Module 5 – Individual level: motivation concepts and applications 1 Module 5 – Individual level: motivation concepts and applications Learning objectives On successful completion of this module, you should be able to: ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Define motivation and identify three key elements of motivations Identify early theories of motivation and evaluate their current use value Apply the predictions of self-determination theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and management by objectives Contrast reinforcement theory and goal-setting theory Demonstrate how organisational justice is a refinement of equity theory Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees Compare contemporary theories of motivations Show how motivation theories are culture bound Learning resources
Text Robbins, SP, Judge, T, Millett, B & Boyle, M 2011, Organisational behaviour, Chapter 7. Introduction to Module 5 Welcome to Module 5 of MGT1000. I give this module about a 4. 5 rating – the theory is heavier going. There are about 22 pages from the text. Also this module is about 7 pages long. There are no must do tasks but there is still an application exercise that can take up as much time as you want to invest in it. The application is a mini essay writing exercise. The mind map that follows illustrates where we are up to in the individual level of the course so far.
In this module we will be discussing theories of motivation and their workplace applications. Motivation is a critical issue within workplaces today. It is not sufficient that employees simply turn up at work. Employers want highly productive and motivated employees. You already know that workplace productivity can be enhanced by ensuring a sound fit between employee personality and job requirements, between employer and employee values and © University of Southern Queensland 2 MGT1000 – Organisational behaviour between employee preferences and the culture and structure of the organisation.
You will also realise from previous modules that in creating a motivating workplace it is employee perception of the workplace, rather than the reality of the workplace, that will influence employee performance. In this module you will learn ways that managers can make the workplace more motivating for employees. The most basic premise of this module is that motivation is not a trait like personality, but rather something that managers can encourage or discourage. Module 3 Attitudes and job satisfaction Module 4 Personality and values Module 5 Motivation Absenteeism •Job satisfaction •Turnover •Productivity •Organisational citizenship •Deviant workplace behaviour This first exercise will give you a chance to clarify your own (everyday) everyday experience of motivation. Learning activity 5. 1 Think of one thing you have been putting off doing. Perhaps you have a friend you have been meaning to contact; perhaps you have some task around the house you have not completed yet. Perhaps you have not been able to maintain your exercise program. Or perhaps you have had difficulty getting all your study completed.
Think about these 2 questions 1. Why are you putting yourself under pressure to do this thing? 2. Why haven’t you done this thing yet? © University of Southern Queensland Module 5 – Individual level: motivation concepts and applications 3 Learning activity 6. 1 de-brief I expect we all have things we have not done that we feel we should have done. So I assume no one had difficulty thinking of something they had put off. The following two definitions of motivation show considerable consistency and can be helpful in understanding your inability to do the task you nominated. We define motivation as the processes that account for an individual’s intensity, direction and persistence of effort towards attaining a goal’ (Robbins, Judge, Millett, & Boyle 2011, p. 176) ‘Motivation refers to the forces either within or external to a person that arouse enthusiasm and persistence to pursue a certain course of action. ’(Gordon, 1999 p. 534) Both definitions seem to regard persistence as essential to motivation. Perhaps you may have lacked the persistence or continuing effort required to complete the task?
In addition the definitions refer to enthusiasm or intensity – both of which can be regarded as a measure of ‘how hard’ you were prepared to work (Robbins et al. 2011 p. 176). Perhaps this is where you had your difficulty? Finally, both definitions state there needs to be some kind of purpose – variously described as direction, a goal or a course of action – that is essential to motivation. It would appear because you could articulate what you were supposed to do then at least you did have a goal, even if it is yet to be achieved. The question remains ‘Why haven’t we done this thing if we still feel we need to do it? Perhaps one of the reasons you gave for not completing this task was that it simply was too hard. Indeed the text says no matter how motivated someone is, if they truly lack the ability to do a task then it is impossible for them to do it. So if you truly lack the ability required to do the task then perhaps you should stop trying to do this task. Similarly if one of the reasons you gave for not doing this task was a lack of time, again this may be a legitimate reason for not doing the task. Robbins et al. (2011, p. 176) view motivation as a series of processes.
That is, if a person lacks opportunity (for example the required time to complete a task), it does not matter how motivated or how gifted they are they simply will not be able to do the task. But perhaps your task was within your ability arrange and you had the opportunity to do it. The question remains, ‘Why didn’t you do it? ’ The definitions listed above may provide some answers. While Robbins et al. (2011) make no comment on the origins of motivation, Gordon (1999 p. 534) however, refers to motivation as ‘forces either within or external to a person’.
These internal and external forces are very important in understanding Herzberg’s theory and its later developments. These two factors (internal and external factors) are the two factors that give Herzberg’s two factor theory its name. Herzberg refers to these 1) external and 2) internal factors as 1) extrinsic or hygiene factors and 2) intrinsic factors or motivators respectively. These two factors are like the oil and petrol in your car. They are quite separate, but you need both to be at the right level for the car to work well.
