Lushoto

Lushoto Helen Kejo Form 1 m 2012 TABLE OF CONTENTS TAFORI—————————-pg 3-5 Sakarani Vine yard——————-pg 6 Irente Biodiversity Reserve—————pg 7-8 Irente Biodiversity Reserve’s History—– pg 9-10 Irente children’s home——— pg 11-12 Irente School for the blind——– pg 13-14 Hiking Mount Usambara—– pg 15-19 The experience——- pg 20 In town—– 21-23 Soni falls——–24-25 TAFORI Lushoto Silviculture Research Centre (LSRC)

The Centre is in Lushoto District, Tanga Region. It carries out forestry research in four departments namely; Forest Plantation Management and Agro forestry, Forest Ecology, Forest Genetics and Forest Protection. Forest Plantation Management and Agro forestry is responsible for conducting research related to plantation forestry and agro forestry. Forest Ecology mainly deals with research in Botany, Herbarium and Natural Forests. The forest Forest Genetics has two sections namely: Seed and Nursery and Tree Breeding.

Seed and Nursery section is responsible for seed establishment of trials (species and provenances selection), collection, extraction, storage, and distribution and rising of seedlings while Tree Breeding is responsible for trials maintenance, data collection and evaluation of trials. Forest protection deals with research and consultancies on Entomology, Pathology and Fire Protection. Left: A forest in Lushoto. Right: Tree breeding. The Centre also has established a Desktop publishing unit with the objective of providing services related to typesetting, printing, and binding of documents.

The unit provides services to TAFORI itself, Government institutions and other private institutions including individuals. TAFORI’S HISTORY TAFORI- Tanzania Forest Institute. TAFORI started by the Germans in 1902. A number of experimental plots established at that time can be seen today. In 1928, the British renamed the Amani Research Station to the East African Agricultural Research Station. In 1948 the Amani station was moved to Muguga – Kenya, to form the East African Agricultural and Forestry Research Organization (EAAFRO).

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The organization catered for research activities common to the three partner states. Research problems unique to the individual countries were attended to a national basis. This led to the establishment of the Silvicultural Research Station in Lushoto in 1951 and the Timber Utilization Research Station in Moshi at the same time. Following the collapse of the East African Community in February 1977, an immediate need to fill the vacuum became the apparent, as the two stations established in the early 1950’s were not well placed to act in EEAFRO’s stand. Sakarani Vineyard

Tropical vineyard This one-acre vineyard is part of the St. Benedict’s Religious House Sakarani near Soni in the Usambara Mountains in northern Tanzania. It’s one of very few tropical vineyards at approximately 5 degrees south. Problems with growing wine grapes in the tropics include too short days and an unfavorable climate overall (too hot). This being in the mountains, at least the heat hurdle is partially overcome. They grow Chenin Blanc, which is the most commonly used white grape in South Africa, as well as a hybrid grape variety for their “port”.

They plant grapes here and later on the grapes are used for wine. They make both sweet and white wine. Irente Biodiversity Reserve Irente Biodiversity Reserve is a nature reserve with a difference. Owned and managed by North-Eastern Diocese of the Lutheran Church in Tanzania, it incorporates both environmental conservation and sustainable organic agriculture. The Usambaras are one of Conservation International’s World Biodiversity Hotspots – that is, they are recognized as an area with exceptional diversity of species.

