Meaning of Life and Language

Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Submit : __/__/_____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to look at language (structure, functional language and vocabulary) from the students’ point of view to enable you to prepare thoroughly for language lessons. You should make use of grammar reference books or course books and a monolingual dictionary. Bullet points may be used in this assignment. TASK: From the box below, select one item from each pair to analyse, and: a) Analyse meaning: Give a clear definition (appropriate for level) of what the item means; focus only on the meaning used in the statement. ) Analyse form and label the parts (using terminology): * Structure – statement/negative/question forms (if applicable); make sure it’s clear which words can be substituted and which are “set in stone”. * Vocabulary – label the item e. g. adjective, phrasal verb etc; irregular past forms, common collocations, etc. * Functional Language – show which parts are “set in stone” and which parts can be changed e. g.? Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? c) Highlight key pronunciation features. Use phonemic script where useful. * word or sentence stress, * weak forms, intonation, * links between sounds, contractions, lost sounds, etc. d) Anticipate problems – think about what problems students might have with the features you listed above. a) What aspects of the meaning might be difficult for students to grasp? Are there other words/structure that express something similar? Does the structure exist in students L1? b) What form-related mistakes might students make when trying to use the item? c) What problems might sts have with particular sounds, word stress or other pronunciation issues? Use your common sense as well as reference sources. ) Imagine your students are not familiar with each language item. Describe a context that would help convey its meaning so that you could elicit the target statement. f) State how you would check students’ understanding of the language item. Write the concept questions you would ask and provide the answers. If a timeline is appropriate, you should also include this. You can include other ways of checking too, if you wish. g) State which reference book(s) or other source(s) you used to obtain the above information. ————————————————- Choose ONE example from each pair.

The target language has been underlined. ————————————————- 1. ————————————————- I’m meeting Dave for lunch on Sunday. (elementary) 2. ————————————————- If I get the job, I’ll need a new car. (elementary) ————————————————- ——————————————————————————————————– 3. ————————————————- He shouldn’t have insulted the policeman (upper-intermediate) 4. ————————————————-

She might have left already. (upper-intermediate) ————————————————- ——————————————————————————————————– 5. ————————————————- He takes after his mother. (pre-intermediate) 6. ————————————————- She is very sensitive to criticism. (pre-intermediate) ————————————————- ——————————————————————————————————– 7. ————————————————-

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Is the money a present from Holly? No Will she get her money back? Yes, hopefully g) References “Macmillan English Dictionary”, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 “Practical English Usage”, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) WORKED EXAMPLE: STRUCTURE Target statement: I used to do exercise regularly. (intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticpated problems| a) MeaningTo say what was true or what happened regularly in the past, especially when you want to emphasize that this is not true or does not happen now. | * Sts might think it refers to present habits, perhaps due to confusion with ‘be + used to + verb+ing’. * Sts may use it for single past events e. . I used to go to the cinema yesterday. * Possible confusion with the lexical verb ‘use’. | b) Form * statement: subj. + used to + verb (bare infinitive)+… * negative: subj. + didn’t use to + verb (bare infinitive)+… * question: Did (auxiliary verb) + subj. + use to + verb (bare infinitive) +…| * Sts may use past form of second verb, (I used to did exercise …) * Sts may forget “to” (I used do …) * Ss may use “used” instead of “use” in negative and question forms. (I did/didn’t used to .. )| c) Pronunciation * stress would normally fall on used and 2nd verb i. e. I used to do exercise regularly * weak form of ‘to” sed: /t? / * connected speech: used to /’just? /| * Ss might say /ju:zd tu:/ i. e. stress /d/ in “used” Ss might not use weak form of “to” /tu:/ instead of /t? /| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Tell an anecdote about myself as a 16 year-old. I went running every morning and often went to the gym in the evening (use pictures/mime, if necessary). Then I stopped running and stopped going to the gym when I was about 25. I’m now 30 and I don’t do much exercise at all. So, “I …… (try to elicit the target phrase) … used to do exercise regularly. ” f) Checking Understanding: Did I exercise in the past?

