Assignment Set 2 Question 1 What are the principles of management? Answer There are fourteen principles of management laid by Henri Fayol. They are elaborated further below. Division of labour A particular task is divided into several units or segments, each performed by specialists in order to achieve efficiency. Authority and responsibility coexist Responsibility must be understood properly in order to achieve command in the business by taking the right decision at the right time for the right purpose. Unity of command
There should be single chain of command in the organisational structure which means one person should report to only one boss Unity of direction Managers must be methodical and must approach with a single plan following the single universal approach to achieve goals Equity Management actions must be a combination of fairness, justice and empathy layered with the idea of productivity-based incentives. Order The entire process of productivity must balance on a discrete system which governs on the principles of desired output Discipline
Management must elaborate through the entire chain of command the necessary of maintaining norms, rules and guidelines to enhance productivity and harmony in workplace Initiative The workers must find their job interesting so that they are enthusiastic about learning new responsibilities, thus bringing effectiveness. Fairness Various industrial laws and norms are established and governed by the respective legislative bodies to ensure a system of fairness, justice, equality is maintained within the industrial as well as organisational environment. Stability
Proper schooling of guidelines, methodologies, and systems involved; creates team spirit, smoothness and enhances productivity. Thus an employee will always adjust himself or herself according to the dynamic reality. Scalar chain A strict and coordinated effort of inflow and outflow of information from top level to the lowest level of organisational hierarchy creates smoothness, review plans and solve problems faster. Subordination of individual interest to general interest Organisation’s interest must be prioritised at all cost because it affect the interest of many stakeholders.
Espirit de corps Management must ensure the existence of team spirit, harmony and intense communication and accurate dissemination of information, trust among the employees. Centralisation and decentralisation Authority and power must centralise and decentralise accordingly although decentralisation is the trend nowadays in various existing multinational and national organisations. Question 2 What are the characteristics of leading? Answer The characteristics of leading are * Pervasiveness * Continuity * Human factor * Creativity Executive function * Delegating function Pervasiveness Characteristic of leading is required in all levels of organisation. Leading motivates all the levels in the organisation to coordinate with the CEO (leader). Continuity Leading is a continuous process happens everywhere and at anytime in the organisation. Its importance becomes higher when the organisation is undergoing a change. Human factor Leading directs and controls human factor of complexity and unpredictable nature in more of a disciplined, matured performer regarding fulfilment of rganisational goals and objectives. Creativity Differentiated thoughts and ideas are accumulated and processed through employees enrolled from different strata of the society brings matured creativity in order to project growth and development in the organisation. Executive function Leading implies that the followers execute the functions of organisation, which the leader and the follower agree is important for achieving the organisational goals and through it the individual goals. Delegating function Delegating is natural fallout of leading.
It also follows that the leader trusts his or her followers and vice-versa. Mutual trust is the most important in leading and delegation is largely based on that. Question 3 Briefly explain the four main approaches to organisational behaviour. Answer The main approaches to organisational behaviour are: * Human resource approach * Contingency approach * Productivity approach * Systems approach Human resource approach The organisation is for the people, by the people and with people. Humans are the integrated part of the organisation.
Therefore growth and development is only possible when human resource are developed both internally and externally. Contingency approach Situation analysis is the vital part of the behavioural practices of organisation. Significant analysis of each situation prior to action helps to use all the current knowledge about people in the organisation in the most appropriate manner. Productivity approach Output per unit input is considered. Besides, economic inputs and outputs, we need to have human and social inputs and outputs in workplace, is the premise of this approach Systems approach
The systems view emphasizes the interdependence of people, technology, and socio-economic structure of organisation serves as a basis for co-ordinating activities to function as a whole effectively. Question 4 Explain the five major leadership styles as per the Managerial Grid Theory Answer The Managerial Grid Theory or also known as the Blake Mouton Framework builds on the Ohio and Michigan studies and creates a relative position that a leader prefers to take in most situations and thereby identifies his or her predominant style. The five major leadership styles are: * Impoverished leadership Country club leadership * Produce or perish leadership * Middle-of-the-road leadership * Team leadership Impoverished leadership It is the most haphazard, uncoordinated, reluctant, de-motivated style of leadership. It generates zero creativity, immense dissatisfaction and disharmony among employees. They have neither a high regard for creating systems for getting the job done nor for creating a work environment that is satisfying and motivating (low production/low people) Country club leadership It is mostly concerned about the needs and feelings of the members of the team.
