Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Bangkok Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok is a five-star hotel in Bangkok owned in part and managed by Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group. Located on the banks of the Chao Phraya River, the original structure was the first hotel built in Thailand when it opened as The Oriental in 1879. Today, the hotel is one of two flagship properties of Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and is known for service, which consistently places it among the world’s best hotels Background and History
When Siam opened to foreign trade after the signing of the Bowring Treaty the sailors that manned the ships which conveyed this trade though Bangkok required accommodation on shore. To meet this demand, Captain Dyers, an American and his partner J. E. Barnes opened a hotel called the Oriental Hotel. This burnt down in 1865. Several years later a partnership of Danish captains opened a replacement hotel. In the 1970s the board of the Oriental Hotel decided with the opening of the new River Wing, upon 1876 as the official establishment date of the Oriental Hotel.
In 1881 29-year-old Hans Niels Andersen, a Danish businessman, bought the premises. His various business ventures led to him becoming a much respected member of the Western community in Siam. Andersen identified a need for a respectable hotel with good accommodation, a bar and a western menu to meet the needs of travellers and businessmen visiting to Siam. Encouraged by Prince Prisdang Jumsai, Hans Niels Andersen formed a partnership with Peter Andersen and Frederick Kinch to build a luxury hotel. Designed by Cardu & Rossi, a team of local Italian architects, the Oriental was the first luxury hotel in Siam.
The hotel opened on 19 May 1887 with 40 rooms and features which at the time had never been seen in Siam outside of a royal palace: a second floor (during a time of single-storey bungalows), 1 carpeted hallways, smoking and ladies rooms, a billiards room and a bar capable of seating 50 patrons. To ensure the success of the restaurant and a satisfactory level of service the owners lured the chef and butler away from the French Consulate to work at the hotel. The first major event that the hotel hosted was a grand banquet on 24 May 1888 to celebrate the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria.
After personally inspecting the hotel? s facilities in December 1890, King Chulalongkorn decided the hotel was up to the standard necessary to host visiting royalty. The hotel’s first royal guests were the entourage of Crown Prince Nicholas of Russia, (later Tsar Nicholas) in April 1891. A succession of owners followed until Marie Maire took over the ownership in 1910. She immediately went to work revamping the hotel. She sold it in 1932. During the Second World War the hotel was leased to the Japanese Army who used it as an officer? club (who under the management of the Imperial Hotel of Tokyo). At the end of the war it was used to house liberated Allied prisoners of war, who in the belief that it was a Japanese property ransacked the building. At the end of the war a six-person partnership each contributed US$250 to buy the hotel. The partnership consisted of Germaine Krull (1897–1985), Prince Bhanu, General Chai Prateepasen, Pote Sarasin (a Thai lawyer) and John Webster and Jim Thompson, two Americans who had served in the Organization for Strategic Security (OSS) and who had stayed on in Thailand.
Krull took the position of manager in 1947, despite no prior experience in the hotel field. Born in Poland, she had been best known as a photographer during the 1920s before service in the Pacific as a war correspondent for Agence France Presse. Badly run down after its wartime service, the partnership immediately began restoration and restocking of the hotel which offered to put Thompson? s an opportunity to use his architectural and artistic abilities. The hotel reopened for business on 12 June 1947.
Krull turned out to be a natural hotelier and during her reign restored the hotel to it position as the premier hotel in Thailand. Thompson soon left the partnership over a plan to build a new wing, though he stayed on in residence at the hotel for some time. To compete with popular clubs and a new local bar called Chez Eve, Krull established the Bamboo Bar, which soon became one of the leading bars in Bangkok. 2 In 1958 the ten-storey Garden Wing was built. It featured the city? s first elevator and was home to the Le Normandie Restaurant. In 1967, fearful that
Thailand would fall to the communists, Krull sold her share to Italthai which at the time was well on its way to becoming one of the country? s most significant mercantile groups eventually totally some 60 companies involved in almost all aspects of the Thai economy. Italthai had been founded in the mid-fifties by Giorgio Berlingieri, an Italian born in Genoa and Dr Chaijudh Karnasuta, a Thai. Berlingieri felt that the Oriental had begun to rest on its laurels and had dropped behind its competitors. He wanted to develop the Oriental into one of the best hotels in the world.