Yes Did I do it once, or often? Often Do I exercise now? No Can you think of something you used to do but don’t do now? g) Reference: “Practical English Usage”, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) “Macmillan English Dictionary”, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 WORKED EXAMPLE: FUNCTIONAL LANGUAGE Target statement: Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? (intermediate) Analysis| d) Anticipated Problems| a) Meaning * to request politely that someone do something for you. * Often used with slightly bigger requests or more distance in relationship between the speakers. * Answer: Yes = no and no = yes. * Sts might not realise there are other less complex ways to ask for things politely * Sts get the answer yes/no wrong * This structure suggests a bigger request or a less personal relationship between speakers. | b) Form * Would you mind + verb+ing (present participle) + object? * Short answer: Yes/No, subj. + would/wouldn’t| * Sts use infinitive instead of present participle e. g. Would you mind to get me …? * Sts use “Do” instead of “would” * Use Yes/No, I mind/don’t mind as the short answer| c) Pronunciation * Rising intonation * Stress on “mind” and “getting” * Weak form of would and you / w? / /j? / * Linking of would + you + mind /w? dj? ’ma? n/| * Sts say it forcefully or with flat intonation and it could sound impolite * Sts give equal stress to would+you+mind and don’t link| e) Providing a context/conveying meaning Jane has just started working for a new company. One of her new colleagues is going out to the local supermarket and asks her if she wants her to get her something for lunch. Jane is really hungry and ask her to get her a sandwich. What does she say? (Try to elicit “Would you mind getting me a cheese sandwich? ”) f) Checking Understanding: Does Jane want a cheese sandwich?

Yes Is she asking or demanding her colleague to get her a sandwich? Asking Is she polite? Yes Do you know another way to ask her to get a sandwich? Can/Could/Would you get me a ….? g) Reference: “Practical English Usage”, Michael Swan (OUP, 1980) “Macmillan English Dictionary”, Macmillan Publishers Ltd. 2003 Written Assignment 1: Language related tasks Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ————————————————- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail|

Assignment 1: Language related tasks| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. | ————————————————- Assignment criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. ————————————————- Analysing language correctly for teaching purposes. b. ————————————————- Correctly using terminology relating to form, meaning and phonology when analysing language. c. ————————————————-

Accessing reference materials and referencing information they have learned about language to an appropriate source. d. ————————————————- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that shows an ability to:| You| Overall| a. Clarify the meaning of language appropriate for level. | | | b. Clarify the form of language, using appropriate terminology. | | | c. Clarify key pronunciation features of language. | | d. Identify potential problems with meaning, form and pronunciation. | | | e. Provide a clear and appropriate context to help convey the meaning. | | | f. Check the students’ understanding of the target language appropriately. | | | g. Use reference books to analyse language and acknowledge these sources. | | | Also the assignment …| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, and adheres to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. | | Overall Comments:| ———————————————— 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words Aim: To develop your ability to assess the needs of a group of learners, and to act on this information by finding appropriate material for language support. Task: Prepare a case study of your TP group. Your report should include (250-300 words): . Information about the students’ backgrounds (approximate ages, nationalities, reasons for learning English, previous English learning experience) b. The students’ learning styles (what they like/dislike in lessons, the things they find easy/difficult, how they like to learn) c. What YOU have noticed in their classroom behaviour (degree of participation, quantity or output in different stages of the lesson, fluency/accuracy of output, similarity of level amongst the group) ————————————————- Points a, b and c of the assignment should take the form of a REPORT.

You should use a formal style of language. Make use of headings and sub-headings, paragraphs, linking words, etc to organise your work. d. A paragraph (150-200) words summarising your TP students’ main strengths in grammatical and phonological areas as well as in receptive skills. e. Identify 2 areas of weakness in your students’ grammar, 1 in pronunciation and 1 in vocabulary, providing at least one example to support your observation. State why you think the students made this error and what the correct form should be. (250–300 words) Point e can be put into boxes and bullet points can be used.

Remember to include specific examples. Grammatical Weaknesses| Incorrect word order * I work also on Saturdays (I also work) * I went often home (home by bus)Reason: In German, the verb is usually the second idea in the sentence and students have transferred this rule to English. | f. Select 2 specific language focused activities (100-200 words) from published materials (not your course book) to focus on areas of weakness you identified: * 1 exercise/task focusing on grammatical areas of weakness AND * 1 exercise/task on phonological areas of weakness OR 1 exercise/task on the lexical weakness. For EACH activity: ) state the aim of the activity (i. e. by the end of this task, students should be better able to accurately use/discriminate between …… ) 2) state briefly why you think the activity would be suitable for your students. (Remember to link this to your weaknesses and your profile of the students. ) 3) State where it comes from (Book, Author, Pg no. , Exercise no. ) and attach a referenced a copy of the activity Collecting your data: You will want to interview them so that you can note any good or weaker examples of language used. You might want to tape the interview so that you can identify language later.

