditioned stimulus and unconditioned stimulus are again paired after the conditioned response has been extinguished, the conditioned response returns to its original strength very quickly.

An extinguished conditioned response will temporarily reappear if after some time delay, the conditioned stimulus occurs without the unconditioned, this is called spontaneous recovery. 8. DESCRIBE OPERANT CONDITIONING AND IDENTIFY TWO PSYCHOLOGISTS WHO ARE WELL KNOWN FOR RESEARCHING THE VARIABLES INVOLVED IN OPERANT CONDITIONING. E. L. Thorndike and B. F. Skinner are well known for researching the variables involved in operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is the process by which an organism learns a response by operating on the environment.

In operant conditioning, the focus is on operants, reinforcers and discriminative stimuli. A reinforcer is a stimulus event that increases the probability that the operant behavior will occur again. Positive reinforcers strengthen a response if they are presented after that response occurs. Negative reinforcers are the removal of unpleasant stimuli such as pain or noise. Discriminative stimuli are stimuli that signal whether reinforcement is available if a certain response is made. Stimulus discrimination occurs when an organism learns to make a particular response in the presence of one stimulus but another. . IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE THE TYPES OF REINFORCERS AND THE FORMS OF REINFORCEMENT INVOLVED IN OPERANT CONDITIONING; EXPLAIN WHAT TYPES OF BEHAVIOUR ARE LEARNED THROUGH NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT. Primary reinforcers are events or stimuli that satisfy needs basic to survival. Secondary reinforcers are previously neutral stimuli that take on reinforcing properties if paired with stimuli that are already reinforcing. Positive reinforcers strengthen a response if they are presented after that response occurs. Negative reinforcers are the removal of unpleasant stimuli.

The effects of negative reinforcement are escape conditioning, which occurs when you learn to make a response to end an aversive stimulus and avoidance conditioning which is the process of learning responses that avoid aversive stimulus. 10. IDENTIFY AND DESCRIBE THE TYPES OF PUNISHERS INVOLVED IN OPERANT CONDITIONING; DISCUSS THE LIMITATIONS OF PUNISHMENT. In one form of punishment a behavior is followed by an aversive or unpleasant stimulus. In a second form of punishment, sometimes called penalty, a pleasant stimulus is removed following a behavior.

Punishment has its drawbacks: A) It doesn’t erase an undesirable habit, it merely lowers the probability of its immediate reccurrence. B) It can produce unwanted side effects C) Punishment is often ineffective unless it is given immediately D) It can become aggression, even abuse when given in anger E) It does not specify correct alternative behavior. 11. WHY IS MONEY A SECONDARY REINFORCER? This is because it is used to acquire primary reinforcements such as food and other such things. 12. BRING OUT THE SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES BETWEEN

CLASSICAL AND OPERANT CONDITIONING. The similarities are: a) Both involve learning of associations b) Responses are under control of stimuli in the environment c) Both are ways of changing one’s behavior. The differences are: a) In operant the learner is rewarded with incentives while classical conditioning involves no such enticements. b) Classical conditioning involves making an association between an involuntary response and a stimulus while operant conditioning is about making association between a voluntary behavior and consequence. 3. DESCRIBE THE RESULTS OF COGNITIVE LEARNING STUDIES THAT FOCUSED ON INSIGHT AND LATENT LEARNING. Latent learning is learning that is not demonstrated at the time it occurs. A cognitive map is a mental representation of some physical arrangement. Cognitive maps develop naturally through experience. Cognitive psychologists see learning as more than the sum of reinforcement effects and automatic associations. Insight is a sudden understanding about what is required to produce a desired effect.

It’s the result of actual trial and error experimentation or of an extended “mental trial and error” process in which people envision of a course of action, mentally simulate its results, compare it with the imagined outcome of other alternatives and then settle on the course of an action most likely to aid complex problem solving and decision making. 14. DESCRIBE OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING, EXPLAIN THE VARIABLE THAT AFFECTS IT AND DISCUSS SOME OF THE DIFFICULTIES INVOLVED IN STUDYING HOW IT OCCURS. Observational learning is the learning that occurs through observing the behavior of other people.