In a car you have a petrol gauge that indicates if your tank is full or empty. It indicates if you have petrol or no petrol. So Herzberg refers to his 2 factors in the same terms. For example if you have no motivators (like no petrol) this is referred to as a state of ‘no satisfaction’. If you have motivators (like a full tank of petrol) you have ‘satisfaction’. Interestingly, Herzberg does not regard satisfaction as the opposite of dissatisfaction. So let © University of Southern Queensland 4 MGT1000 – Organisational behaviour e confirm, a lack of satisfaction is referred to by Herzberg as being a state of ‘no satisfaction’ not a state of dissatisfaction. The jargon in this theory is a little confusing at first, but Herzberg is making an important point. When you understand that point the jargon is easy to understand. Again consider the reasons you gave for not acting and the reasons you gave for continuing to put pressure on yourself. According to Herzberg’s two factor theory (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 178–80) only intrinsic factors are truly motivating. Intrinsic factors amount to way the task makes you feel.
For example, if you stated the job is too boring or not very enjoyable that is an example of a task that is simply not motivating. That is why you lacked motivation and ultimately did not complete the task – it was simply not an intrinsically rewarding task. According to Herzberg extrinsic or hygiene factors will never truly motivate you to complete a task (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 178–80). So even if for example, one of the reasons you gave to complete the task was that you would be paid to complete it, then although you may have found the payment acceptable, it could not actually motivate you to do the task.
The pay could only ever be experienced by you as good pay or bad pay for the job involved. In either event the pay itself would not motivate you to do the job – only the job’s intrinsic qualities and opportunities can truly motivate. There are many critics of Herzberg’s theory and his original research methods (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 178)and also the other earlier theories of motivation. For example refer to Robbins et al. (2011, p. 177) for a critique of Maslow’s theory.
The text provides an overview of contemporary theories of motivation that have a reasonable degree of research validity. These theories address employee motivation and include the Self-determination theory, Goal-setting theory, Self-efficacy theory, Reinforcement theory, Equity theory and Expectancy theory. These theories provide guidelines for managers about how to enhance workplace motivation in their employees. Self-efficacy theory, for instance, argues that ‘an individual’s belief that he or she is capable of performing a task’ (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 186) influences their performance.
According to this theory, employees with low selfefficacy (self belief) will exert less effort when they receive negative feedback whereas employees with high self-efficacy will increase their effort (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 187-80). Managers who focus on increasing self-efficacy in employees by setting difficult goals for them and encouraging them to perform better, can expect increased employee performance. You can see that the goal-setting theory is also applicable here – setting specific and difficult goals and providing feedback can lead to higher performance (Robbins et al. 011, p. 184). You will also read this week about ‘Equity’ theory which takes quite a different view of what motivates or ‘de-motivates’ us. Equity theory’s basic tenant is that the perception of equitable reward (such as salary) is quite essential to motivation. Most simply stated if you as an employee feel you are relatively poorly treated – for example, poorly paid as compared with others – then your motivation will suffer. In your reading you will be exposed to the mechanism of the ‘comparable worth’ as a way to create rewards systems for jobs that create equity in the workplace.
Finally, you will read about expectancy theory this week which takes another quite different view of motivation. Expectancy theory is all about the expectancies or in lay terms ‘expectations’ employees have about their work and its rewards. If an employee 1) does not expect (or believe) they have the ability to complete the job to the required standard and or 2) does not expect (or believe) that the organisation will recognise their work when it is completed to the required standard and or 2) does not expect (or believe) the reward the organisation offers is worthwhile, then the employee’s motivation will suffer.
You will read © University of Southern Queensland Module 5 – Individual level: motivation concepts and applications 5 how expectancy theory can be applied to the workplace through the use of flexible benefits that allow employees to work towards rewards they truly value. Learning objectives from the text ? ? Define motivation and identify three key elements of motivations – Read ‘Defining motivation’ page 176. Identify early theories of motivation and evaluate their current use value – Read ‘Early theories of motivation’ page 176 – 181, up to the end of ‘McClelland’s theory of needs’, page 181.
Apply the predictions of self-determination theory to intrinsic and extrinsic rewards– Read ‘Contemporary theories of motivation’ page 181 – 3. Compare and contrast goal-setting theory and management by objectives – Read page 184 – 188, up to the end of ‘Self-efficacy theory’ on page 188. Contrast reinforcement theory and goal-setting theory – Read ‘Reinforcement theory’ page 188 – 9. Demonstrate how organisational justice is a refinement of equity theory – Read ‘Equity theory/organisational justice’ page 189 – 92.
Apply the key tenets of expectancy theory to motivating employees – Read ‘Expectancy theory’ page 193 – 4 and ‘Flexible benefits; Developing a benefits package’ page 222. Compare contemporary theories of motivations – Read ‘Integrating contemporary theories of motivation’ page 194 – 5. Show how motivation theories are culture bound – Read ‘Global Implications’ page 196. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? We also suggest that you read Summary and Implications for Managers’ that provides you with a good summary of the theories covered in the readings.
