Kinesiology Chapter 1-3

Kinesiology Chapter 1-3

Which of the following phrases best describes the authors’ view of the status of health education? Health education is
an emerging profession.
The body of knowledge, principles, and concepts used in health education/promotion come from a variety of disciplines. Which one of the following is not one the major disciplines supporting health education/promotion?
Physics
Which one of those below is not used to define a profession? A profession
provides an income.
A professional prepared individual trained to use appropriate educational strategies and methods to facilitate the development of policies, procedures, interventions and systems conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities is known as a
health educator.
During the 1850s to 1950s, the primary focus of the public health effort in the United States was to
control infectious diseases.
The greatest potential for reducing morbidity, saving lives, and reducing health care costs in the United States through health promotion and disease prevention was realized by the
mid 1970s.
Which one of the following is not recognized as a dimension of health?
Political
An approach to health that focuses on balancing the dimensions of a person’s life through the adoption of health enhancing behaviors is known as
wellness.
Which of the following surveys utilizes a telephone interview to collect health data?
The National Health Interview Survey
Which of the following surveys collects health data about college students?
The National College Health Assessment
The federal government’s 1980 document that provided a blueprint of the health promotion and disease prevention strategy is known as
Promoting Health/Preventing Disease: Objectives for a Nation.
The number of deaths per 100,000 population is known as
the mortality rate.
A rate for a specific population subgroup (e.g. death rate for 40—50 year olds) is referred to as
the specific.
The average number of years of life remaining is known as the
life expectancy.
Which rate is the measure of premature mortality?
Years of Potential Life Lost [YPLL]
The primary difference between the health education/promotion profession and other helping professions in achieving the goals and objectives of the profession is
the use of the teaching-learning process by the health education/promotion profession.
The primary role of a health education specialist includes
developing health education/promotion programs for the people they serve and evaluating health education/promotion programs.
Which of the following steps is generally found in most planning models?
Needs assessment
The primary role of a health education specialist includes all of the following EXCEPT
program redirection.
According to the best available estimates, behavioral patterns impact what portion of the population’s early death?
40%
According to the best available estimates, social circumstances impact what portion of the population’s early death?
15%
The use of the DTP vaccine is an example of which level of prevention?
Primary prevention
The use of condoms to prevent the spread of sexually transmitted infections (STI) is an example of which level of prevention?
Primary prevention
Providing education to a diabetic on how to use his/her insulin is an example of which level of prevention?
Tertiary prevention
Encouraging individuals to take a daily dose of aspirin to reduce the chance of a heart attack is an example of which level of prevention?
Secondary prevention
The use of a sports physical examination as a requirement to participate in high school athletics is an example of which level of prevention?
Primary prevention
Which one of the following disciplines and professions was not identified by the authors as contributing to the principles and concepts of health education/promotion?
Anthropology
The Health Field Concept divides the health field into four elements. The four elements are
human biology, environment, lifestyle, and health care organization.
The greatest importance of the Health Field Concept has been the
focus on health promotion and disease prevention.
The focus of health promotion and disease prevention efforts should be directed toward
modifiable risk factors.
What percentage of death could be prevented by controlling modifiable risk factors?
40%
The interruption of the sequence of events to prevent an infection is descriptive of which of the following?
The Chain of Infection
The major components of this model include agent, host, and environment
Communicable Disease Model
Which of the following disease models is most applicable to the prevention of chronic diseases?
Multicausation Design Model
Epidemiology is
the study of the distribution and determinants of diseases in a specific population.
The level of prevention that includes strategies designed to reduce the incidence of disease is called ________ prevention.
primary
Screenings are used by which level of prevention?
Secondary
Providing training or instructing patients on how to modify their diets and take their medications to prevent a second heart attack is an example of ________ prevention.
tertiary
Which of the following is the best descriptor of the socio-ecological approach?
Behaviors are influenced by interdependent domains.
The first national document that presented a comprehensive national agenda for prevention presented objectives in three main areas. The areas include
prevention services, health protection, and disease prevention.
Which of the following identify three levels used in the socio-ecological approach?
intrapersonal, interpersonal, and organizational
Having the ability to understand and respect values, attitudes, beliefs, and mores that differ across cultures is a description of a ________.
culturally competent person
The differences in health between populations is known as ________.
health disparity
Chapter 2.
1. The history of health education as an emerging profession is just over ________ years old.
100
2. It is assumed that the earliest humans initially learned to distinguish between things that were healthful and those that were harmful by
trial and error
3. The oldest excavated sites, dating back 4000 years, which indicate bathrooms and drains were common were found in
India.
4. The ________ is the oldest written document related to health care dating from around 1600 B.C.
Smith Papyri
5. The ________ is the earliest written record concerning public health.
Code of Hammurabi
6. Which book of the Bible is considered to be the world’s first written hygienic code?
Leviticus
7. The Egyptians were considered to be
the healthiest people of their time.