You could also get students to write something for you spontaneously e. g. a letter to a friend inviting them to spend the summer with them. You could also give them a reading and listening to do. You can further make use of the time before lessons start or during the breaks to chat to your students and find out the information you need. You should continue to make notes during TP classes. It is not necessary for you to personally interview all members of the class; you can interview 2 or 3 students and then share your findings with the other teachers in your TP group.

You can also make generalisations on the basis of 2 or 3 students. Suggesting specific language focused activities: There are an abundance of activities in different books and on the publisher’s websites too. Attach photocopies of the relevant exercises that you would recommend. Don’t forget to reference your material, i. e. book name, level (if applicable), author, publisher, and page number, or website name and date accessed on. ————————————————- The students as people and as language learners. ————————————————-

These questions could be asked in an interview or informal chat 1. ————————————————- How long has s/he been learning English? 2. ————————————————- Does s/he like learning English? 3. ————————————————- What is her/his mother tongue? Is English second/third language? 4. ————————————————- Does s/he have any experience of learning another language? 5. ————————————————- Does s/he have any specific aims in learning English? (e. g. isit to UK/need it for work) 6. ————————————————- What does the learner do for a living? 7. ————————————————- Is this their first English learning experience? Have they learnt English before? Where? How long? 8. ————————————————- In their previous learning experience, what kinds of methods were used? 9. ————————————————- What did they enjoy/not like about their previous learning? 10. ————————————————- What do they like doing in class? 11. ———————————————— Which areas of their English do they feel they need work on? 12. ————————————————- What do they find easy/difficult to do in class? ————————————————- ————————————————- These questions can be focussed on during TP 1. ————————————————- What kinds of activities do they seem to prefer? 2. ————————————————- Are there any activities they seem to dislike? 3. ————————————————-

How do they react to working with others in class? 4. ————————————————- Do they contribute to pair/group work? 5. ————————————————- Who are the stronger/weaker members of the group? 6. ————————————————- Note down examples of good language used. 7. ————————————————- Which topics do they seem to enjoy/not like talking about? 8. ————————————————- Note down any pronunciation/grammatical/lexical errors the students make? e. g. sounds, stress, intonation, verb tenses, articles, word order, etc) so that you can give examples. 9. ————————————————- Observe the students listening and reading abilities. Are they better at gist or specific reading/listening? Is it necessary to pre-teach vocabulary? Do they worry about words they don’t know? Do you have to grade your language when you talk to them? Do you have to paraphrase if they don’t understand? * In the assignment, don’t mention sts’ names. Say e. g. Some are interested in… Three students want to learn English…

The main reason for learning English is… Written Assignment 2: Focus on the learner Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 2Focus on the learner| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:| ————————————————- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: ————————————————- ) Showing awareness of how learners’ backgrounds, previous learning experience and learning styles affect learning. ————————————————- b) Identifying the learners’ language/skills needs. ————————————————- c) Correctly using terminology relating to the description of language systems and language skills ————————————————- d) Selecting appropriate material and/or resources to aid the learners’ language development. ————————————————- e) Providing a rationale for using specific activities with learners. ———————————————— f) Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources ————————————————- g) Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that…| You| Tutor’s Comments| Provides information on the learners’ ages, nationalities and reasons for learning English. | | | Provides information on students’ learning styles and preferences. | | Provides information on learners’ classroom behaviour. | | | Summarises students’ strengths | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learners’ grammatical abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in learners’ phonological abilities. Plus error rationale. | | | Identifies and gives specific examples of weaknesses in the learners’ lexical use. Plus error rationale. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learners’ grammatical weakness. | | | Selects an appropriate activity to develop learners’ phonological OR lexical weakness. | | States aim of each activity and provides rationale for choice based on learner profile. | | | Also the assignment …| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections and adheres to word limit and is written as outlined| | | Provides a referenced copy of the activities| | | Uses clear and coherent language and is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | | ————————————————- Overall Comment:————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ———————————————— | ————————————————- 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words (not including the authentic material for classroom use and activities) Aim: To develop your ability to look at authentic materials from a teaching perspective to enable you to prepare these thoroughly for language lessons.

