jazz

jazz

jazz
the most democratic music ever to evolve, and one which is indigenous to the US
Jazz traces its history through
the performance of individuals
collective improvisation
when ensembles create their music by improvising all the parts
most jazz musicians agree that writing down an exact jazz interpretation is next to impossible
true
in its early development, anything that was not considered classical was generally considered
jazz
stressing the weak beat or the weak part of the beat is
syncopation
the jazz musician like his or her classical counterpart, is concerned with producing the “ideal” sound or tone on the instrument
False
one of the major influences from African American culture is
an improvisatory oral tradition
all improvisation is jazz and all jazz is improvised
true
the section in the chapter that is designed to help you to develop and apply your listening and analytical skills to a performance or recording is titled
listening guidelines
it is misleading to force the musical styles used to define jazz into overly rigid categories
true
passive listening will not bring intelligent musical enjoyment
true
_______is the rhythmic interpretation used in jazz that employs various degrees of syncopation
Swing
one of the biggest differences between the classical and jazz idioms is the degree in which _____ is used in performance
improvisation
the chord progression that accompanies a given melody
changes
the speed of the beat
tempo
whether or not the music is in tune
intonation
used for placing emphasis on a particular beat or not
accent
three or more notes played simultaneously in order to accompany a melody
chord
accents in irregular places or on the weak beat
syncopation
same as volume-the loudness or softness of the music
dynamics
the sound created by a note
pitch/tone
harmonic tension, clashing tones, often unpleasing to the ear
dissonant
the relative highness or lowness of a pitch or melody
range
an interval or chord that sounds pleasing
consonant
the activity of the musicians. how “thick or thin” the music sounds
texture
the main melody in a jazz piece
head
a musical line that functions as a complete or incomplete idea
phrase
the last few bars in a chorus
turn around
creating a melody spontaneously in called
improvisation
a symbol that indicates the number of beats in a bar
time signature
a repeated idea that is used as filler material or for introducing a solo
vamp
the main body of jazz tune that which is improvised
chorus
the most fundamental element of rhythm. the steady reoccurring pulse
beat/pulse
the relationship of 2 notes
interval
a succession of pitches that have a recognizable musical shape
melody
used in notation for dividing the beats into even groups
bar/measure
music in African culture was
an integral part of everyday life
the site in New Orleans where slaves were allowed to gather on Sunday to sing and dance was
Congo Square
while Mahalia Jackson sang only gospel, one of the earliest influences on her style was which of the following blues singers
Bessie Smith
though not all rhythms used in jazz came from Africa the importance of rhythm in the music did
True
the music of West Africa can best be described as
a functional tool used in work, religion, and life
field cries and hollers often replied on bending tones slowly upward or downward to either a specific or non-specific pitch
true
Spanish fandangos, tangos, habaneras etc, were derived from African antecedents
true
the most important instrument in Africa was
Drum
the call and response, which was so important in African religious music can be heard in jazz musicians “trading fours”
true
jazz rhythms are primarily______influence
African
at the turn of the twentieth century, traveling minstrel shows, often featuring such blues singers as Ma Rainey and Bessie smith were the main form of entertainment for both races
true
harmony is primarily __________influenced
European
the initial contributions to the development of jazz as an art form basically undocumented because their influence was not recognized
true
the musical forms used in jazz rhythms are attributed to ________
European classical music
African music and folk lore was handed down through the generations by
word of mouth
improvisation is an _________influence
African
creoles tended to be lighter skinned people with Negro and _______ancestor
French
the notation used in jazz is primarily influence by________
Europe
one of the first organized performing ensembles to influence jazz
marching bands
call response is influenced by_________music
African
who was called the “father of the Blues”
W.C. Handy
who was called “the empress of blues”
Bessie Smith
the lyrics of the blues often follow this form
AAB
the blues singer whose record sales saved Columbia Records from bankruptcy was
Bessie Smith
the recording of blues singers were aimed at the African American community in the south and were called
Race Records
what blues style uses one man playing a guitar or banjo
country blues
what blues style has a hard driving rhythm