The main objective is making everyone happy instead of being focussed on the objectives and achieving results. A very relaxed environment exists but without direction and control (high people/low production). Produce or perish leadership Leaders believe that followers are simply a means to an end. They are generally strict and autocratic in nature. They believe frequent punishments can bring productivity and motivation in employees. (high production/low people) Middle of the road leadership Leaders settle for average performance and often believe that this is the most anyone can expect.
In this case, neither production nor people needs are fully met. (medium production/medium people) Team leadership Leaders stress on needs related to production, quality and people with equal importance, because they believe that each of them are the stakeholders of the organisation. This creates a team environment based on trust, and respect which leads to high satisfaction and motivation, resulting high production. (high production/high people) Question 5 List some of the commonly found perceptual biases. Answer The commonly found perceptual biases are as follows: Fundamental attribution error * Self serving bias * Selective perception * Halo effect * Contrasts effects * Projection * Stereotyping * Primacy(first-impression) effect * Recency effect * Self-fulfilling prophecy * Pygmalion effect * Golem effect Fundamental attribution error Tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the internal factors Self serving bias Tendency of people to attribute success to internal factors and failure to external factors, is known as self-serving biased perception Selective perception
Sometimes a person, or an object or an event stands out from the action. Faulty evaluation follows after the action based on this selective perception. Halo effect Previous success creates a halo in our mind so that every time the same person, object or event returns, expectation remains premium about reproducing similar or better outcome. If the results fail to impress we generate biased judgements and attribute it to some outside factors rather to accept the inabilities. Contrast effects. Individuals do not evaluate a person in isolation.
There is always a tendency of comparison which depicts high contrast in values and actual actions of the organisation, generating various prejudices. Projection We tend to feel and see that others are like us, and taking decisions on the premise that others want what we want, such perception is called projection. Stereotyping Judging someone on the basis of our perception of the group to which the person belongs is defined as stereotyping. It simplifies the complex world. But when we inaccurately stereotype, various mistakes and misunderstandings cloud the right perception.
Primacy effect First impression-lasting effect theory, the tendency to form lasting opinions about an individual based on the initial perceptions. This error is generally found formal interview sessions. Recency effect When we summarise a series of action taken by a person recently and decide its effectiveness in reality, we perceive with recency effect. Self-fulfilling prophecy It is a tendency for someone’s expectations about another to cause that person to behave in a manner consistent with those expectations.
It can of two types * Pygmalion effect- manager has high expectations of his employee and therefore grades him as the topper although the facts indicate otherwise * Golem effect- the same manager evaluates his top performer as third, because his expectation from him is not high although the facts indicate otherwise Question 6 Suppose you are the Team Manager in a multinational company with team strength of 12 members. You are given the responsibility of ensuring that the team gives excellent performance or results. What are the key issues you have to handle in team building? Answer
The key issues needed to handle while building a proper team are: * having clear expectations and context * commitment * team design and competence * charter of performance * control and coordination * collaboration * communication * consequences * creative innovation * cultural change Having clear expectations and context The team should get sufficient resources like people, time and money. The team need to understand the role and importance of their work and their strategic existence. Commitment All team members must oath in sincerity and recognised contribution in order have growth and development.
They should enthusiastic, excited and challenged by the opportunity. Team design and competence There should continuous evaluation of the structure and reason of existence so that competencies are evolved and used to achieve results faster and in superior quality. Charter of performance The team must define its goals, the outcomes, the timelines, measuring success, and the process to accomplish tasks. Equally , the support of the top management is the precondition Control and coordination The team should have sufficient freedom and mechanism for self regulation and coordination.
The top management must ensure the existence of such team spirit, address the challenges through incentives and motivation. Collaboration The team goals should be a collaborative one, and should establish norms so that collaboration becomes easy and effective. Communication The members must continuously communicate among themselves because it is the mother of all issues that is needed to be solved immediately as soon as the team formation occurs. Consequences Team members must be accountable and should feel responsible for the achievement and they should inherently get the idea of consequences of not achieving it. Creative innovation
The team must continuously innovate with the freedom of creativity in order to sustain for long run. Cultural change Teams need flat organisational structure, rewards and recognition and training and development of a high order. Traditional companies are not designed for effective team operation. Acknowledgement I would like to thank our honourable lecturers Mr. Indranil Bhattacharya and Miss Sumita Haldar for extensive cooperation and support in order to establish focused effort in completion of the assignment successfully. I would also like to thank my mates and Sikkim Manipal University for extensive cooperation and support.