Albert Bandura discovered this basic form of learning in 1986. Bandura stressed the importance of observational learning because it allowed children especially, to acquire new responses through observing others’ behavior. This form of learning does not need reinforcement to occur; instead, a model is required. A social model can be a parent, sibling, friend, or teacher, but particularly in childhood a model is someone of authority or higher status. A social model is significantly important in observational learning because it allows one to cognitively process behavior, encode what is observed, and store it in memory for later imitation.

While the model may not be intentionally trying to instill any particular behavior, many behaviors that one observes, remembers and imitates are actions that models display. A child may learn inappropriate behavior acceptable through poor modeling. He claims that children continually learn desirable and undesirable behavior through observational learning. Observational learning suggests that an individual’s environment, cognition, and behavior all integrate and ultimately determine how one functions.

Diffusion chain is a process by which behaviors are transferred from one person to another by imitation. Stages of observational learning and its effects Attention: Observers cannot learn unless they pay attention to what’s happening around them. This process is influenced by characteristics of the model, such as how much one likes or identifies with the model, and by characteristics of the observer, such as the observer’s expectations or level of emotional arousal. Retention: Observers must not only recognize the observed behavior but also remember it at some later time.

This process depends on the observer’s ability to code or structure the information in an easily remembered form or to mentally or physically rehearse the model’s actions. Production: Observers must be physically and/intellectually capable of producing the act. In many cases the observer possesses the necessary responses. But sometimes, reproducing the model’s actions may involve skills the observer has not yet acquired. It is one thing to carefully watch a circus juggler, but it is quite another to go home and repeat those acts. Motivation: In general, observers will perform the act only if they have some motivation or reason to do so.

The presence of reinforcement or punishment, either to the model or directly to the observer, becomes most important in this process Culture and environment also play a role in whether observational learning will be the dominant learning style in a person or community. In some cultures, children are expected to actively participate in their communities and are therefore exposed to different trades and roles on a daily basis. This exposure allows children to observe and learn the different skills and practices that are valued in their communities.

In communities where children’s primary mode of learning is through observation, the children are rarely separated from adult activities. This incorporation into the adult world at an early age allows children to use observational learning skills in multiple spheres of life. Culturally, they learn that their participation and contributions are valued in their communities. This teaches children that it is their duty as members of the community to observe contributions being made in order to gradually become involved and participate further in the community LIMITATIONS Poor Role Models Demonstrate Poor Behavior

While observational learning is effective in teaching positive new behaviors, it may also encourage the adoption of previously forbidden behavior. During the 90s psychologists made a startling statement based on Albert Bandura’s theories that children learned to behave aggressively after witnessing violent acts performed by adults or older children, specifically family members. For example, children who witness a parent’s abusive behavior are at a higher risk of becoming abusive themselves. Undesirable Models May Reinforce Behavior In many cases, television is a source of behavior modeling.

Many forms of both adult and child entertainment involve some type of behavior and portray this as socially acceptable and even desirable. This type of exposure has been shown to precipitate aggressive behavior in those who observe it regularly. For example, one study stated that homicide rates increased after media events like televised heavyweight championships. A second study found that children who watched a higher than average amount of television were almost 49 percent more likely to become violent criminal Evidence of Learning is Not Always Visible

Albert Bandura pioneered the study of observational learning. During the 20th century, he refined a description of the learning process, which required learners to observe certain behaviors, remember the action, and have the opportunity to model the behavior. However, recent experts argue that learning occurs after observation of certain behaviors and their consequences despite the fact that learners may not physically repeat the same behavior for some time. Observational Learning Requires Motivation Learners are more motivated to repeat behaviors they enjoy and are capable of performing successfully.

Observational Learning Theory lacks consideration of other important factors in learning. The Social Learning Theory generally ignores an individual’s physical and psychological limitations. Inherited conditions may affect how learners react to an act, as well as their ability to retain and repeat certain behaviors. 15. Distinguish among, (these 3), memory, learning and insights? Memory refers to the capacity to retain and retrieve information, and also to the structure that account for this capacity. Learning is a change in performance, which occurs as a result of practice (Mc Geoch and Ivion 1952) . earning, is a relatively permanent change in behavior due to past experience (Coon, 1983). An insight is the sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent of one another. 16. Discuss information processing model (of memory)? 17. Describe the structure, function, and time course of long-term memory. Distinguish between explicit and implicit memory and between episodic and semantic memory? Its capacity is unlimited. It holds retention of memory for a long period. Its very important in learning. Explicit memory is conscious while episodic is unconscious.