There is a project here to restore this biodiversity by replanting trees, shrubs and climbers native to the Western Usambaras. This in turn will attract more birds, butterflies, reptiles and small mammals. MORE INFORMATION: | Irente Biodiversity Reserve (former Irente Farm) is situated in the western Usambara Mountains, 5 km from Lushoto. It belongs to the north-eastern diocese of the Lutheran church in Tanzania. On the property there is an orphanage (Irente children’s home), a school for the blind (Irente school for the blind), and Rainbow school (a school for mentally retarded and autistic children). The farm is 200 ha with plantations of pines, eucalyptus, wattle and silver oak, interspersed with pastures and plots of maize and beans. There is a dairy herd, which supplies milk to a small-scale cheese, butter and quark production. Goat cheese is also produced. In addition rye bread, an assortment of jams and juices bring an income. | The farm has a policy of biodiversity restoration that is to replant the rainforest that once existed here. | The climate is mild since the farm lies at 1400 m with a rainfall between 1000 and 1200 mm. The Irente viewpoint with a view over the Maasai Steppe is only 2 km away. | The foods produced at Irente Biodiversity Reserve IRENTE BIODIVERSITY RESERVE’S HISTORY The origin of the name Irente is obscure. Irente was one of the experimental coffee estates established in 1896 by the German colonial government? s plantation company (Deutsche-Ostafrikanische Plantagengeschellschaft). Other estates established in the same year were Gare, Maweni, Sakharani, and Mazumbai. The aim was to test coffee as a crop, but due to soil infertility, coffee as a plantation crop was abandoned by 1914.

The Germans lost the colony to the British in 1918, and it was probably after this that Irente coffee estate came into the hands of a Greek farmer, Mr. W. J. Tame. By all accounts Mr Tame was a diligent farmer; he had 60 acres of coffee trees, a bacon factory and a dairy producing cream. With the coming of independence for Tanganyika in 1961 Mr. Tame sold up to the DKMS (Lutheran Church) for ? 25,000. The Lutheran church of Tanganyika converted the bacon factory into the Irente Mental Hospital and these patients worked on the farm in order to produce food in support of the hospital.

Over the years different managers developed the farming infrastructure, and milk production started with the introduction of Fresian-type cows. However, farming never really showed a consistent profit, the excuse being drought or too much rain, diseases of crops and cattle, and low prices for produce. In 2004 all foreign assistance to Irente was stopped, but the reserve (as it is now called) had found its niche relying on four pillars • Nature based tourism • Food processing • Biodiversity protection • Farming The cows at Irente Farm; they are used for dairy products.

The enterprise has become more profit-oriented and conservation-centred, as it is indeed an income generating enterprise of the North Eastern Diocese of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Tanzania (Ned ELCT). On the property there are now 3 institutions, Irente School for the Blind, Irente Children? s home, Rainbow school and Irente church. Irente Biodiversity Reserve seeks to integrate conservation, production and rural development by a mix of activities, taking into account the importance of both people and biodiversity. AREA: 200 hectares

HEIGHT: 1450 metres above sea level RAINFALL: 800 to 1280 millimetres (average 1060mm) TEMPERATURES: minimum 10 degrees (July- August) maximum 30 degrees (January-February) Irente Children’s Home Irente Children’s Home (hereafter abbreviated ICH) is an orphanage that has been operating for more than four decades in north eastern Tanzania. The orphanage is run by the Evangelical Lutheran Church in Tanzania; North-Eastern Diocese (hereafter abbreviated ELCT-NED). ICH is one among nine institutions with a social service orientation run by the ELCT-NED.

The diocese is acknowledged for having a long tradition of diaconic work, both in institutional form and in congregations. The first photo shows where the children live. The last photo shows one of the children. Other institutions with a social service orientation include: Irente School for the Blind, Kwemhafa and Hekalungu homes for Lepers, Bangala Lutheran Junior Seminary, Lwandai Secondary School, Bumbuli Hospital, Lutindi Mental Hospital and Agricultural Training at Irente Farm. Moreover, seven parishes within the diocese are running dispensaries. ICH has the capacity of receiving 35 children.

They live in a u-shaped building where they are divided in 4 rooms according to age. Other people living at ICH are girls who attend a 2-year pre-nursing course. The ICH staff consists of nurses, nurse attendants, a cook, a laundry man, gardeners, watchmen, a secretary, an accountant and a driver. Often there are girls from abroad (mostly Germany) who stay at the ICH for around 3 months and work as volunteers. IRENTE SCHOOL FOR THE BLIND When someone comes in contact with a blind person, many thoughts run through their head as to how blind people get their daily lives. You might be wondering, how that can be true.