Too involved with his various businesses to devote time to the project, Berlingieri in November 1967 appointed 30-year-old Kurt Wachtveitl (1937– ), at that time manager of Nipa Lodge (a hotel that Italthai owned in Pattaya), as general manager of the Oriental. In 1972 the hotel acquired an adjacent property upon which it erected the 350-room River Wing. Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group and Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok The Group began with the opening of its flagship property, The Mandarin, in Hong Kong in 1963, which soon built up a reputation for luxurious service.
In 1974, Mandarin International Hotels Limited was formed as a hotel management company. The Group’s intention was to expand into Asia and operate hotels that would reflect the standard of service synonymous with their property in Hong Kong. In 1974 the company’s hotel interests expanded further through the acquisition of a 49% interest in The Oriental, Bangkok. The Oriental, built in 1876, was already a legendary property and acknowledged as one of the world’s great hotels.
Through the management of both The Mandarin in Hong Kong and The Oriental, Bangkok, the Group was in an unusual position of having two “flagship” hotels whose names represented the best in hospitality. In 1985, the Company rationalized its corporate structure by combining these two renowned properties under a common name, Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group. 3 The hotel opened its renowned Oriental Spa in 1993 and finished a complete renovation of its rooms and suites in 2003. In 2006, The Oriental, Bangkok celebrated its 130th anniversary.
In September 2008, the hotel formally changed its name from The Oriental, Bangkok to Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok. Mandarin Oriental Hotel Group Asia Continent 1. Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok 2. Mandarin Oriental, Dhara Dhevi, Chiang Mai 3. Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong 4. The Landmark Mandarin Oriental, Hong Kong 5. The Excelsior, Hong Kong 6. Mandarin Oriental, Jakarta 7. Mandarin Oriental, Kuala Lumper 8. Mandarin Oriental, Macao 9. Mandarin Oriental, Manila 10. The Oriental, Singapore 11. Mandarin Oriental, Tokyo 12. Mandarin Oriental, Sanya 13. Mandarin Oriental, Lago Nam Van, Macau 14.
Mandarin Oriental, Guangzhou 15. Mandarin Oriental, Taipei America Continent 1. Elbow Beach, Bermuda 2. Mandarin Oriental, New York 3. Mandarin Oriental, Miami 4. Mandarin Oriental, San Francisco 5. Mandarin Oriental, Washington D. C. 6. Mandarin Oriental, Riviera Maya, Mexico 7. Mandarin Oriental, Boston 8. Mandarin Oriental, Grand Cayman 4 9. Mandarin Oriental, Chicago 10. Mandarin Oriental, Las Vegas 11. Mandarin Oriental, Dallas 12. Mandarin Oriental, Dellis Cay, Turks Europe Continent 1. Mandarin Oriental, Du Rhone, Geneva 2. Mandarin Oriental, Hyde Park, London 3.
Mandarin Oriental, Munich 4. Mandarin Oriental, Prague, Czech 5. Mandarin Oriental, Barcelona 6. Mandarin Oriental, Jnan Rahma, Marrakech 7. Mandarin Oriental, Paris Hotel Map 5 The hotel located on the bank of the Chao Phraya River. The Hotel The hotel contains 358 rooms and 35 unique suites. The two-story Authors’ Wing, the only remaining structure of the original 19th century hotel, houses suites named after Joseph Conrad, Somerset Maugham, Noel Coward and James Michener. The River Wing contains deluxe two bedroom suites named after former guests r personages associated with the hotel including Barbara Cartland, Gore Vidal, Graham Greene, Wilbur Smith, John le Carre, Jim Thompson, Norman Mailer, Thai author Kukrit Pramoj. Other suites are named after ships associated with the early Bangkok trade such as Otago (once captained by Joseph Conrad), HMS Melita, Vesatri and Natuna. 6 Accommodations Rooms All of rooms in the River Wing or Garden Wing Rooms have their own personalities. They have been designed with traditional Thai flair and luxuriously appointed for your utmost comfort.