rhythm and blues
what type of blues is most likely to be rhythmically free
country blues
which blues style used electronic instruments
rhythm and blues
what type of blues used primarily female vocalists
city blues
The style associated with Ma Rainey and Bessie Smith
City Blues
what blues was considered to be the processor of rock and roll
rhythm and blues
the most common blues played is the
12 bar blues
BB King, muddy waters and Janis joplin
rhythm and blues
Ma Rainey and Bessie smith were also professional__________Singer
Vaudeville
when using the poetic blues form, every verse of the song must follow it
False
though the 12-bar blues is the most common, the blues progression has also evolved into longer and shorter forms such as 8, 16 and 20 bar blues
true
the early blues period lasted from the late 1800s to ______
about 1930
call and response is an important aspect of blues performance
true
ragtime players migrated here and it was also said that the music was born in this town
Sedalia, MO
ragtime is composed of music using a form resembling that found in traditional marches
true
the most prolific composer of ragtime music was
scott joplin
16 bar strains- AABBCCDD
ragtime
piano blues
boogie woogie
hard driving ostinato played in the left hand
boogie woogie
boom chuck left, wild right hand
stride
which style does not us a meter of 2
boogie woogie
jelly Roll Morton’s recording of “maple leaf rag”
alters the form and swings more
ragtime and Dixieland developed concurrently which caused them to influence each other
true
Jelly Roll Morton wrote an opera
False
the “father of stride piano”
James p Johnson
the exciting stride pianist/composer who worked with Bessie Smith and Fletcher Henderson
Fats Waller
who among the following was considered to be the most versatile and possibly the best pianist in the entire history of jazz
Art Tatum
there was a shift toward more individual solo playing and less collective improvisation in the Chicago style
true
the rhythm changed from 2/4 in New Orleans to 4/4 in Chicago
False
what instrument would least likely be found in a Chicago style band
Banjo
the upright bass replaced the
tuba
bix Beiderbecke played
cornet/trumpet
what historical even had the least amount of impact on the Chicago era
the ratification of the 19th amendment in 1920
the Chicago style cornetist whose fluid poetic playing has earned him the reputation as the first of the “cool” artists
Bex Beiderbecke
with the advent of Chicago style Dixieland large numbers of white players with formal training entered the jazz field
True
what instrument was added to the front line in Chicago
Saxophone
the 2 beat feel of Chicago was mainly because of which instrument
piano
which pianist adopted a Luis Armstrong approach to improvisation
Earl “Fatha” Hines
many thought that the rise of the big bands meant the fall of jazz completely
true
the standing rhythm section of the swing era was
piano, bass, drums, and guitar
many Dixieland musicians did not transition into swing because they could not read music
True
the 2 cities most closely associated with the Swing Era were Chicago and New York
False
______ was a pianist, but his most notable talent was arranging
Fletcher Henderson
Big band become the vehicle for teaching Jazz
True
which famous vocalist got her start with the chick webb band
ella fitsgerald
which is not a standard big band instrument
Clarinet
Ellington’s major break came during the bands tenure at
harlems cotton club
the band’s theme song “Take the A train” was written by
billy strayhorn
Ellington thought of his band members as hues of colors
True
although many members played in the band for much of their careers, saxophonist Johnny Hodges played with Ellington from 17 until he died in 1974
False
Duke ellington main instrument was his
Orchestra
Ellington referred to his trombone sectionas
God’s Trombones
which style of the Ellington orchestras was built around the raucous playing Cootie Williams, Bubba Miley, and Joe Nanton
Jungle
Ellington is considered to be one of the most significant _________In jazz
compositional figures
the cotton club in Harlem was for white patronage only
True
Ellingtons bass playe, ______who joined the band in 1939 laid the foundation for all the bass players who folloed
Jimmy Blanton
In the Kansa City bands, the solo areas tended to be more formalized and punctuated by stylized ensemble passagers
true
a short pattern of sounds repeated and played by a soloist or group
Riff
most notable tenor saxophone soloist in the Count Basie band
Lester Young
in the Basie Orchestra, emphasis was placed more on Solo playing accompanied by blues based riffs from the members in the band
True
female piano player from Kansas City who wrote big band arrangements for more than a dozen of the leading swing bands
Mary Lou Williams
the “swing machine” refers to
the Count Basie Orchestra
Basie eventually abandoned his performer-centered arrangements after he lost
Lester Young
the Kansas city bands were looser in musical setting and relied heavily on blues based riffs
