Major turning points in Global History

Major turning points in Global History

Age of Exploration
Time period during the 15th and 16th centuries when Europeans searched for new sources of wealth and for easier trade routes to China and India. Resulted in the discovery of North and South America by the Europeans.
Agrarian Revolution
A change in farming methods that allowed for a greater production of food. This revolution was fueled by the use of new farming technology such as the seed drill and improved fertilizers. The result of this revolution was a population explosion due to the higher availability of food. It was one of the causes of the Industrial Revolution.
American Revolution
Political revolution in the British North American Colonies starting in 1776 that removed the colonies from Great Britain’s control, and established an independent nation know as the United States of America.
Chinese Communist Revolution
A political revolution in China led by Mao Zedong. After several years of fighting the Kuomintang, the communists won control of the country in 1949.
Cold War
Non shooting conflict between the Soviet Union and their allies and the United States and their allies. Numerous secondary conflicts arise due to the Cold War.
colonization
A group of people moving from their homeland to a new area in large numbers.
Columbian Exchange
The exchange of goods and other things, such as disease from the Old World (Europe) to the new World (North and South America) and back.
Commercial Revolution
A dramatic change in the economy of Europe at the end of the Middle Ages. It is characterized by an increase in towns and trade, the use of banks and credit, and the establishment of guilds to regulate quality and price.
Communist Revolution
A political revolution in Russia beginning in 1917. The Bolsheviks, now known as Communists, overthrew Czar Nicholas II and created a socialist government based upon the writings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin. Also know as the Bolshevik Revolution.
Counter-Reformation
The movement initiated by the Catholic Church to contain the Protestant Reformation and, if possible, end it.
Crusades
European Christian military expeditions made between the 11th and 13th centuries to retake the Middle Eastern Holy Lands occupied by the Muslims.
Enlightenment
A movement in the 18th century that stressed the importance of reason and science in philosophy and the study of human society. Occurred in Western Europe.
French Revolution
Political revolution in France starting in 1789 that brought about many changes in France. The revolution ultimately ended with a dictatorship under Napoleon Bonaparte before his defeat by the combined powers of Europe.
Glorious Revolution
Political revolution in Great Britain in 1688 that put William and Mary on the throne, while limiting the power of the monarchy and making Parliament supreme. This event marks the beginning of a constitutional monarchy in England.
Great Depression
(1929-1939) The dramatic decline in the world’s economy due to the United State’s stock market crash of 1929, the overproduction of goods from World War I, and decline in the need for raw materials from non industrialized nations. Results in millions of people losing their jobs as banks and businesses closed around the world. Many people were reduced to homelessness, and had to rely on government sponsored soup kitchens to eat. World trade also declined as many countries imposed protective tariffs in an attempt to restore their economies.
Industrial Revolution
In the second half of the 19th century, it was the fundamental change in the way goods were produced through the use of machines, capital, and the centralization of work forces in factories. It completely altered the social, economic, and political structure of most of Europe, Japan, and the United States.
Latin American Revolutions
Political revolutions in various Latin American countries beginning in the late 18th century. These revolutions were aimed at overthrowing the European powers that controlled these nations. Many were successful, but few achieved the success of the American Revolution.
Meiji Restoration
The restoration of the Emperor Meiji to power in Japan, overthrowing the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868.
Neolithic Revolution
(10,000 – 8,000 BCE) The development of agriculture and the domestication of animals as a food source. This led to the development of permanent settlements and the start of civilization.
Old Imperialism
A European policy of conquest that occurs in the 15th through 18th centuries in Africa, India, the Americas, and parts of Asia The motives were the same for most areas, the establishment of lucrative trade routes. Various European countries dominated these trades routes and one time or another, and a some countries, such as Great Britain and Spain, came to dominate entire countries.
Paleolithic Age
(750,000 BCE – 10,000 B.C.E.) Old Stone Age. A period of time in human history characterized by the use of stone tools and the use of hunting and gathering as a food source.
Scientific Revolution
An offshoot of the Renaissance in which scientists questioned traditional beliefs about the workings of the universe. One of the main ideas to come out of the Scientific Revolution was the use of the Scientific Method. The Scientific Method uses observation and experimentation to explain theories on how the universe works.
World War I
(1914 – 1918) European war in which an alliance including Great Britain, France, Russia, Italy, and the United States defeated the alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria.
World War II
(1939 – 1945) A war fought in Europe, Africa and Asia between the Allied Powers of Great Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Renaissance
A rebirth of cultural and intellectual pursuits after the stagnation of the Middle Ages. This period in European history, from about the 14th through 16th centuries, features major cultural and artistic change.
Reformation
The protest against perceived wrong doings by the Catholic Church during the early 16th century. Main leaders were Martin Luther and John Calvin.