Introduction To Sociology (Final Exam)

Introduction To Sociology (Final Exam)

Norms are
Social rules that specify appropriate behavior in a given situation
Achieved status is a social position
That individuals secure on the basis of choice and competition
A subculture is
A group whose members participate in the main culture of a society, while simultaneously sharing a number of unique values, norms, traditions, and lifestyles
Any violation of norms, whether good or bad is called
Deviance
A condition in which members of a society have different amounts of wealth, prestige, or power is called
Social inequality
Some elements of our society are socially constructed such as the social institutions, formal organizations, and bureaucracies. Which of the following is not a social construction?
Ethnic groups
Gender groups
Racial groups
All of the above are social constructions
A society is
A group of people who live within the same territory and share a common culture
Sociologists such as George Herbert Mead, Erving Goffman, and Charles Horton Cooley believed that the development of the self – what makes us unique – is a result of
Our interaction with others
If a person refuses to hire members of a particular ethnic group not because of a personal dislike of that ethnic group, but because he or she fear business clients will go elsewhere, this is
Discrimination without prejudice
Mores are
Norms to which people attach a good deal of importance and expect strict conformity
Which of the following is NOT, by sociologists, regarded as a characteristic of a minority group?
There are fewer of them than there are members of the dominant group
Ethnocentrism refers to
Belief that one’s culture is “the best”; therefore, will tend to judge the behaviors of other groups by the standards of one’s own culture
Socialization is the process
Of social interaction by which people acquire the knowledge, values, and behaviors essential for effective participation in society.
A key element in sociological imagination is the ability to view one’s society
As an outsider
Which term is used to refer to the principle instruments/means whereby the essential tasks (functional prerequisites) of living are organized, directed, and executed?
Social institutions
A proposition that can be tested to determine its validity is known as a
Hypothesis
Social constructs and social definitions
Imply that meanings are produced in social interactions
Which sociological perspective would view society as a system or living organism in which each part/component is related to each other and contributes to its overall survival and stability?
Functionalist perspective
Values are
Broad ideas regarding what is desirable, correct, and good that most members of a society share
Sociology is considered a science because sociologists
Engage in organized and systematic study of phenomena to enhance understanding
Which is not a focus of sociology?
Chemical imbalances in people which lead to unusual behaviors
Which sociological perspective looks for how social interactions take place and generalize about everyday forms of social interaction in order to understand society as a whole?
Interactionist perspective
Which term is used to refer to the methods and strategies that regulate behavior in our society?
Social controls and/or sanctions
Which sociological perspective focuses on the continual process of change? They tend to want to know “who benefits, who suffers, and who dominates at the expense of others in social relationships.”
Conflict perspective
The social heritage of people – including learned patterns of thinking, feeling, and action is known as
Culture
A minority is defined as a category of people who are
set apart by that society and experience subordination (disadvantage).
Edwin Sutherland’s differential association theory links deviance to
the amount of contact a person has with others who encourage or discourage conventional behavior.
Which of the following concepts refers to the practice of including people with disabilities in regular educational classes and programs?
mainstreaming
Regardless of race, families headed by single women are
at high risk for poverty.
The concept of “glass ceiling” refers to
the barrier that prevents women from being promoted.
In the United States, romantic love
∆ is the reason most people expect to marry.
∆ is not a very stable foundation for marriage.
∆ may contribute to a high divorce rate.
∆ All of these responses are correct.
Marx thought of inequality in terms of two main classes. In contrast, Weber envisioned inequality in terms of
a socioeconomic ranking.
If you were born into a traditional caste system, you would expect that, based on birth, you would be
∆ raised to do a certain type of job.
∆ required to marry someone of your own social category.
∆ encouraged to socialize with other people within your own category.
∆ All of these responses are correct.
Using the terms of Robert Merton’s strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a school “dropout” who rejects both cultural goals and the conventional means to reach them?
retreatist
The concept “socialized medicine” refers to which of the following?
All of the above
Most criminal cases handled by the criminal justice system in the United States are resolved
through plea bargaining.
What Gunnar Myrdal called the “American dilemma” was
the denial of basic rights to African Americans by a so-called “democratic society.”
In Robert Merton’s strain theory of deviance, which of the following concepts refers to the process of seeking conventional goals but rejecting the conventional means to achieve them?
Innovation
In 2011, Forbes magazine reported that approximately ___________ of our country’s richest people were women.
10%
While prejudice is a matter of _____, discrimination is a matter of _____.
attitude; action
Because there are several hundred people in the United States for every police officer, police
use discretion in deciding which situations warrant their attention.