But the answer to that is that through blindness, people have come to the realization that even though physical eyes don’t see, one can still see with eyes of his/her heart. When it comes to the challenges and struggles of being blind, there have been many, but one way or another they have been able to overcome them. All through primary school years people assumed that being blind would hinder from getting a good education, much less going to the Universities. | Irente School for the Blind| There is a growing awareness among communities that the education which blind children are receiving is helping them.

They are receiving a quality education which can prepare them to compete in the high demanding techno-economy and society of the 21st Century. Children demonstrate their skills North Eastern Diocese- ELCT through Irente School for the Blind insures that blind children have the opportunity to become capable in the alternative techniques coping with blindness; they should develop constructive attitudes, and be given a quality education. Through efforts undertaken there are some problems which we wished to address as follows to compete successfully.

Irente School for the Blind needs, Renovation of Dormitories and Staff houses, cultivation of 10 acres out of the 50 for food crops, computers installed with dolphin pin, Academic books and teaching aids, Boys Dormitory and Secondary for inclusive education from class 1 to class 4. Finally, we were all too aware of the appalling failure of the teacher training programs to sufficiently prepare their students to teach blind children; even more important in preparing student teachers to work with blind children in the classroom.

However availability of quality field placements for students in training is a truly serious problem but now Sebastian Kolowa University College (SEKUCo) has such training is available. It will not fate these students to go into the classroom and deliver the same miserable educational services that blind children where receiving. HIKING…. Mount Usambara The Usambara Mountains are a mountain range in North-East Tanzania, approximately 70 miles (110 km) long and ranging from 20 to 40 miles (64 km) in width.

Mountains in the range rise as high as 8,000 ft (2,440 m). They are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains, which stretch from Kenya through Tanzania, and are one of the world’s Biodiversity hotspots. The range is accessible from the towns of Lushoto in the West, and Amani in the East. The Usambaras are commonly split into two sub-ranges, the West Usambara and the East Usambara. The East Usambara is closer to the coast, receives more rainfall, and is significantly smaller than the West Usambara.

The Usambaras Geology and ecology The Usambaras are fairly unique in that, being in East Africa, their unspoiled regions are covered in the tropical forest, which today remains mainly in the West of the continent. The mountain range was formed nearly two billion years ago and due to a lack of glaciations and a relatively consistent climate, the rainforest has gone through a long term and unique evolution resulting in an impressive amount of endemism and an old growth cloud rain forest (Lovett 1993[1]).

West and East Usambaras are large ranges of Precambrian metamorphic geologic formations of acid-gneisses, pyroxenes and amphiboles. These mountains were formed by faulting and uplifting creating the drainage system of troughs that form many watersheds, which provide water to a majority of the population of northeast Tanzania (Lundgren 1980). Considered tremendously significant ecologically, there are many protected zones throughout the range, which are being expanded and contributed to by the Tanzanian government, associated NGO’s and research teams, and donor countries such as Norway.

Several species are endemic to the Usambara forests, including the Usambara Eagle-owl, the Usambara Akalat, the Usambara Weaver and the tree Calodendrum eickii. Human history Historically the Usambara Mountains have been inhabited by the Bantu, Sambaa, and Maasai people who were a mix of agriculturalists and pastoralists. In the late 18th century, German colonialists came to the area bringing with them a mix of cash crops like lumber trees, coffee, tea, and quinine, and also designated forests as reserves for either water conservation or timber use (Rogers 2009).