8. The first people to put as much emphasis on prevention of disease as on the treatment of disease conditions were the
Greeks.
9. By the beginning of the 8th century B.C., Greek mythology had endowed ________ as the god of medicine.
Asclepius
10. The Greek physician credited as being the first epidemiologist and the father of modern medicine was
Hippocrates.
11. The staff and serpent symbol, which also marked early Greek temples of healing, is known as
Caduceus.
12. Which period resulted in the human body being considered appropriate for study and the production of realistic anatomical drawings?
Renaissance
13. Hippocrates is known for all of the following contributions to the history of medicine EXCEPT
the Code of Hammurabi.
14. The early society most famous for building sewage systems, water supply systems, baths, and other health facilities was the
Romans.
15. During what era were criminals dissected alive to improve medical knowledge?
Roman
16. Which of the following built the most extensive aqueduct system to bring fresh water to its subjects?
Romans
17. Entire libraries were burned and knowledge about the human body was seen as sinful during the
Middle Ages.
18. Which great epidemic during the Middle Ages resulted in the most discrimination and isolation of its victims?
Leprosy
19. One of the prevailing beliefs of the origin of ________ was that dead bodies of diseased soldiers were catapulted into a besieged city.
bubonic plague
20. “Water casting” was a
means of diagnosing a patient’s condition by examining the urine for changes in color.
21. During the Renaissance period, much surgery and dentistry was performed by
barbers.
22. The Middle Ages can be characterized as a time
when many health advancements were lost.
23. During which period did the concept of disease contagion become more universally accepted?
Middle Ages
24. During the 1700s the “miasmas theory” held that
disease was caused when vapors rising from rotting refuse were inhaled.
25. During which period did health education as a profession begin to emerge?
1800s
26. Who wrote the Report on an Inquiry into the Sanitary Conditions of the Labouring Population of Great Britain?
Edwin Chadwick
27. John Snow was able to interrupt a cholera epidemic in London by
removing a pump handle.
28. Who proposed the germ theory of disease?
Louis Pasteur
29. To address the many health problems facing U.S. cities in the late 1700s, some cities developed health
boards.
30. Public health reform in the United States was stimulated by the landmark Report on the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts written by
Lemuel Shattuck.
31. As a result of the landmark Report on the Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts all of the following significant accomplishments occurred EXCEPT
the National Tuberculosis Study was conducted.
32. Stephen Smith’s effort to initiate a national sanitary association eventually evolved into the
American Public Health Association (APHA).
33. The first national voluntary health agency established in 1902 was the
National Association for the Study and Prevention of Tuberculosis.
34. Passage of the 1798 Marine Hospital Services Act established a structure that eventually evolved into today’s
U.S. Public Health Service
35. Which act provided support for state health departments and their programs, including the development of sanitary facilities and improvements in maternal and child health?
Social Security Act
36. The federal government’s involvement in social issues including health began with passage of the
Social Security Act.
37. Dr. Mayhew Derryberry is credited with
predicting how the shift from contagious to chronic diseases would impact health education.
38. ________ was created to assist in the payment of medical bills for the elderly.
Medicare
39. The first national effort to promote the health of citizens through a more preventative approach that paved the way for such efforts in the United States took place in what country?
Canada
40. What famous Canadian report presented epidemiological evidence supporting the importance of lifestyle and environmental factors on health and sickness, and called for numerous national health promotion strategies?
A New Perspective on the Health of Canadians
41. In the United States the first major recognition of the importance of lifestyle in promoting health and well-being came in the form of a governmental publication titled
Healthy People.
42. The three overarching goals of Healthy People 2020 focus on
living longer lives, eliminating disparities, and promoting quality of life
43. The most recent set of national health objectives for the United States is titled
Healthy People 2020.
44. The initiative to develop performance standards, collect, monitor, and analyze data, and ultimately improve public health practice is known as the
National Public Health Performance Standards.
45. Massachusetts passed the first mandatory education law in 1647 to
help promote the reading of the Bible.
46. Who was the secretary of the Massachusetts State Board of Education in 1837 and repeatedly called for mandatory programs of hygiene education for students?
Horace Mann
47. Founded in 1927 as the American Association of School Physicians, this professional organization evolved into the
American School Health Association
48. The first national effort to promote the teaching of health related curriculum in the schools was directed by the
Women’s Christian Temperance Union.
49. Among her many accomplishments, Miss Sally Lucas Jean was ultimately responsible for
changing the name from hygiene education to health education
50. What happened during World War I that provided the impetus for widespread acceptance of school health education as a field in its own right?
Too many young men were unfit for service.
51. Which of the following best represents the results of the School Health Education Study conducted by Dr. Elena Sliepcevich?
The results were appalling, with numerous misconceptions about health at all levels.
52. One of the more important health education studies that was conducted in the Los Angeles Area and was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of school health work in selected schools and colleges of the area was the
School Health Education Evaluation Study.