Episodic memory contains your own experiences while semantic memory contains facts and general knowledge. 18 . Identify steps and techniques you can use to help yourself remember something; i. e. how can you improve your memory? Steps on how to improve memory i. Rehearse. This is repeating of past information ii. Distribute practicing over time whereby you should review newly represented articles and make a summary. iii. Use mnemonics. This is a formal strategies and tricks for encoding, storing and retaining information like setting a formula. iv. Use of mediation and imagery v. Review in different contexts and modelity.

This is the place where you learn something that can be very important. vi. Focus. 19. Define the terms motivation, drive, and need. Describe drive theories of motivation? Motivation. This is a process within a person or animal that causes movement toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation. Drive. This is that force which energizes behavior intended to fulfill a need. Need. This is a motivating force that compels action for its satisfaction. Drive theories of motivation a) Cognitive theory This theory emphasizes the role of our thought, expectations and understanding of the word.

Using the expectancy value theory it is assumed that our behaviors are determined by two kinds of cognitive. The first is our expectations that our behavior will make us reach a particular goal. The second is that we tend to have our understanding of the value of that goal. b) Arousal theory This theory proposes that a goal of individual is to maintain or increase the level of excitement or activity. Individuals try to maintain certain levels of stimulation of cognitive activity: where such levels are too low the individual tries to increase them by seeking stimulation. c) Incentive theory

This theory proposes that behavior is not always motivated by internal (physiological) needs. Rather the focus is on the external stimulus influencing the behavior. 20. Characterize the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa? In bulimia, the person binges (eats vast quantities of rich food) and then purges by inducing vomiting or using laxatives. Individuals with bulimia are usually normal in weight, but they are obsessed with their weight and shape. In anorexia nervosa, the person eats hardly anything and therefore becomes dangerously thin because of a delusional belief that she or he is too fat.

Bulimia and anorexia are at least ten times more common in women than in men, and these eating disorders are most likely to begin in lat adolescence, as girls bodies are maturing. Although many people with these disorders recover, others damage their health permanently, or, in the case of anorexia, eventually die of self-starvation. 21. Describe the sexual response cycle of human beings and the sexual dysfunctions that occur in men and women? 22. Distinguish between intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. What is self-actualization? Intrinsic otivation deriver’s motivation forces from within the individual activity. The individual participates in an activity not because of any material benefit (reward) but due to his or her enjoyment of the activity. It also means internal or inside of yourself. This is enjoying an activity, course or skill development solely for the satisfaction of learning and having fun, and you are determined to strive inwardly in order to be competent. Extrinsic motivation means external or outside of yourself. This material benefit that will result from participating in an activity e. . an individual may do a job because he or she is going to earn money but not because the job is interesting. Self-actualization is a state in which people realize their highest potential. At this point one is happy with what he or she achieved. He may not be rich. 23. Distinguish between the cross-sectional and longitudinal methods of studying development? In longitudinal methods of study, a researcher performs repeated observations or testing at specified points during the participants’ lives, thus allowing the observation of development.

The time span involved maybe be anywhere from a few months to a lifetime while a cross-sectional study, are quick by nature in that a researcher does not have to follow the development of each individual. At the same time a researcher does not the rich data on individual development that can be garnered from longitudinal studies since the evidence of change is inferred from differences between the age groups. 24. Define zygote, embryo and fetus and discuss the developmental changes that take place during the prenatal period? Zygote is the fertilized cell that will grow into a baby anima.

Embryo is a multicellular diploid eukaryote in its earliest stage of development, from the time of first cell division until birth. Fetus is a developing mammal or other viviparous vertebrate after the embryonic stage and before birth. Prenatal development It is divided into 3 stages, the germinal, the embryonic and the fetal stage. a. The germinal stage Begin at conception, when the male sperm unites with the female ovum (egg). A day or so after conception, the fertilized egg, or zygote begins to divide into two parts, and in 10-14 days it attaches itself to the wall of uterus.

The outer portion becomes of the zygote will form the part of the placenta and umbilical cord, and the inner portion becomes the embryo. The placenta, connected to the embryo by the umbilical cord, serves as growing embryo link for food from the mother; it allows nutrients to enter and wastes to exit, and it screens out some, but not all, harmful substances. b. The embryonic stage Begins and lasts until the 8th week after conception. The embryo develops webbed fingers and foes, a tail, eyes, ears, nose, a mouth, circulatory system and a spinal cord.

