pattern of change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span
Normative age-graded influences
biological, sociocultural, and environmental influences that are similar for individuals in a particular age group.
Examples of Normative age-graded influences
puberty, menopause, beginning school, retirement
Normative History-graded influences
Influences that are common to people of a particular generation because of historical circumstances.
Examples of History-graded influences
economic, political and social upheavals like the Great Depression, WWII, Civil Rights Movement, 9/11, integration of cell phones into everyday life
Nonnormative life events
unusual occurrences that have a major impact on an individual’s life; events do not happen to all people
Examples of Nonnormative life events
death of a parent when child is young, pregnancy in adolescence, home burned down, winning the lottery, unexpected career opportunity
changes in an individual’s physical nature
Examples of Biological processes
genes inherited from parents, development of the brain, height and weight gain, hormonal changes of puberty
changes in an individual’s thought, intelligence, and language
Examples of Cognitive processes
watching colorful mobile above crib, putting together two-word sentences, memorizing a poem, imagining what it would be like to be a movie star, solving crossword puzzles
changes in an individual’s relationships with other people, emotions, and personality
Examples of Socioemotional processes
infant’s smile in response to a parent’s touch, toddlers aggressive attack on playmate, development of assertiveness, joy at senior prom, actions of elderly couple
conception to birth: tremendous growth from a cell to organism with a brain and behavior capabilities, lasts about nine months
birth to 18 or 24 months: extreme dependence on adults, psychological activities are just beginning- language, sensorimotor coordination, and social learning
end of infancy to 5 or 6 years old “preschool years”: become more self-sufficient, care for themselves, develop school readiness skills, first grade typically marks the end
Middle and Late Childhood
6 to 11 years old “elementary school years”: mastery of fundamental skills of reading, writing and arithmetic, increase in self control and wanting to achieve
10-12 to 18-21 years of age: transition from childhood to early adulthood, rapid physical change, independence and identity are important, more time spent away from family
early 20s to 30s: establish personal and economic independence, career development, selecting a mate, starting a family, raising children
40 to 60 years old: expanding personal and social involvement and responsibility, reaching and maintaining career satisfaction
begins 60s-70s until death: time of life review, retirement, adjustment to new social roles of decreased strength and health
the number of years that have elapsed since birth
an individual’s adaptive capacities compared with those of other individuals of the same chronological age
social roles and expectations related to a person’s age
a person’s age in terms of physical health (organs, diseases, accidents, nutrition, exercise)
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
Focuses on the extent to which development involves gradual, cumulative change (continuity) or distinct stages (discontinuity).
Describe development as primarily unconscious and heavily colored by emotion. Behavior is merely a surface characteristic, and the symbolic workings of the mind have to be analyzed to understand behavior. Early experiences with parents are emphasized.
Sigmund Freud’s Theory
states we go through five stages pf psychosexual development
includes 8 stages of human development. Each stage consists of a unique developmental task that confronts individuals with a crisis that must be resolved.
Autonomy versus Shame
1 to 3 years; the psychological conflict of toddlerhood, which is resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
Trust versus Mistrust
First year of life; Erikson’s first psychosocial crisis. Infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are met.
Initiative versus Guilt
3-6 years; children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them
Industry versus Inferiority
6-12 years; The fourth of Erikson’s eight psychosexual development crises, during which children attempt to master many skills, developing a sense of themselves as either industrious or inferior, competent or incompetent.
Identity versus Identity Confusion
12-20 years; According to Erikson, the major developmental task of adolescence in finding a sense of who they are and where they are going in life. Failure results in developing a negative identity or in role confusion.
Intimacy versus Isolation
20-40 years; According to Erikson, a major developmental task of early adulthood is developing an intimate relationship. Failure to do so may lead to isolation.
Generativity versus Stagnation
40-60 years; Erikson’s seventh stage of psychosocial development, in which the middle-aged adult develops a concern with establishing, guiding, and influencing the next generation or else experiences a sense of inactivity or lifelessness
Integrity versus Despair
60 +; According to Erikson, the major developmental task of older age is finding meaning in the life that one has led. Success gives rise to a sense of integrity, whereas failure leads to despair.
States that children actively construct their understanding of the world and go through four stages of cognitive development
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from birth to about 2 years of age) during which infants know the world mostly in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities
in Piaget’s theory, the stage (from about 2 to 7 years of age) during which a child learns to use language but does not yet comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic.
Concrete Operational Stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (from about 7 to 11 years of age) during which children gain the mental operations that enable them to reason logically about concrete examples
Formal Operational Stage
in Piaget’s theory, the stage of cognitive development (normally beginning between age 11-15) during which people begin to think logically about abstract and logical terms
Skinner’s Operant Conditioning
Involves changing the probability of a behavior’s occurrence. Rewards increase the likelihood of reoccurrence. Punishment reduces the likelihood of the behavior.