False
the public decide that the most popular of all the swing bands was that of _______
Glen Miller
who was know as the “king of Swing”
Benny Goodman
although the title was a misnomer,________ was labeled “the king of Jazz”
paul whiteman
who elevated the guitar from strictly a rhythm instrument to a solo melody instrument equal to other instruments
Charlie Christian
who was the first figure In Jazz to establish the saxophone as the dominant voice of Jazz
Coleman Hawkins
who created most of the musical arrangements for the Benny Goodman Band
Fletcher Henderson
which musician became distinguished in both the classical and jazz fields
Benny Goodman
what soloist’s unique sound influenced the later style of jazz known as cool
Lester young
the first band leader to racially integrate his group
Benny Gooman
what historical event led to the sudden failure of the music and entertainment business
the Great Depression
which singer is known for their scat singing ability
Ella Fitzgerald
what 2 artists discussed in this chapter were featured on the Billie Holliday video
coleman Hawkins and lester young
which singers most memorable performances were in small group setting
Billie Holiday
__________ is best defined by her big band singing
Ella Fitzgerald
who had a long history of drug abuse
Billie Holiday
a type of vocal improvisation that uses syllables to imitate instrumental improvisation
scat singing
swing combos began to play during intermissions of big band performances
True
despite her populaty in the music market, Ella Fitzgerald had still by 1982 not won a grammy
False
Who is not a piano player
Robert Johnson
The twelve-bar blues and the AABA are examples of
Forms used in Jazz
Who was NOT a stride pianist
Mead “lux” Lewis
CHAPTERS 7, 8, 9 10, 11
The single most influential figure in the entire history of jazz
Louis Armstrong
The word “king” was used to describe the best
Trumpet/cornet player
Ellington’s bass player Jimmy Blanton, who joined the band in 1939 laid the foundation for all the bass players who followed
True
The Kansas city bands were looser in musical setting and relied heavily on blues based riffs
True
the 2 beat feel of Chicago was mainly because of which instrument
Piano
which singer’s most memorable performances were in small group settings
Billie Holiday
Louis Armstrong’s mentor
King Oliver
Bix Beiderbecke
Dixieland; Trumpet
Coleman Hawkins
swing
Duke Ellington
Swing; Piano
Sidney Bechet
Dixieland; soprano sax/calrinet
Joe Oliver
Dixieland
in 1917 the navy closed the red light district in New Orleans where many jazz musicians were employed which forced many to leave and seek work elsewhere
Storyville
what instrument would Least likely be found in Chicago style band
Banjo
the Chicago style cornetist whose fluid poetic playing has earned him the reputation as the first “cool” artist
Bix Beiderbecke
Count Basie
Piano
Joe “king” Oliver
Dixieland, Trumpet
Ella Fitzgerald
Voice
Billie Holiday
Swing; Voice
Benny Goodman
Clarinet
Lester Young
Swing; Tenor Saxophone
Glenn Miller
Trombone
Jelly Roll Morton
Piano
Louis Armstrong
trumpet/cornet
Lil’ Hardin
Piano
Because of Ellington’s compositional approach, his music tended to be more
Dissonant
which big band was known for their jungle sounds
Duke Ellington
there was a shift toward more individual solo playing and less collective improvisation in the Chicago style
True
Louis Armstrong was also considered one of the best
Jazz singers
A short pattern of sounds repeated and played by a soloist or group
Riff
swing bands existed mainly for
dancing
in New Orleans Dixieland style, the flat 4 technique can be heard best by the
Banjo Player
Ellington’s major break came during the bands tenure at
Harlem’s Cotton Club
With the advent of Chicago style Dixieland, large numbers of white players with formal training entered jazz
True
Most notable saxophone soloist in the Count Basie Band
Lester Young
The Swing Machine refers to
The Count Basie Orchestra
Female piano player from Kansas city who wrote big band arrangements for more than a dozen of the leading swing bands
Mary Lou Williams
which singer was know for their scat singing ability
Ella Fitzgerald
_____is best defined by her big band singing
Ella Fitzgerald
what new technique was associated with the New Orleans style of jazz
collective improvisation
a type of vocal improvisation that uses syllables to imitate instrumental improvisation
scat singing
the unique instrumentation in a New Orleans group existed because the music was played
Outdoors
although the title was a misnomer_________ was labeled “the King of Jazz”
Paul Whiteman
Who was known as the “king of Swing”
Benny Goodman
the standard rhythm section of the Swing Era was
Piano, bass, drums and guitar
what historical even had no impact on either Dixieland or swing
the Cuban missile crisis
music was not always danceable
Duke Ellington
first to racially integrate his band
Benny Goodman
Started in Kansas City
Count Basie
which front line instrument was responsible for the main melody in a New Orleans Dixieland band?