During the 4th-8th week, the male hormone testosterone is secreted by the rudimentary testes in embryos that are genetically male; without this hormone, the embryo will develop to be anatomically female. c. Fetal stage Begins after 8 weeks. The organism, now called a fetus further develops the organs and systems that existed in rudimentary form in the embryonic stage By 28 weeks, the nervous and respiratory systems are developed enough to allow most fetuses to live if born prematurely. The greatest gains in brain and nervous system development occur during the last 12 weeks of a full term pregnancy. 5. Define accommodation and assimilation. Identify and describe Piaget’s four stages of cognitive development (intellectual development). Give a criticism of the theory? Assimilation is what you do when you fit new information into your present system of knowledge and beliefs or into your mental schemas (networks of associations, beliefs and expectations about categories of things and people). Accommodation is what you do when, as a result of undeniable new information; you must change or modify your existing schemas. Piaget’s four stages i.

The sensor motor stage (birth to age 2) In this stage, the infant learns through concrete actions, looking, touching, hearing, putting things in mouth, sucking, grasping. “Thinking” consists of coordinating sensory information with bodily movements. Gradually, these movements become more purposeful ass the child explores the environment and learns that specific movements will produce specific results. A major accomplishment at this stage said Piaget, is object permanence, the understanding that something continues to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it. ii.

The preoperational stage(age 2-7) During this stage, the use of symbols and language accelerates. A 2-year-old is able to pretend for instance that a large box is a house, table or train. But Piaget described this stage largely in terms of what (he thought) the child cannot do. Although children can think, said Piaget, they can reason, and they lack the mental abilities necessary for understanding abstracts principles or cause and effect. Piaget called these missing abilities operations, by which he meant reversible actions that the child performs in the mind. iii.

The concrete operations stage(ages 7-12) In this stage, Piaget said, children’s thinking is still grounded in concrete experiences and concepts rather than in abstractions or logical deductions. However, the nature and quality of their thought processes change significantly where by children come to understanding the principles of conservation, reversibility and cause and effect. iv. The formal operations stage(age 12 through adulthood) In this stage teenagers become capable of abstract reasoning. They understand that ideas can be compared and classified just as objects can.

They are able to reason about situations they have not experienced firsthand and they can think about futurePossibilities. 26. Distinguish between reliability and validity? Reliability is a synonymous with the consistency of a test, survey, observation or other measuring device while validity refers to the degree in which our test or other measuring device is truly measuring what we intended it to. 27. Identify three basic criticisms of- and defenses for- the validity of tests and testing? * Replicating and generalizing the findings * Demand characteristics