The standard of in room facilities are as follow: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Private Butler service Work desk with in-built international plugs and Internet access plugs Complimentary fax machine/printer on request 3 IDD telephones with two lines Individual thermostatic controller for air-conditioning and humidity Remote control TV with on command in-house movies Bose CD player and CD library Radio Personal mini bar refrigerator Fresh fruit and flowers daily Large in-room safe Spacious bathroom with separate bathtub and walk-in shower and double vanity Hair dryer Bathrobe and slippers Rooms Bed Size (Sqm/Sqf) View Partial Rate (USD) Superior Room King/Twin 40/428 River/Main Wing 425 Relax and take in the partial river view in the elegant surroundings of teak wood and traditional Thai silks. Thailand? s signature fabric is everywhere adding to the sense of luxury. Fresh fruit and flowers refreshed daily. A personal butler is at your service. Full River/ Main Deluxe Room King/Twin 40/428 Wing 465 Located on higher floors, our Deluxe Rooms offer full river views and sumptuous comfort.
The elegant decor features traditional Thai elements such as genuine teak furniture, beautiful silks, and a daily delivery of fresh exotic fruits and flowers. Guests will also enjoy enhanced bathroom amenities, with a personal butler at your service. River Front/ Premier Room King/Twin 35/377 Garden Wing 495 Elements of the hotel? s long and illustrious heritage are still to be seen in these colonial-style rooms, which feature vintage chandeliers, evocative artwork and parquet flooring, all complemented by ottomans and comfortable sofas, in a mix that is satisfyingly eclectic.
The floor plan changes from room to room; some are split-level, with a bedroom above and seating area below. All Premier Rooms enjoy full river views, and some feature a private conservatory. River & City/ Mandarin Room King 63/678 Main Wing 545 8 These rooms enjoy a strong flow of natural daylight, thanks to floor-to-ceiling windows and a balcony that partially overlooks the river. They also have a spacious seating area, with comfortable sofas and a coffee table. Throughout, the furnishings are upholstered in Thai silk, harmoniously designed in neutral colors. 3/678 or State Room King/Twin 67/721 River / Main Wing 695 These spacious rooms are located between the 3rd and 9th floors of the River Wing and offer unobstructed river views. A teakwoodpanelled hallway leads guests into the room, which is decorated in traditional Thai style with dark teakwood furnishings and bright Thai silks. Large floor-to-ceiling windows encircle the room, which also features a balcony from which to watch the bustling river activity. There is a sitting area within the bedroom featuring a comfortable sofa and coffee table.
Floor-to-ceiling windows surround a semiprivate work area, which has a large working desk and every amenity you need to conduct business in comfort. Suites The standard of in room facilities for Suites ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Private Butler service Work desk with in-built international plugs and Internet access plugs Complimentary fax machine/printer on request 3 IDD telephones with two lines Individual thermostatic controller for air-conditioning and humidity Remote control TV with on command in-house movies Bose CD player and CD library 9 ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Radio Personal mini bar refrigerator Fresh fruit and flowers daily Large in-room safe Spacious bathroom with separate bathtub and walk-in shower and double vanity Hair dryer Bathrobe and slippers Rooms Bed Size (Sqm/Sqf) View River / Rate (USD) Executive Suite King 55/592 Main Wing 675 Located in the River Wing, these elegant and spacious one-bedroom suites are flooded with natural daylight and offer impressive river views; the perfect setting in which to relax and unwind. Approximately 55 square metres/592 square feet. River / Family Two-Bedroom Suites King & 2 Twins 95/1,022 Main Wing 800
These elegant and spacious suites are ideal for families who will appreciate the extra space and amenities. There? s a separate sitting area for family gatherings as well as a desk, which complements the exotic finery on display in the traditional Thai style decor of dark teak and silk furnishings. Light floods in through the floor-to-ceiling windows, ideal for admiring the beautiful river view. River / Authors Suites King/Twin 99/985 Main Wing 1,000 10 Located in the River Wing, these individually designed and decorated suites re tributes to some of the great literary figures that have stayed with us over the years. In their names, decor and ambience, they each reflect accents of the author? s personality. All feature floor-to-ceiling windows offering panoramic river views, a balcony, spacious sitting room, a large bathroom with separate bathtub and walk-in shower as well as a powder room off the living room; many also have a walk-in closet. Fresh flowers and fruit are delivered to your suite daily with the services of your own personal butler. River / Deluxe 2-Bedroom Theme Suites King & 2 Twins 125/1344 Main Wing 1,500