the cornetist/trumpeter
who was NOT discussed as a prominent New York jazz musician
Walter Page
the 2 cities most closely associated with the swing era were Chicago and New York
False
big bands have become the vehicle for teaching jazz
True
which is not a standard bid band instrument
clarinet
although he played piano, Duke Ellington’s real main instrument was his
orchestra
the single most influential musician in the entire history of Modern Jazz
Miles Davis
a vocal jazz technique of putting lyrics to existing standard instrumental tunes and often their improvised solos as well
Vocalese
the style of music combines jazz and classical
third stream
which was not a typical front line instrument in a bop group
Trombone
blood sweat and tears and Chicago incorporated jazz________into their tock bands
instrumentation
free form players thrive on controversy
True
Charlie parker
Bop; alto saxophone
sonny rollins
Hard bop; tenor saxophone
ornette coleman
free jazz
weather report
fusion
Wynton marsalis
neo-classic; trumpet
Diane Krall
voice
John Coltrane
Tenor Saxophone
Thelonius Monk
piano
Horace Silver
Hard bop; Tenor saxophone
Dizzy Gillespie
Bop; trumpet
Miles Davis
Cool
Maria Schneider
Modern Big Band
Jane Ira Bloom
neo-classic
Yellowjackets
Fusion
Tito Puente
Latin jazz
Arturo Sandoval
trumpet
Astrud Gilberto
Voice
the count basie, tommy Dorsey, glenn miller bands which are currently active today
Ghost Bands
the style of music that made us of electronic instruments and effects, the electric bass, and greater amplicication
Fusion
which was not a popular fusion band that contained alumni from the “bitches Brew” project
YellowJackets
the main musical influence for the young lions of the neo-classic school
bop and hard bop
which is another term used to describe the neo-classic style
straight- ahead
which modern jazz trumpet player has won praise as both a jazz and classical artist
Wynton Marsalis
which style of music was often described as nervous and agitated
bop
the maria Schneider orchestra would be classified as a
modern band
the old axiom “the more freedom allowed, the more discipline necessary” applies to which
Free-Jazz
one of the first modern jazz styles to make us of tonal clashes, unusual harmonies, fast tempos and complex rhythms
Bop
the process rather than the product was considered most important to the free form musician
true
which was not mention as a topic explored in free form jazz
emphasis on composition is fundamental
the album “the birth of cool”, King of blue, and Bitches brew were associated with
Miles Davis
a new technique developed by bebop drummers used for placing accents in unexpected places
BOMB
the bass player in the hard bop chapter who was considered hard to classigy
Charles mingus
the rock influence in fusion appears most dominantly in the
rhythm section
which of the following was not a characteristic of the hard bop style
projects a smooth, subdued feeling
of the core group that recorded the “birth of the Cool”, many were alumni of
Claude Thornhill’s band
another name used for hard bop
funky jazz
the young Lions refers to Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie and Thelonius Monk
False
a style of music that grew from studio musicians in California
Third Stream
Cool jazz was promoted by ________Musicians
whit/ west coast
Hard bop was promoted strongest my ________musicians
black/ east coast
the sounds of tonal sonorities associated with cool could be compared to
pastel colors
Coltrane’s fast playing arpeggios became known as
sheets of sound
the Miles Davis album “kind of Blue” featured which group of jazz greats
john Coltrane, bill evans, and cannonball adderly
the instrument that underwent the most radical change both in it’s design, role, and playing technique
bass