The nature of implementation failure in information systems can typically range from project scenario development to final implementation. The implementation failures range from concept generation stage where the idea is conceived, to defining budgets, software modifications and use of external consultants carefully. The following sections describe the factors which directly or indirectly influences the system implementation failure.
The implementation failure of an information system largely depends on the system project itself and the various external and internal factors which influences its existence and self being (Heeks, 2002). The various aspects which can be attributed for implementation failures are the following:
1. Top management leadership issues: The participation and interest of the higher management in getting the system implemented well through the initiation phases. The degree of ownership is largely lacking when it comes to active participation and commitment.
a. Business case development failure: The commitment of higher management towards answering the business workflow model questions and simplifying the flow of their business is largely lacking. The amount of passion and determination impact the failure of the implementation.
Solution: Defining the events of requirements gathering in terms of business words such as time, effort and money would make them aware of the implementation issues and their contribution in successful development of the system.
b. Lack of focus and involvement: After the system development project is provided to a vendor, it is usually taken for granted that the responsibilities of the top management is finished at that point and the vendor is completely responsible for getting across the ideas and come up with a deliverable. Solution: Understanding the systems development process which solely involves the business flow model and their active participation.
c. Lack of proper metrics to determine performance: Often the value added resources in the organization has an undefined cost associated with it. The cost of quality, inventory levels, throughput and flow, overall equipment effectiveness, on-time deliveries and customer satisfaction measures must be translated into time and cost. Solution: Appropriate attachment of value to intangible resources in an organization must be done at all levels.
2. People issues: The change management issues of people in an organization are quite responsible for implementation failures.
a. Averse towards change: The primary factor is the minds of people for whom the technology is implemented. If they are not able to take the change in a positive manner in affecting their working habits, the system would be rendered useless (Casey, 2005).
Solution: Accepting the real world or digital challenges by the people to understand the positive challenges concerned with system output and employee output. The amount of long term success which a system would guarantee is unknowingly outstanding to organization.
b. Low Trust in system: The output level of the organization’s processes after the implementation of the system is taken as a probable issue and accounts for its failure.
Solution: System must be operated in right spirit for its well being and use.
3. Deployment methods:
a. Weak deployment strategies: The strategies which are enforced in deploying the system in the organization is challenging to the general working of the present system. The correct ascertainment and the management perspective to the process for implementation and deployment of the system in the organization would be an important element in its success. The phased implementation seems to be always the best; however an information system and the associated organization must be well synchronized to implement the change.
Solution: Determination by the software vendor in collaboration with the higher management for deployment is a big issue which requires experience and commitment
b. Lack of documentation and training: The lack of documentation would result in mismanagement of information and project related activities. The lack of training would make the employees feel uncomfortable to the systems operations and functions (Laudon, 2002). Solution : Proper attention to documentation and training must be taken care.
The implementation failures rest on the shoulders of both the organization and the software vendor. Enough collaboration and positive differential thinking on both ends would result in making the right moves for implementation and reduce system failures.
References / Bibliography
Casey, Dermot (2005). Understanding the Situation of
Information Systems Development Failure: A role for Pragmatism.
Heeks, Richard (2002). Failure, Success and Improvisation
Of Information Systems Projects in Developing Countries.
Laudon C. Kenneth and Jane P. Laudon (2002),
Management Information System, 6th ed New York: Tata McGraw Hill.