The lavish two-bedroom suites feature many rich decorative details, including brass-inlaid teak furniture and soft furnishings that are upholstered in sumptuous Thai silk. Immaculate parquet floors and hand-woven Persian carpets further accentuate these lavish suites. Located on the 16th floor of the River Wing, these suites offer spectacular views of the River of Kings and the City of Angels. Garden / Joseph Conrad Suite King 100/1070 Original Wing 1,500 A giant among authors, Joseph Conrad wrote novels considered by many to be the greatest in the English language. It? only fitting then that our Joseph Conrad Suite should be a remarkable space filled with special details. The suite is the only one in our Authors Wing with its own open terrace, which is attached to the spacious living room and 11 overlooks our lush gardens and the river. The gently sophisticated decor, including carefully selected furnishings and objects d? art, is the perfect sanctuary from bustling Bangkok where you? re every need is attended to by your personal butler. Garden / Heritage Authors Suites Queen 100/1070 Original Wing 1,300 Located in the hotel? s original Authors’ Wing, the magnificent Heritage
Authors’ Suites celebrate three of the great writers who have stayed here. Reflecting the colonial character of the original site of the hotel, each of the three suites – Somerset Maugham, Noel Coward and James Michener – feature spacious bedrooms and lounge areas as well as Victorian-style marble bathrooms. The three suites are individually designed to reflect the Author? s distinct personality. Fresh flowers and fruit are delivered daily by your personal butler ready to anticipate and attend to your every need. Garden / Original Adisorn Lodge Heritage Suites Queen 100/1070 Wing 800 Located in the hotel? original Authors Wing, The Adisorn Lodge celebrates the life and times of our former Chairman. Rich colours and high ceilings, as well as a charming Victorian-style bathroom make this a very unique and historic suite. Fresh flowers and fruit are delivered to your suite daily with the services of your own personal butler. Top Floor Main Siam Suites Twin 130/1398 Wing 3,000 12 Inspired by the beauty of Northern Thailand, the two-bedroom suite features rich furnishings in Thai silk, with the living and dining areas panelled in teak to match the luxurious flooring. Main Wing Selandia Suites King 185/1989 3,000
A beautiful suite that evokes the glamour of life aboard the legendary ship The Selandia, with teak floors and walls, ivory cotton draperies and brass-cornered tables, classically but richly decorated. Top Floor Main Royal Oriental Suites King 295/3157 Wing 4,500 The timeless Royal Oriental suite, renowned for its beautiful decor and impressive artworks, has served as the home away from home of royalty, world leaders, and countless celebrities. Facilities The Oriental Spa The multi-award winning Oriental Spa is the ultimate temple of well-being for many guests and VIPs including European royalty, Hollywood legends and political stars.
Visit the Oriental Spa and experience the ultimate rejuvenation of body, mind and soul. 13 The Ayurvedic Penthouse India? s 5000 year-old science of wholesome living, Ayurveda touches every aspect of life: physical, mental, social and spiritual. Ayurvedic Treatments are usually recommended as a course of three days but guests will find individual treatments beneficial and with equally long lasting effects. Yoga Session The Oriental Spa offers an extensive range of Yoga sessions conducted by yogic expert Neelam Khatri. The Oriental? Yoga programmes run the gamut from lively group sessions to one- on-one private sessions, each created to suit the specific needs and convenience of guests and yoga lovers. Health Center The Health Centre has recently been expanded to provide the utmost in luxury for sports and health enthusiasts alike, in a tranquil environment. The renovation includes stateof-the-art equipment. Pro 14 The Oriental Thai Cooking School The Oriental Thai Cooking School operates every Monday to Saturday from 9am-12:30pm with a renowned curriculum that teaches the secrets of purely authentic Thai food.
Learn everything from basic ingredients to local techniques from our highly regarded instructors who are not only talented experts in Thai cuisine, they are also all-time favorites with our guests. “Sanook” Oriental Kid? s Club Open for children from the ages 3 to 14 years old the “Sanook” Oriental Kid? s Club keeps our youngest guests entertained throughout their holidays with an action-packed program featuring an endless variety of outdoor activities, arts and crafts projects, and games that are fun, educational and culturally enriching.
