Managing organizational culture
Culture doesn’t have any specific meanings or definition it has many different definition. As (Borosky, 1994, Ortner, 1984) describe that even in Anthropology culture has not largely approved or rigid definition. Culture can be defined as a set of values and thoughts which are being followed by the group of people which resulted to the activities and behaviours of the people living in specific society. Although it is has been described as framework to understand primal societies.(Katter and Heskett, 1992).As societies have set of norm values and beliefs, every Organizations and every business has culture in shape of values, rules and framework to follow which make the Organization unique amongst the other Organizations. In many organizations culture seems to be very crucial and important and it receive a considerable concentration. Culture is as complex and important as it is hard to use and recognize in thoughtful way. According to (Alvesson and Karreman, 2001; McDermott, 1999) Culture is very important for the organizations and companies how they work from day to day leadership, strategic change, which way the knowledge is being shared, maintained and created as well as the relations and dealings of the employees and managers with the customers. Culture is very significant for the success, growth and organizational effectiveness. Organization has the survival because of sharing its system of meanings at different levels (Smircich, 1985). As different countries have different culture, organizations don’t have the same culture as well they all have different values and rites and rituals heroes and myths than each other. It is very easy to recognize the culture of any organizations like McDonalds all the outlets of McDonald’s looks same they all wear same uniform no matter which area of the world they are operating in everything will be at same standard everywhere and anywhere in the world.In some companies is it is easy to recognize culture from their infrastructure, dress code language and customer services and in some organizations it is hard to see but it does not mean there is no culture in that organization in fact culture exist there but hard to judge or see because it is been fragmented sometimes. Any organizations which have strong organizational culture have success in the business. Organizations with strong culture have high degree of influence on the behaviour of the employees and the values of the organizations not only widely share but also held with high intensity. On the other hand company which have weak culture employee’s behaviour may not be consistent.
Literature review Organizational Culture
The literature on organizational culture is as significant to the management of the private sector as to the public science management. Organizations are assessing critically how they can achieve and describe their objectives and goals. After defining the goals of the organization it is vital to concentrate on the type of culture that is needed to achieve these targets and goals and making that sure that necessary change has been implemented.
Edward B.Tylor used the term ‘’culture’’ in 1875 in English literature. After that the early development of the concept of the organizational Culture has been defined by many authors in different ways (Kilman et al, 1985) describe culture ‘‘something to do with the people and unique quality and style of organization’’ (Deal and Kennedy, 1982) has explained culture’’ the way we do things here’’ or the ‘’ expensive non rational qualities of an organization’’.
Pettigrew (1979) started to talk about organizational culture’s concept. Anthropological perception of the culture was firstly used by him and he demonstrated how ritual, myths and symbolism can be interrelated in the analysis of organizations. Dandridge et al (1980) described that to reveal the deep structure of an organizational culture how significant and helpful is to study about these symbols and myths.
When in early 1980s the concept of organizational culture was one of the favourite and emerging topics to talk and write about for that reason many scholars defined and give their prospective about organizational culture in different ways. (Van Maanen, 1979) defined organizational culture as behavioural rules in human interaction which can be observed. (Deal and Kennedy, 1982) argues about organizational culture the values which are prevailing in an organization. (Tcihy,1982) compare organizational culture with a glue he says organizational culture hold the organization in the same way the way glue hold the different objects together and don’t let them apart. According to Forehand and Von Gilmer (1964) culture is a collection of qualities of any organization that differentiate and portray it from other organizations. (Titiev, 1959) suggests that culture can be shared and learnt. Organizational culture can be illustrated through behaviours, notions, activities and analysis of associates of the organization (Hellett, 2003). Organizational culture also has been defined by the (Van Maanen, 1979) as a those rules of behaviour which can be visible in human relations. (Robbins, 1998) states organizational culture as a perception inside the organization which is consistent. Many of other authors describe that organizational culture is set of norms, mutual ethics and philosophy (Barney, 1986). As suggested by (Yanagi, 1994, p ii) organizational culture ‘’Philosophies and values shared by the members of organization and their behavioural patterns for translating them in to action’’
Schein (1989, 1992) has one of the best definitions of the organizational culture.
Schein (1989) describe organizational culture ‘’ a pattern of basic assumptions- invented, discovered, or developed by a given group as it learns to cope with its problems of external adaptation and internal integration- that has worked enough to be considered valid and therefore, to be taught to new members as well as the correct way to perceive, think and feel in relations to those problems ‘’ (Schein, 1989, p. 9).
As (Graves, 1986, p, 11) states about organizational culture as a different ways to steady the performance of the employees. Organizational culture acts like a bonding agent which keep the organization together(Kramer , 19974 and Foy , 1974)