Application exercise This week’s application exercise is one I have used previously with students. You are asked to write a 5 paragraph essay titled ‘The day I hated my job more than I thought humanly possible’ or an essay titled ‘The day I loved my job more than I thought humanly possible’. In either case use Herzberg’s theory to explain why you hated or loved your job so much on that day. This is a quick exercise to get you thinking about 1) how to structure an essay and 2) how to apply theory to a case study.
I have attached an example of an essay submitted by a previous student to help you. What follows are the quick tips on how to write a good OBM essay that were covered in module 2. © University of Southern Queensland 6 MGT1000 – Organisational behaviour A good OBM essay has four main parts. ? ? You will always need a one paragraph introduction that states the overall theme of your essay and outlines the content of the essay. This will be the first paragraph of the essay. This will be followed by a series of paragraphs that present the real contents of your essay.
This is sometimes referred to as the body of the essay. In this case this will only be 3 paragraphs. (You can have more if you really need them, but this is meant to be a short and sweet exercise to get the brain cells going – not a marathon). These will include the facts of your best or worst day at work and your references to Herzberg’s theory that explain the experience. Visit this webpage at the USQ Library and follow the clicks for information on how to cite sources in essays using the Harvard Referencing system .
This will be followed by a one paragraph conclusion that restates the main theme of your paper, summarises the main points raised in the body of your paper and ends with a strong ‘concluding’ sentence This will be followed by a ‘List of references’. This is a list of the full bibliographical details or any source (for example text book or journal article) that you cite in the essay. I expect in this essay you would only list the text as a source. ? ? A good OBM essay also includes theory that has been applied to the case study.
I suggest you use the three sentence formula listed below to apply theory to a case study. In each paragraph include: 1. One or two sentences containing a bite size piece of theory 2. Followed by one or two sentences containing a bite size piece of case study 3. Followed by a linking sentence – that explains how exactly the theory is linked to the case study. An example 1. Bite size piece of theory According to Herzberg jobs that afford opportunities for growth can potentially be a source of job satisfaction (Robbins et al. 2011, p. 179) 2. Bite size piece of case study I certainly ound my job at that time challenging in a positive way. I was involved in a short-term, cutting edge project aiming to develop a completely new range of client services. 3. Linking sentence. My involvement in the client services project gave me an excellent opportunity for professional growth. My positive experience of my job at that time was therefore highly consistent with Herzberg’s notion of a job with job satisfaction. The same material presented as a paragraph. According to Herzberg jobs that afford opportunities for growth can potentially be a source of job satisfaction (Robbins et al. 011, p. 179. ) I certainly found my job at that time challenging in a positive way. I was involved in a short-term, cutting edge project aiming to develop a completely new range of client services. My involvement in the © University of Southern Queensland Module 5 – Individual level: motivation concepts and applications 7 client services project gave me an excellent opportunity for professional growth. My positive experience of my job at that time was therefore highly consistent with Herzberg’s notion of a job with job satisfaction.
You may have to go through a few more drafts of the paragraph to get it saying exactly what you want it to, but that is the basic process. Finally, you may be wondering how to relate bits of theory to bits of case study. You might find a pen and paper tool like this one below useful. In the left hand column you will see the motivators and hygiene factors listed. (This is the theory you are expected to use in this essay). In the right column there is room for you to list the elements of your story that relate to these factors. You do not need to have an entry next to each piece of theory.
The idea is that you would look at the completed grid and then decide what the pattern is. Did your job have lots of problems with the motivators? Were there additional problems with the hygiene factors? What was the overall pattern is the case study? This then becomes the theme of your essay. Motivators Achievement Recognition Work itself Responsibility Advancement Growth Case study elements Hygiene factors Company policy and administration Supervision Relationship with supervisor Work conditions Relationship with peers Personal life Relationship with subordinates Status Security Salary
Case study elements © University of Southern Queensland 8 MGT1000 – Organisational behaviour Summary This module has focussed on motivation as a process that managers need to understand in order to try to create motivating jobs and reward systems in the workplace. You have covered both earlier theories of motivation and contemporary theories. You have also had an opportunity to put pen to paper and attempt an essay in this course. Presentation 5. 1 Ch7_motivation Reference list Gordon, J 1999, Organizational behaviour: a diagnostic approach, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, NJ.
Mann, S 2004, ‘People-work: emotion management, stress and coping’, British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 205–21, viewed 12 December, EBSCOhost database Academic Search Premier, item: AN13121438. McShane, S & Von Glinow, M 2005, Organizational behaviour, 3rd edn, McGraw-Hill Irwin, Boston. Robbins, SP, Judge, T, Millett, B & Boyle, M 2011, Organisational behaviour, 6th edn, Pearson Education, French’s Forest. Gordon, J 1999, Organizational behaviour: a diagnostic approach, 6th edn, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. © University of Southern Queensland