Confounding of variables 28. (a)Distinguish among self-esteem, self-concept and self-efficacy? Self- concept is simply the informational side of things, where you know facts about what you are like while self- esteem is how you feel about those things you know, like whether you enjoy the fact that you are talkative at parties (high self- esteem) or you think that you are annoying and need to shut up sometimes (low self- esteem). Self- efficacy is a person’s belief that he or she is capable of producing desired results, such as mastering new skills and reaching goals. b)How does self- efficacy affect motivation? Self efficacy affects motivation positively in that it motivates a person to achieve a certain goal. 29(a) Define research and state the purpose of research? Research is a systematic and organized effort to investigate a specific problem encountered in the working setting. Purpose * To acquire knowledge * To solve problems (b)What are the four objectives of science? a. Description. Requires verifying the phenomenon accurately. b. Explanation. This gives details why the phenomenon is the way it is. . Prediction. This is correlation research, naturalistic observation or case study. d. Control. This is experimental research. (c)Outline steps of scientific research method? a. Identify the problem. b. Definition of the problem in clear and specific terms. c. Development of hypothesis or research questions. d. Development of techniques and measuring instruments related to the problem that will provide objective. e. Collect relevant data. f. Analyze and interpret the results. g. Present the results in appropriate form. h. Replicate the study. d) State characteristics of scientific research method? * Psychology uses scientific methods to collect data. * Psychology attempts to find the new truth. * Psychology deals with observable behavior and establishes facts by objective evidence. * Psychological research attempts to know more about the variables that affects behavior. * Psychological research uses scientific methods to study human behavior and examine traditional views. * Psychology as a science helps to understand, control and predict behavior. It uses the experimental methods by controlling variables and rechecking indings and stating it results in objective terms; these can be verified by anyone in given conditions. * Psychological research findings are applicable to future research and to practical life. 30. Discuss the five major approaches used to carry out scientific research bringing out their strengths and weakness? CASE STUDY;this occurs when researchers studies a subject in depth . He collects data about the subject through interviews, direct observation psychological testing, or examination of documents and records about the subjects. Strengths ;providing a good way to generate hypothesis gt;yields data that other methods can’t provide Weaknesses;sometimes gives incomplete information ;it even relies on self-report data, which can be misleading ;it is subjective thus may yield biased results ;does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationship. SURVEY;this is a way of getting information about a specific type of behavior experience or event . when using this method, researchers give people questionnaires or interview them to obtain information Strengths;yields a lot of information gt;provides a good way to generate hypothesis ;it can provide information about many people since it is cheap and easy to do. Weaknesses;provides information about behavior that cannot be observed directly ;Relies on self-report data which can be misleading ;does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships NATURALISTIC OBSERVATION;this is a method where researchers collect information about subjects by observing them unobtrusively without interfering with them in any way Strengths;it can be useful for generating hypothesis gt;provides information about behavior in the natural environment. Weaknesses;sometimes produces biased results ;may be difficult to do unobtrusively ;Does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationship. EXPERIMENTS;This is where a researcher manipulates a particular variable under controlled conditions while observing resulting changes in another variable that is he manipulates the independent variable and observes the dependent variable since its thought to depend to the independent variable Strengths ;identifies cause and effect relationship. gt;distinguishes between placebo effect and the real effects of a treatment or drug. Weaknesses;can be artificial so results may not generalize to world situations ;they cannot be used to study everything sometimes researchers cannot control variables enough to use to be used in an experiment because they find that painful or harmful in someway PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS;Researchers use psychological tests to collect information about personality traits, emotional states, aptitudes interests, abilities, values or behaviors.

Researchers usually standardize these tests which means they create uniform procedures for giving and scoring them Strength;gives information about characteristics e. g. personal traits, emotional states, aptitudes, interests, abilities, values, and behaviors. Weaknesses;does not allow conclusions about cause and effect relationships ;requires good reliability and validity before it can be used 31(a) Discuss both Piaget’s theory of cognitive (intellectual) development and Freud’s theory of personality development bringing out similarities and differences of the two theories.

Piaget’s theory is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. It is primarily known as a development stage theory, but in fact, it deals with nature of knowledge itself and how humans come gradually to acquire, construct and use it. To Piaget, cognitive development was a progressive reorganization of mental processes as a result of biological maturation and environmental experience. Children construct understanding of the world around them, and then experience discrepancies between what they already know and what they discover in the environment.

Moreover, Piaget claims the idea that cognitive development is a centre of human organism and language is contingent on cognitive development Freud’s theory of personality deals with the id, ego and super-ego which are three parts of the psychic apparatus defined in the structural model of the psyche; they are three theoretical constructs in terms of whose activity and interaction mental life described. According to this model of the psyche, the id is the set of uncoordinated instinctual trends; the ego is the organized, realistic part; and the super-ego plays the critical and moralizing role.

The super-ego can stop you from doing certain things that your id may want you to do. Even though the model is structural and makes reference to an apparatus, the id, ego and super-ego are functions of the mind rather than parts of the brain and do not correspond one-to-one with actual somatic structures of the kind dealt with by neuroscience. The similarities in the theories are that both have clearly defined stages, people are expected to progress from stage to stage. Both aim to explain thinking or behavior in development including changes. Both assume a deterministic and universal progression. b)Discuss briefly their applicability and disparity of the both theories in our set up today? 32. Who is an ‘adolescence’? Discuss the changes and problems experienced by adolescences? Adolescence is person aged between the teen years and undergoing rapid changes both physical and psychological. Adolescences undergo many changes In boys: broadening of chests Deepening of their voice Growth of hair in the pubic parts Enlargement of the penis In girls: softening of their voices Widening of the hips Enlarging of the breasts Growth of hair in their private parts

They also experience numerous problems including Injuring themselves as they experiment everything they see e. g. fighting techniques Growth of pimples on their faces Arousal by any sex related stimuli as sexual motivation is at its peak Some become mad due to the use of drugs. Girls become pregnant as they try to maximize sexual satisfaction 33. (a)Describe consciousness and altered states of consciousness giving examples in each case? (i) Consciousness;this is the awareness of the various mental processes taking place in our bodies. For example, awakening, and learning. i). Altered state of consciousness;this is the state characterized by a series of processes which are not normal. For example day dreaming, hypnosis, meditation, biofeedback, intoxication. (b)State three symptoms of schizophrenia Hallucinations Hallucinations are sounds or other sensations experienced as real when they exist only in the person’s mind. While hallucinations can involve any of the five senses, auditory hallucinations (e. g. hearing voices or some other sound) are most common in schizophrenia. Visual hallucinations are also relatively common.

