Malaysian Legal System Introduction to Law

UNIVERSITI TEKNOLOGI MARA-FAKULTI FILEM TEATER & ANIMASI-ZOOM NOTES MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM+INTRODUCTION TO LAW Sources of Law: statutes, law reports, text books, religious beliefs, local customs, opinion of jurists ? Law & Morality:Overlaps/Differs from Society e. g-gayism/illicit samsu-S’wak/P’sular ? Law & Justice:Uphold justice & depends on locality e. g rampancy ? Federal Constitution (lex locci)/ Written Constitution ? Highest Law of the land ?  Malaysian/human rights/liberty ?  Any laws against the Federal Constitution-null & void ? e. : retrospective penal provision/trial by the same offence/represented by a           legal practitioner – 24hrs MALAYSIAN LEGAL SYSTEM-MAXIM:CHECK & BALANCE/MONTESQIEU ?  JUDICIARY ?  EXECUTIVE ?  LEGISTLATIVE TYPES OF LAW: ?  Written Law-e. g. acts/Unwritten Law- e. g. courts decicion ? Public Law e. g. criminal law / Private Law e. g. contract law ? Binding Precedent:Higher Court binds the lower ?  PersuasivePrecedent:Courts of the same level: persuasive LAW OF CONTRACT ELEMENTS:- 1. Offer To be distinguished from ‘invitation to treat’:Advertisement 2.

Acceptance 3. Intention to create legal relationship Mere promise for lunch treat is NOT binding 4. Consideration Except: Natural Love & Affection:e. g. Father to Son 5. Certainty 6. Capacity-Sound Mind MINOR General principle is not binding & restricted to the followings: ? contracts for necessaries –eg: contracts to have food, clothes & purpose of education. ?    contracts for scholarship – a scholarship agreement  is valid. ?    contracts for insurance – under the Insurance Act,1963, an infant over the age of 10 may enter into a contract of insurance.

H/e, if he is below 16, he can only do so with the written consent of his parents or guardian. CONTRACT: VALID:             SAH VOID:               BATAL VODABLE:         BOLEH BATAL; VOIDABLE:If proven the existence of these elements: ?    COERCION (paksaan) ?    UNDUE INFLUENCE (tidak sewajar atau sepatutnya) ?    FRAUD (penipuan) ?    MISREPRESENTATION (gambaran yang salah) ?    MISTAKE (kesilapan) LAW OF TORTS ELEMENTS:DUTY OF CARE- NOT TO BREACHED/TO ACT REASONABLY 1. NEGLIGENCE 2. TRESPASS Trespass to person/trespass to land / goods. Trespass to persons : ? Assault; ?  battery;   false imprisonment. “TRESSPASSERS SHALL BE LIABLE NOT PROSECUTED” 3. NUISANCE i. public nuisance ii. private nuisance. 4. DEFAMATION ?  LIBEL- publication ?  SLANDER-words ? GENERAL DEFENCES (EXCEPTIONS) NEGATING LIABILITY IN TORT  : 1)  VOLENTI NON FIT INJURIA   – 2)   MISTAKE 3)   INEVITABLE ACCIDENT                                          4)   ACT OF GOD 5)   PRIVATE DEFENCE     . 6)   NECESSITY 7)   STATUTORY CONTRACT| TORT| 2 sides/ parties| Maybe More than 2parties| Written/Unwritten| No written aggreement required| Remedy: Damages| Remedy: Damages| Duty: Contractual Duty| Duty: Duty of Care|

COMPANY,PARTNERSHIP & SOLE PROPRIETOR SOLE PROPRIETOR •         SOLE PROPRIETOR-ENTERPRISE •         REGISTRATION-LOW FEES •         EASY TO OPERATE •         MOST COMMON •         BUSINESS/INDIVIDUAL/ENTERPRISE= SAME ENTITY •         RESOURCES:OWN/FRIENDS/FAMILY •         1 MAN SHOW •         FAST ON DECISION-START/CEASE •         OPERATE FROM HOME/NO OFFICE PARTNERSHIP •         PARTNERSHIP-TEAM UP;RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE •         BIGGER SCALE •         RESOURCES-TANGIBLE/INTANGIBLE •         POPULAR AMONG PROFESSIONALS •         LIABILITY/PROFIT SHARED          PARTNERSHIP- NO AGREEMENT-PRESUMPTION=EQUALLY LIABLE •         PARTNERSHIP-WITH AGREEMENT-ACCORDING TO AGREEMENT •         PARTNER ACTING ON BEHALF OF PARTNERSHIP-BINDING •         PERSONAL ASSET=LIABLE COMPANY •         COMPANY-SEPARATE ENTITY •         RESOURCES-CAPITAL-PAID UP/AUTHORISED •         DOCUMENTATIONS:MEMORANDUM/ARTICLE •         REGISTERED OFFICE •         COSTLY •         COMPANY SECRETARY •         RESOLUTIONS-LOANS? FINANCING? •         PERSONAL ASSET/COMPANY ASSET •         AUDITED /ANNUAL MEETING INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY * REAL PRORERTY- Building/chattels/land/house=tangible PERSONAL PROPERTY-Jewelleries,laptops,handphones/cars=tangible * INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY-the intangible product of one person’s work by hand/brain against unauthorized use or exploitation by another ? Berne Copyright Convention 1886:135  countries PROTECTION-INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY:e. g. to be protected ?  PATENT ?  TRADEMARK ?  INDUSTRIAL DESIGN ?  CONFIDENTIAL INFORMATION ?  TRADE SECRET ?  COPYRIGHT ?  GEOGRAPHICAL INDICATOR ?  INTERGRATED CIRCUIT ?  INDUSTRIAL  DESIGN Section 7 of the Act, Copyright Act includes: ?  literary works ?  musical works ?  artistic works ?  films ?  sound recordings   broadcasts PRE REQUISITE FOR PROTECTION: •      Sec 7 (3)      ORIGINAL/GENUINE •      Sec 8 (3)       MATERIAL FORM •      Sec 17           DURATION:  50 YRS AFTER DEATH MULTIMEDIA LAW Technology * “A body of knowledge used to create tools, develop skills & extract or collect materials” * “An evolution of idea” * “Impacting the world-creating new wealth, reshaping economy & social policy” General-New  Media * Email * Social network * Video conference * Digitalisation -Nothing can replace face to face communication -Cost effective-travel/ accessible large group -New skills required Same effect-“on line” & “off line” -Virtual -No barrier Privacy ‘The right to be left alone’ Tresspass to:- * Personal Data-biological/genetics : DNA /banks * Freedom-human rights * Privacy-private life Remedy ?         Federal Constitution ?         Civil Proceedings ?         Penal Code ?         Personal Data Protection Act ?         Communication & Multimedia Act Malaysian Regulatory  Body “Suruhanjaya Komunikasi Multimedia”-THE AUTHORITY e. g. All cellular phone accounts need to be registered JURISDICTION: –          Post/courier –          Energy –          Telecoms –          Digital certification authorities

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