TASK: Choose an authentic text of between 200 and 700 words AND a) Give an opinion on text and discuss suitability for lower/higher level students. b) Identifiy barriers to reading OR listening in general and link to own students c) Provide suggestion for interest raising task d) Select appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggest a pre-teach task e) Describe what each sub-skill means (from background reading) f) Design a skim task g) Design a scan task h) Design a follow-up task that includes SPEAKING or WRITING. i) Devise a freer productive (speaking or writing) activity as a follow-up for the reading or listening.

ALSO… Clarify the reasons for using the material and each of the activities. Tasks (and their respective keys) must be included as appendixes to the assignment Remember, the assignment is NOT a Lesson Plan, but rather an informed description (What will be done, How and Why) of your choices in terms of text, tasks and their sequences. It can be used as a basis for a full lesson plan, but this NEED not be included in the assignment ASSIGNMENT 3: Skills Related Task Submit: __/__/____ Length: Between 800 and 1000 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ———————————————— Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 3Skills assignment| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse for resubmission details. | ————————————————- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. ————————————————- Correctly using terminology that relates to language skills and sub-skills. b. ————————————————-

Relating task design to language skills practice. c. ————————————————- Finding, selecting and referencing information from one or more sources d. ————————————————- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? | You| Tutor’s Comments| Gives an opinion on text and discusses suitability for lower/higher level students| | | Provides suggestion for interest raising task| | |

Selects appropriate vocabulary to pre-teach and suggests a pre-teach task| | | Describes what each sub-skill means (from background reading)| | | Designs a skim task| | | Designs a scan task| | | Identifies barriers to reading OR listening in general and links to own students| | | States overall aim of speaking OR writing task clearly. | | | Also the assignment …| | | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections, & adheres to the word limit. | | | Provides a referenced copy of practice tasks if not designed independently. | | | Uses clear and coherent language, which is essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is written in continuous prose (where appropriate)| | | Includes references to background reading. | | | Overall Comments:| ————————————————- 1st Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- 2nd Tutor’s signature:Date: ————————————————- Circle: This is my 1st submission. This is my 2nd submission. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words AIM This assignment assesses your ability to identify strengths & weaknesses in your own teaching and your development needs.

It is meant to help you reflect on your own teaching and on what you have learnt from the observation of others. TASK Write a report using the following headings. Section 1 What strengths and weaknesses (name two of each) do you identify in your own teaching? For this section reflect on the feedback you have received from learners, your peers and tutors and give concrete examples from your own teaching. Section 2 Discuss what you have gained from observing experienced teachers (including video observations) and your peers and how this has influenced your own teaching. Section 3

Identify three ELT areas of knowledge and skills which you need further development in and give reasons for your choice. Describe specifically how you could develop in these areas after the course. Written Assignment 4: Lessons from the Classroom Submit: __/__/____ Length: 800 words ————————————————- Name:Date: ————————————————- Please submit this cover sheet with your assignment | Pass(first draft)| Pass(second draft)| Fail| Assignment 4Lessons from the classroom| | | | If necessary, please resubmit by:See reverse side for resubmission details. ————————————————- Assignment Criteria ————————————————- For this assignment, candidates can demonstrate their learning by: a. ————————————————- Noting their own teaching strengths and weaknesses in different situation in light of feedback from learners, teachers and teacher educators. b. ————————————————- Identifying which ELT areas of knowledge and skills they need further development in. c. ————————————————-

Describing in a specific way how they might develop their ELT knowledge and skills beyond the course. d. ————————————————- Using written language that is clear, accurate and appropriate to the task. ————————————————- Reference: CELTA Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines What are we looking for? An assignment that:| Tutor’s Comments| Identifies 2 strengths in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of strengths from your own teaching. | | Identifies 2 weaknesses in your teaching. | | Provides concrete examples of weaknesses from your own teaching. | Reflects on what you have learnt from observing peers and experienced teachers. | | Highlights 3 areas for further development. | | Provides reasons for areas chosen. | | Provides concrete ways to address these development needs after the course. | | Also the assignment …| | Is complete, i. e. answers all sections. | | Keeps to the word limit. | | Uses language which is clear and coherent, and essentially free of mistakes in spelling, punctuation and grammar. | | Is presented clearly. Makes use of headings and sub-headings| | Overall Comments:|

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