All are under the supervision of our Kid? s Coordinators. The Oriental Boutique We are delighted to introduce the opening of The Oriental Boutique, which carries a full range of hotel amenities and gifts that make the perfect souvenirs to take home to loved ones. The Oriental Boutique also offers exclusive products such as Oriental Polo shirts, Oriental stuffed animals, the exquisite cutlery and tableware used at the newly renovated China House, our famed cotton and silk bathrobes, and many other items unique to Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok. 5 Sports Tennis Day or night, you can practice your backhand on our two outdoor tennis courts. And don? t worry, if you forgot your racquet, we? ll happily provide one for you to use. Squash Our fitness centre also has one squash court available for rent. The rental fee of THB 700++ includes equipment. Jogging The Oriental Health Centre has an outdoor jogging track that runs right along the tennis courts, perfect for an early morning or evening run. Guests can also use the jogging map that we provide for a jaunt that goes further afield.
Swimming Perhaps nothing is more enticing after an excursion into the city heat than a dip in a pool. At the Oriental Health Club the prospect is doubly irresistible. Those who just want to bask in the sun and relax will love our new wading pool, which is surrounded by cabanas. Our newly upgraded big pool finished in rich mosaics and natural stones as well as new lighting enhancements, 25 metres long and is ideal for swimming laps. Both pools are open daily from 6am to 8pm.
Thai Boxing Muay Thai, as Thai boxing is known here, is growing in popularity around the world and is considered an especially tough martial art. Boxers can use almost any part of their bodies in the contest, which can be quick and brutal. The main venue for matches is Lumpini Stadium. Fights are every Tuesday and Friday 6:30pm to11pm 16 and Saturdays 5pm-8pm and 8:30pm to midnight. Prices range from THB 220-800. Private Thai Boxing lessons can also be arranged with at least one-day prior notice via our concierge. Prices are approximately THB 5,400 for 2 hours.
Restaurants and Entertainments There are nine venues to choose from, offering a wide range of international cuisine. Le Normandie Considered by many to be the finest French dining experience in Asia. Patrons choose from a set menu or full French a la carte. Lord Jim’s This quintessential seafood restaurant offers a very popular international lunch time buffet and an a la carte dinner. Sala Rim Naam Sala Rim Naam serves a buffet lunch and set Thai dinner with traditional dance show, while the Terrace Rim Naam offers a la carte Thai dining by the River. 17
The China House Inspired by the vibrant 1930’s Shanghai Art Deco period featuring authentic Cantonese flavors with contemporary variations in presentation. Riverside Terrace The dinner buffet served here has an amazing selection of grilled seafood and meat plus the best Europe, the Middle East and Asia has to offer. The Verandah This casually elegant restaurant offers international all-day a la carte dining with a huge selection of freshly baked cakes. It’s also the place for breakfast. 18 Ciao Dine under the stars at this riverside venue, which serves the city? finest pizza from our wood -fired oven and the very best Italian ice creams. Authors’ Lounge On the ground floor of the Authors’ Wing, this lounge has old colonial charm, with its white rattan furniture and English afternoon tea. The Bamboo Bar Known as the best live jazz spot in town, Bamboo Bar serves an extensive menu of cocktails and drinks in a relaxing, jungle-like ambience. 19 L’Espace by Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok This all-day international dining venue is the perfect way to relax and recuperate in the midst of your shopping day. Siam Paragon? most stylish contemporary cafe epitomises both the elegance and the culinary excellence of the legendary Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok. Set amid cream marble water gardens, L? Espace by Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok has an all-day menu that caters to every whim, offering everything from crisp salads or sandwiches, to home-made pastas, soups, noodles and tacos. Sip on refreshing cocktails or savour some of the splendid desserts, including delectable pastries, puddings and our unforgettable New York vanilla cheesecake. 20 Services Conference and Banqueting Rooms The Royal Ballroom This is both a grand and entirely versatile space.