They also brought a slew of new, western ideas which were, in many ways, diametrically opposed to traditional beliefs such as coexistence with the forest versus forest as a “separate wilderness”. The result of colonialism was a massive change in the way forests were perceived in the community, and conversion of traditional agriculture to cultivating cash crops such as quinine, pine trees, bananas, maize, tea, and coffee. The people in Lushoto Development and tourism Today, the population of the Usambaras has one of the highest growth rates (about 4% compared to the national average of 2. %), a staggering amount of poverty and highest densities of people in all of Tanzania. Most of the inhabitants are subsistence farmers who rely heavily on the forests around them for timber, medicinal plants, clearing for agriculture, and fuel wood. Furthermore 70% of the original forests cover of the West and East Usambaras has been lost. Major land and forest degradation remain a pressing issue. However, there are still many places that attract tourists looking for an adventure off the beaten path.

These include the bustling trade town of Lushoto, the once popular German resort Amani Nature Reserve and farm, and Mazumbai University Forest, which is considered the last example of a pristine forest in the East Usambaras. The experience To say the truth most of were tired on the first few minutes because the hill was steep. I was one of the people in the front but found myself one of the last ones to reach the peak. It was a long walk and very tiring. We stopped like three times to take a rest and we were stopped once by these scary people.

They said that they told Fredericka and her other friends but they wouldn’t stop and also something about scaring monkeys off. After the mess was cleared, continued with our walk. We took pictures when we reached our last checkpoint. We finally reached the peak. Some of us engraved our names on the hut’s floor. I wrote: “Helen was here!!! ” The walk down was longer than the walk up, which is not supposed to happen. We walked around the mountain and when we finally reached our destination, we found out that we walked to the football pitch where we played football a day ago.

We were exhausted! Bhoke, Ms. Sandra, Marco and Nancy were the last ones to reach the football pitch. IN TOWN After the hike, we dropped of the boys at the place they were staying (Tumaini) and we girls were dropped off at our hotel (Lawns). We cleaned because we were all so sweaty! Later the bus came with the guys in it and we headed for town. We were going to interview local people about their jobs and what profit they get. Lushoto town When we were in town, we paired ourselves into groups that didn’t exceed three people.

I paired myself with Amanda since she talks a lot and she was perfect material for interviewing people… We first interviewed a middle aged woman with a baby who was selling charcoal. She did not look like she was in good state. It was raining and the charcoal was getting wet since it’s not good for charcoal to be wet not any customers wear buying her product. I could see that she had influenza. I asked her how she got it and she said, “Mkaa unatimua vumbi tukiwa tunachota. ” Meaning: “Charcoal dust rises when being drawn. ”

She also told as that she only makes 500 tz shillings in a day, which isn’t enough to support her family. She has five children and no husband. We then proceeded and went to a salon that up a hill. The ladies in there, at first didn’t want to give us information but when we introduced ourselves she felt more secure. I didn’t really feel sorry for her because she made 100,000 tz shillings, which was enough since she had no family to support. After that Amanda, Cynthia, Tracey and I became a group. We went to interview bartenders. They went making any money at all since there has been no customer since they opened.

We then went to a bar and met up with four bartenders. We interviewed them and they said that there has not been a customer since morning and they have not made any money. After six interviews we called it a day and went back to our hotels. The lawns hotel SONI FALLS The Soni Falls is a waterfall in the Usambara Mountains of northeastern Tanzania, near the village of Soni, to the northeast of Kitunda. The falls lie at the end of the Mkuzu River where it joins the Bangala River. The falls lie in the southern part of the West Usambaras Lushoto Mountain Reserve.

Soni falls is a beautiful and calming place. I enjoyed sitting on the rocks and watching the water pour. Some of the rocks were slippery and at a point Asymwe was stuck because she was scared to move due to the slipperiness of the rocks. We also took pictures here and we even drew the waterfall. It was a pretty way to end the trip but kind of sad because we will never be here again as a class. The boys were dropped off at Tumaini Hostel and we went to Lawns. It was our last day in Lushoto and we partied!!! We ate and drunk and danced and laughed! We had so much fun. BYE -BYE LUSHOTO

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