Research suggests that auditory hallucinations occur when people misinterpret their own inner self-talk as coming from an outside source. Schizophrenic hallucinations are usually meaningful to the person experiencing them. Many times, the voices are those of someone they know. Most commonly, the voices are critical, vulgar, or abusive. Hallucinations also tend to be worse when the person is alone. Disorganized speech Fragmented thinking is characteristic of schizophrenia. Externally, it can be observed in the way a person speaks. People with schizophrenia tend to have trouble concentrating and maintaining a train of thought.

They may respond to queries with an unrelated answer, start sentences with one topic and end somewhere completely different, speak incoherently, or say illogical things. Common signs of disorganized speech in schizophrenia include: Loose associations – Rapidly shifting from topic to topic,with no connection between one thought and the next. Neologisms – Made-up words or phrases that only have meaning to the patient. Perseveration – Repetition of words and statements; saying the same thing over and over. Clang – Meaningless use of rhyming words (“I said the bread and read the shed and fed Ned at the head”).

Disorganized behavior Schizophrenia disrupts goal-directed activity, causing impairments in a person’s ability to take care of him or herself, work, and interact with others. Disorganized behavior appears as: A decline in overall daily functioning Unpredictable or inappropriate emotional responses Behaviors that appear bizarre and have no purpose Lack of inhibition and impulse control Negative symptoms (absence of normal behaviors) The so-called “negative” symptoms of schizophrenia refer to the absence of normal behaviors found in healthy individuals.

Common negative symptoms of schizophrenia include: Lack of emotional expression –Inexpressive face, including a flat voice, lack of eye contact, and blank or restricted facial expressions. Lack of interest or enthusiasm – Problems with motivation; lack of self-care. Seeming lack of interest in the world – Apparent unawareness of the environment; social withdrawal. Speech difficulties and abnormalities – Inability to carry a conversation; short and sometimes disconnected replies to questions; speaking in monotone. 34. (a)What is a theory?

This is an organized system of assumptions and principles that purports to explain a specified set of phenomena and their interrelationships. (b)What does it mean to adopt eclectic approach? this is the selection of the best method of study, teaching, or even researching that best fits the person involved. (c)Explain Abraham Mallow’s theory of motivation and personality (hierarchy of human needs). He says that different motivation needs are ordered in a hierarchy with more basic lower level needs at the bottom and sophisticated higher level needs at the top. He says that a lower level need must be satisfied before the one above is satisfied. a. Physiological needs. Needs for food, water, sleep, sex. In order to move to the next level of needs these primary needs must be satisfied first. b. Safety (security) needs. People need a safe secure environment to enable them function effectively. c. Love and belonging needs. These include the need to obtain and give affection. It also includes being a significant member of a group or society. d. Esteem needs. These refer to the need to develop a sense of self worth. One becomes aware that others are aware of and are likely to make judgment about ones competence and value. . Cognitive needs. These are needs that are related to the individual’s exploratory activities, which are the need to know and understand the environment in which one lives. f. Aesthetic needs. The need for beauty and order in our society that is to what extent are we concerned about making our society orderly and beautiful. g. Self- actualization needs. Once all the above needs are fulfilled the person strives for the highest level need- self actualization. (d)What approach is his (Maslow) theory? He says that it is difficult to achieve the highest level of needs.

Only about one percent of the population would reach the level of self actualization whereby the ability to achieve the highest level- self actualization is undermined by social, political cultural and economics instabilities in our society. REFERENCES 1. Myers D. G (2008) Psychology 9th edition New York: Worth publishers 2. Wayne Weiten (2000) Psychology Themes and Variations 7th Edition 3. www. simplypsychology. com 4. Woolfolk A (2004) 9th edition Educational psychology Boston pearson education inc 5. Rita L. Atikinson (1987) Introduction to psychology 9th edition