The functions of schooling include
All of the above
Assimilation refers to the process by which
minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant culture.
The concept “conspicuous consumption” refers to
the practice of buying things to make a statement about one’s social position
Today, women represent ______ of all students on college campuses across the United States.
57%
Which of the following correctly states the effect of additional schooling on average lifetime income?
Earning a high school diploma and earning a college degree both raise lifetime income levels.
Margaret Mead’s research on gender in three societies in New Guinea illustrates that
traits that are defined as feminine in one society may be masculine in another.
Which of the following refers to the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf?
Corporate Crime
Sociologists define the concept of “race” as
a socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important.
From which world regions do most of today’s U.S. immigrants come?
Latin America and Asia
The concept of sacred refers to what is
seen as set apart from everyday life and extraordinary.
Secularization refers to which of the following?
the historical decline in the importance of the sacred
For Chinese immigrants, one consequence of living in Chinatowns was
All of the above
Victimization surveys show that the actual amount of crime in the United States is about _____ what official reports indicate.
More than twice as high
In what percentage of rapes and attempted rapes on college campuses does the woman know her attacker?
85%-90%
The idea that social inequality benefits society is associated with the
structural-functional approach
Which of the following concepts refers to crime committed by persons of high social position during the course of their occupations?
White-Collar Crime
In the United States, an important medical issue is
shortage of nurses
The concept of “euthanasia” refers to
assisting in the death of a person suffering from a terminal illness.
Which of the following concepts refers to change in social position during a person’s lifetime?
intragenerational social mobility
Institutional prejudice and discrimination refers to the fact that
bias is built into the operation of social institutions.
Using Robert Merton’s strain theory, how would you classify a low-paid, yet compulsively conforming bank teller who never seems to want to get ahead but never seems to do anything wrong?
ritualist
Which sexually transmitted disease infects 24 million U.S. adolescents and adults (about one in six)?
Gonorrhea
Race refers to _____ considered important by a society; ethnicity refers to _____.
biological traits; cultural traits
Scapegoat theory states that prejudice is created by
frustration among disadvantaged people.
A judge sentences a young man who has committed several crimes to counseling and places him in a supportive foster home. Which of the following concepts describes these efforts to prevent further wrongdoing?
rehabilitation
Which of the following diseases is the biggest killer in today’s high-income nations?
Heart Disease
The wealthiest 1 percent of U.S. families (the “super-rich”) controls about _____ of the nation’s privately held wealth.
35%
The concept criminal recidivism refers to
later offenses by people previously convicted of crimes.
When all the evidence is considered, about what share of the U.S. population is really at least somewhat religious?
1/3
Research shows that masculinity is linked to health because
our culture’s definition of masculinity encourages stress and heart disease.
Which concept refers to attitudes and activities that a society links to people of each sex?
gender roles
Who coined the concept “survival of the fittest”?
Herbert Spencer
In the United States today, what percentage of people over the age of twenty-five have earned a four-year college degree?
30%
The killing of people in the Darfur region of Africa is a recent example of
genocide
Talcott Parsons explained that males tend to exhibit _____ behavior, while females are more _____.
instrumental; expressive
What concept did Erving Goffman use to refer to a powerful and negative label that greatly changes a person’s self-concept and social identity?
Stigma
Research suggests that, with regard to social class, arrest for FBI index crimes
is higher for people of lower social position.
The concept “homogamy” means that
people marry others who are socially like themselves.
Magnet schools encourage
students to specialize in specific areas of study.
Which of the following are functions of deviance noted by Emile Durkheim?
All of the above
Karl Marx believed that religion
Supports social inequality
Authoritarian personality theory states that extreme prejudice is
a personality trait of certain individuals.
Every society tries to regulate the behavior of individuals; this general process is called
social control
Work involving mostly mental activity is called
white-collar work
Prostitution is widely regarded as which of the following types of crime?
Victimless crime
Working class people might also be described as
lower-middle class
Criminal statistics gathered by the Federal Bureau of Investigation reflect
Offenses known to the police
Most cases of female genital mutilation occur in
Africa
The total amount of financial assets, minus any debts, is referred to as
Wealth
Which of the following concepts refers to social organization in which males dominate females?
patriarchy
Social stratification is a concept that refers to
ranking categories of people in a hierarchy
The anthropologist Oscar Lewis suggested the cause of poverty lies in
a lower-class culture of poverty.
What concept refers to the formal system that responds to alleged violations of the law using police, courts, and prison officials?
the criminal justice system
The point of the story about passenger deaths that accompanied the sinking of the ocean liner Ttitanic is that
social stratification is important and can sometimes be a matter of life and death.