You can enjoy its historic appearance, with high ceiling, extravagant chandelier and river life murals, alternatively it can be transformed into the most contemporary scene to reflect your event theme.. The ballroom can be set up as one large space or reconfigured into three smaller rooms (Chao Phra Ya room , Ta Jeen room and Maeklong room) to create a „journey? for delegates to travel through, or simply separated for break out rooms. 21 The Embassy Room – Designed and appointed in the same opulent style as the Ballroom, this is the smaller sized option – but with the same luxurious ambience.
Executive Boardroom – Situated within the business centre; our boardroom has plenty of daylight, with windows overlooking the main entrance. The Regency Room – Recently restored to their former elegance with hand-woven Thai silk panels in a turn-of-the-century French pattern and full length mirrors at either end. The set up is a residential living room, with comfortable sofas; however it can be re arranged for cocktails or a private dinner. French windows open on to the cool Authors? Terrace. The Author’s Lounge – A sophisticated atmosphere in a summery, colonial setting – perfect for informal meetings.
It is located in the Author? s Wing, within the hotel? s original site, and is named in tribute to the many famous writers who have stepped through the doors of Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok over the years, from Joseph Conrad and Somerset Maugham to Noel Coward and James Michener. Recently renovated to its former glory, delicate, whitewashed rattan furniture with handpainted upholstery and Siamese umbrellas now grace the lounge, amid towering bamboo and palm trees. It? s the perfect place for a relaxed event, romantic wedding reception or cocktail party for 150-200 guests. 2 Business Center Opening hours are from 7:30am-11pm Monday to Friday, and 8am–10pm on Weekends and National Holidays. We have four work stations available for delegates use; three PCs and one Mac. Each station is equipped with a laser printer and web camera, access points for electric data and high speed internet sockets for guests who would like to use their own laptops. There are two boardrooms, one larger for up to 18 delegates, a light space overlooking the hotel entrance and another smaller boardroom for six delegates. ? ? ? ?
Secretarial services Translation, both written and simultaneous Video conferencing equipment Butler service is available with a simple press button Thai Culture Programs Whether for business or purely for your own enjoyment, there? s not a more perfect setting to learn about the intricacies of Thai culture than Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok and in one of our highly acclaimed courses. You? ll be following in the footsteps of the many 23 diplomats and journalists who have attended them to enhance their knowledge of our vibrant and fascinating culture.
Enrich your joy and understanding of the Kingdom of Thailand during your stay at Mandarin Oriental, Bangkok. There? s nowhere in the world like Thailand. As the only country in Southeast Asia never to be colonized, its deep cultural roots are fascinating, yet often mysterious to many visitors. That? s why we created our comprehensive cultural programme, enlisting renowned professors and scholars from leading universities. For more than fifteen years, their afternoon lectures, daily from Monday to Friday, have unlocked the mysteries of the Kingdom for thousands of our guests.
Guests have included many diplomats, journalists and travel writers, who take pleasure in understanding more about Thai culture. Programmes Thai Ways Monday 2pm-4pm, Klong Tour 3:20pm (Minimum 3 persons). Thai Beliefs Tuesday 2pm-4pm (Minimum 3 persons). Thai Dance and Music Wednesday 1pm-3pm (Minimum 5 persons). Contemporary Thai Culture Thursday 1pm-3pm (Minimum 5 persons). Thai Art and Architecture Friday 2pm-4pm (Minimum 5 persons). Thai Culture Programme Classes are THB 4,000 per person per class. 24 Children’s Day Care Centre
Offering many facilities and supervised fun-filled to keep young guest from newlyborn babies to 8 years old, occupied and amused while their parents spend the extra time by themselves whether it is for a relaxing spa treatment or romantic dinner. Open daily from 3 p. m. to 11 p. m. The Oriental Shop at the shopping centers The oriental shops are famous for their tempting array of freshly baked breads and pantries, home-made chocolates, smoked meats, aromatic cheese and wonderful selection of salads, sandwiches, ice-creams and the ground blended coffee.
The shops open daily at Emporium, Central Chidlom and Siam Paragon. Limousine Service Mandarin Oriental? s limousine are available 24 hours for either a short trip in the city or longer journey. The qualified and experienced chauffeurs are English speaking and all vehicles are fully ensured by the BMW series 7. 25 References www. mandarinoriental. com/bangkok/ Banqueting Department, Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Bangkok Training Department, Mandarin Oriental Hotel, Bangkok 26