53. Eight interactive components working together to enhance the health and well-being of the students, faculty, staff, and community within a school district are known as
a Coordinated School Health Program.
54. The most recent school health publication focused on improving educational achievement for all students and improved health for the United States is the
National Health Education Standards.
55. When developing school health curriculum, the CDC recommends emphasizing six key risk behaviors because the behaviors
are the leading causes of death and disability.
56. The coordinated school health concept has dominated the school health arena but has failed to reach its full potential in most schools because
the leadership to promote and coordinate school health programs is lacking.
57. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
expands healthcare to millions of uninsured Americans.
58. The formal classification for the occupation of health education was significant because it
made it possible to determine the number of health education specialists employed.
Chapter 3
1. The development of a well-considered philosophy provides the underpinnings that support the bridge between
theory and practice.
2. Which one of the following is not included in the topics studied by a philosopher in an academic setting?
Scatology and astrology
3. Convictions, ideas, learning, values, experiences, and attitudes in the areas applicable to life are the building blocks that make up a
philosophy.
4. Which of the following best defines the term “philodoxy”?
The love of opinion
5. Using slogans to identify products is analogous to knowing a person’s philosophy by analyzing the person’s
sayings (quotes).
6. Loren Bensley describes a philosophy as
a synthesis of all learning that makes you who you are.
7. Select the phrase that does not describe philosophy
A body of knowledge that defines the parameters for the living and the dead
8. A philosophy that is synchronous means the philosophical viewpoint a person holds is applicable only
at home, at school, in the workplace, and at play.
9. The practice former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop used to demonstrate his belief that HIV/AIDS was a health problem and not a moral issue was to
disseminate needles to inner city addicts.
10. Tamayose et al. found that the two most cited reasons students chose a career in public health were
enjoyment of the profession and providing a service to others.
11. Which factors were found to have a major influence on students to pursue a career in public health?
Commitment to health improvement and Community service to others
12. The philosophy espoused by health education specialists who seek to motivate their students or clients toward a balance among the physical, emotional, spiritual, and social components is termed
symmetry
13. The philosophy espoused by health professionals who acknowledge that the human is a unified integrated organism is termed
holistic.
14. The philosophy espoused by health education specialists who promote the basic premise of the worth of human life and the ability of individuals to achieve self-fulfillment is termed
humanism
15. The philosophy subscribed to by health education specialists who believe that achieving optimal health is the development of the spiritual, intellectual, physical, emotional, environmental, and social dimensions is termed
wellness.
16. Which of the following health education specialists believes that the expression of health is a starting point for professional interacting, education, and enhancement of health?
Becky Smith
17. Who is the leading health educator who describes health education as that which promotes, maintains, and improves individual and community health through the educational process?
John Allegrante
18. Who is the leading health educator who believes health education programming includes inter-sectoral cooperation, coalition-building, and networking?
Marian Hamburg
19. Who is the leading health educator who believes that the most fundamental outcome of health education is the enabling of individuals to achieve a level of freedom, avoiding unnecessary encumbrances to make enlightened choices?
John Seffrin
20. One way that a philosophy is not formed is by
experiencing every aspect of life.
21. Which one of the following was not a common theme of the individual philosophy of leading health educators outlined in the text?
Health is a constant
22. Which of the following was not suggested in the chapter as being useful in the development of a professional philosophy?
Examine the mission statements of corporations.
23. Which of the following questions is not used to formulate a personal philosophy for a health educator?
What principles influence my friend’s decisions?
24. The health education philosophy that includes people making the best health decisions based on their needs and interests is
freeing/functioning philosophy
25. The health education philosophy that uses scenarios to develop skill in analyzing potential solutions is
decision-making philosophy.
26. The health education philosophy that uses behavioral contracts, self-monitoring, and goal setting to try to foster a modification in an unhealthy habit is
behavior change philosophy.
27. The health education philosophy with the goal of increasing a person’s or group’s knowledge, enabling them to make better decisions about their health is
cognitive-based philosophy.
28. The health education philosophy that espouses the enactment of policies or laws to enhance the health of individuals and groups is
social change philosophy.
29. A health education program that focuses on developing coalitions for the purpose of advocating for a smoke-free bar and restaurant ordinance would most likely be based upon which philosophy?
Social change philosophy
30. Which one of the following health education/promotion philosophies was found by Welle, Russel, & Kittleson to be most preferred by health education/promotion practitioners?
Decision-making philosophy
31. A health education program that emphasizes increased learning and knowledge gains would most likely be based upon which philosophy?
Cognitive-based
32. A health education program that emphasizes behavioral contracts, incentives, and goal setting would most likely be based upon with philosophy?
Behavior change philosophy
33. The characteristics of the health educator as expressed by the eclectic health education philosophy include all of the following EXCEPT
inflexibility.
34. Buchanan, Governali, Hodges, and Videto called for an integrated behavioral ecological philosophy. This approach most closely resembles which of the following philosophies?
Eclectic philosophy