Holistic medicine asserts that
patients should rely on themselves-not just physicians-to ensure their health.
Which of the following concepts refers to “the recognized violation of cultural norms”?
deviance
“Crime” differs from “deviance” in that crime
refers to a violation of norms enacted into law.
The Hispanic population of the United States is
concentrated in the West, Southwest, and southern Florida.
Religion is a social institution that is BEST defined as involving
beliefs and practices concerning what is sacred.
A national civil rights movement, which ended most instances of lawful discrimination, took place during
1950s and 1960s
According to the most recent data, African Americans accounted for about what percentage of the U.S. population?
13%
Significant immigration of Asian Americans to the United States was first sparked by
The California Gold rush
In the United States in 2010, women in the labor force working full time earned ______ to every dollar men earned.
78 cents
The “beauty myth” refers to the idea that
women learn to measure their personal importance in terms of physical appearance.
As of 2011, women held about what share of seats in Congress?
17%
The basic idea behind labeling theory is that
deviance arises not so much from what people do as how others respond to what they do.
Using the terms in Robert Merton’s strain theory, which of the following concepts correctly describes the behavior of a radical activist who rejects just about everything in the existing society in favor of some alternative system?
rebel
Opposition to feminism is
directed mostly at socialist and radical feminism.
The likelihood a person will be arrested for a street crime rises sharply
during the late teenage years
Which of the following factors tends to raise your social standing?
marry and stay married
According to the social-conflict approach, what a society labels as deviant is based primarily on
differences in power between various categories of people.
What is the effect of industrialization on the number of children in a typical family?
Families have fewer children
The concept of structural social mobility refers to
change in the social position of many people due to changes in society itself.
The concept of gender refers to
the personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male.
Sociological analysis of religion is concerned with
understanding patterns of religious activity and their effect on society.
Which of the following concepts refers to earnings from work or any investments?
income
A caste system is defined as
social stratification based on ascription, or birth
Which of the following statements is correct?
Women commit far fewer crimes than men.
A system of marriage that unites one woman with two or more men is called
polyandry.
If a parent threatens a child with punishment in order to discourage wrongdoing, the parent is using punishment to accomplish which of the following?
detterence
Which of the following concepts refers to the historical practice in England of passing on property to only the first-born male descendant?
the law of primogeniture
A charismatic leader is most likely to be found in which of the following?
cult
Looking back over U.S. history, we see a general trend by which women
have gained opportunities and power
The concept “endogamy” refers to marriage between
people of the same social category.
What is the form of social organization in which females dominate males?
matriarchy
Which of the following statements illustrates the “medicalization of deviance”?
All of the above
According to Karl Marx, which class forms the core of the industrial proletariat?
the working class
The concept of “comparable worth” means that
people should be paid according to the level of skill and responsibility involved in the work.
Which of the following concepts refers to the fusion of Christian principles with political activism, often Marxist in character?
fundamentalism
The idea that social inequality is harmful and divides society is associated with the
social-conflict approach
The U.S. Census Bureau defines the “family” as
people living together who are linked by birth, marriage, or adoption.
Which of the following statements accurately describes social stratification in the People’s Republic of China?
A new set of social classes is gradually emerging.
According to the Davis-Moore thesis
the more inequality a society has, the more productive it is.
A family that includes parents, children and other kin is called
an extended family
The greatest preventable cause of death in the United States is
cigarette smoking
Looking back in history, the oldest justification for punishing an offender is
retribution
The concept “meritocracy” refers to social stratification
based entirely on personal merit
About _____ of the richest people in the United States gained at least some of their fortune from inheritance.
2/3
The overall social standing of Native Americans is
below the national average
According to the structural-functional approach, which of the following is counted among the tasks of the family?
All of the above
The claim that the United States is a postdenominational society is based on a movement
supporting spiritualism, but away from formal denominations.
Roughly 40 to 45 percent of the U.S. population falls within the
middle class
Comparing school performance, researchers have found that the main cause of the achievement gap between rich and poor children is
differences in home enviroments
Native Americans gained the right to U.S. citizenship in
1924
A family composed of one or two parents and their children is called
a nuclear family
In poor nations around the world, about what percentage of children die before they reach their first birthday?
10%
You are expressing a “stereotype” if you
apply a simplified description to every person in some category.
Which of the following is the largest minority category within the U.S. population?
people of Hispanic descent
Today, sociologists emphasize that race is a ____________________________, not a biological one.
socially constructed reality
__________ refer(s) to the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity.”
gender