The Later Middle Ages | 1000–1500| What You Will Learn… In this chapter, you will learn about life in Europe during the later Middle Ages. Christianity was a major influence on people’s lives during these years. This photo shows the monastery at Mont St. Michel in France. Chapter Time Line| | Themes: Religion / Society and Culture | | Focus on Themes In this chapter you will learn about Europe in the late Middle Ages, a period important change and new developments. You will see how the Christian religion was a major influence on people’s lives.
You will also read about the conflict between religious and political leaders and how this conflict shaped society and culture. Finally, you will learn about important events that changed medieval society and opened up the way towards the development of modern life. Stereotypes and Bias in HistoryFocus on Reading Historians today try to be impartial in their writing. They don’t let their personal feelings affect what they write. Writers in the past, however, didn’t always feel the need to be impartial. Their writings were sometimes colored by their attitudes about other people, places, and ideas.
Identifying Stereotypes and Bias Two ways in which writing can be colored by the author’s ideas are stereotypes and bias. A stereotype is a generalization about whole groups of people. Bias is an attitude that one group is superior to another. The examples below can help you identify stereotypes and bias in the things you read. | | | You Try It! The following passage was written by a French poet and knight named Rutebeuf. Rutebeuf, who lived from about 1245 to 1285, explains his reasons for not wanting to join the Crusades.
As you read the passage, look for examples of stereotypes and bias in his writing. | A Knight SpeaksAm I to leave my wife and children, all my goods and inheritance, to go and conquer a foreign land which will give me nothing in return? I can worship God just as well in Paris as in Jerusalem…. Those rich lords and prelates [priests] who have grabbed for themselves all the treasure on earth may well need to go on Crusade. But I live at peace with my neighbors. I am not bored with them yet and so I have no desire to go looking for a war at the other end of the world.
If you like heroic deeds, you can go along and cover yourself with glory: tell the Sultan from me that if he feels like attacking me I know very well how to defend myself. But so long as he leaves me alone, I shall not bother my head about him. All you people, great and small, who go on pilgrimage to the Promised Land, ought to become very holy there: so how does it happen that the ones who come back are mostly bandits? –Rutebeuf, from The Medieval World by Freidrich Heer, translated by Janet Sondheimer| Popes and Kings If YOU were there… | You are 13 years old, the youngest child of the king of France.
One day your father announces that he wants to make an alliance with a powerful noble family. To seal the alliance, he has arranged for you to marry one of his new ally’s children. Your father wants you to be happy and asks what you think of the idea. You know the alliance will make your father’s rule more secure, but it means leaving home to marry a stranger. What will you say to your father? | BUILDING BACKGROUND In the Middle Ages, kings were some of the most powerful men in Europe. Many kings, like the one described above, looked for ways to increase their power.
But in their search for power, these kings had to deal with other powerful leaders, including popes. These other leaders had their own plans and goals. | Popes and Kings Rule Europe In the early Middle Ages, great nobles and their knights held a great deal of power. As time passed, though, this power began to shift. More and more, power came into the hands of two types of leaders, popes and kings. Popes had great spiritual power, and kings had political power. Together, popes and kings controlled most of European society. The Power of the Popes In the Middle Ages, the pope was the head of the Christian Church in Western Europe.
Since nearly everyone in the Middle Ages belonged to this church, the pope had great power. People saw the pope as God’s representative on Earth. They looked to him for guidance about how to live and pray. Because the pope was seen as God’s representative, it was his duty to decide what the church would teach. From time to time, a pope would write a letter called a bull to explain a religious teaching or outline a church policy. In addition, the pope decided when someone was acting against the church. 1. | Popes and kings ruled Europe as spiritual and political leaders. | 2. Popes fought for power, leading to a permanent split within the church. | 3. | Kings and popes clashed over some issues. | | | Popes and kings dominated European society in the Middle Ages. | If the pope felt someone was working against the church, he could punish the person in many ways. For serious offenses, the pope or other bishops could choose to excommunicate, or cast out from the church, the offender. This punishment was deeply feared because Christians believed that a person who died while excommunicated would not get into heaven. In addition to spiritual power, many popes had great political power.
After the Roman Empire collapsed, many people in Italy looked to the pope as their leader. As a result, some popes began to live like royalty. They became rich and built huge palaces. At the same time, they came into conflict with Europe’s other political leaders, kings. The Power of Kings As you can see on the map below, Europe in 1000 was divided into many small states. Most of these states were ruled by kings, some of whom had little real power. In a few places, though, kings had begun to take firm control of their countries. Look at the map to find England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire.
At this time, Europe’s most powerful kings ruled those three countries. In England and France, kings inherited their thrones from their fathers. At times, nobles rebelled against the kings, but the kings usually reestablished order fairly quickly. They maintained this order through alliances as well as warfare. Europe, 1000| | Location In what empire was Rome located at this time? 2. Region What kingdoms surrounded the Holy Roman Empire? Primary Source| POINTS OF VIEW | Views of Power | Pope Gregory VII thought popes should have the power to choose bishops.
He believed popes—not kings—got their power from God. | “Who does not know that kings and princes derive their origin from men ignorant of God who raised themselves above their fellows by…every kind of crime? …Does anyone doubt that the priests of Christ are to be considered as fathers and masters of kings and princes and of all believers? ”| —Pope Gregory VII, from a letter to the Bishop of Metz, 1081, in Readings in Medieval History, ed. by Patrick Geary| | Emperor Henry IV thought popes had too much power. He argued that kings should choose bishops because God had chosen the king. “Our Lord, Jesus Christ, has called us to kingship, but has not called you to the priesthood… You who have not been called by God have taught that our bishops who have been called by God are to be [rejected]…”| —Emperor Henry IV, from a letter to Pope Gregory VII, 1076, in Readings in Medieval History, ed. by Patrick Geary| | | | | | | IDENTIFYING POINTS OF VIEW| | ————————————————- Top of Form What words indicate Gregory’s view that the church has more power than monarchs do? | Bottom of Form| | The Holy Roman Empire In the Holy Roman Empire, however, the situation was different.
This empire grew out of what had been Charlemagne’s empire. As you read earlier, Charlemagne built his empire in the 700s with the pope’s approval. In the mid-900s, another emperor took the throne with the approval of the pope. Because the empire was approved by the pope and people saw it as a rebirth of the Roman Empire, it became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Holy Roman emperors didn’t inherit their crowns. Instead, they were elected by the empire’s nobles. Sometimes, these elections led to fights between nobles and the emperor. In the worst of these squabbles, emperors had to call on the pope for help.
The Holy Roman Empire In the Holy Roman Empire, however, the situation was different. This empire grew out of what had been Charlemagne’s empire. As you read earlier, Charlemagne built his empire in the 700s with the pope’s approval. In the mid-900s, another emperor took the throne with the approval of the pope. Because the empire was approved by the pope and people saw it as a rebirth of the Roman Empire, it became known as the Holy Roman Empire. Holy Roman emperors didn’t inherit their crowns. Instead, they were elected by the empire’s nobles. Sometimes, these elections led to fights between nobles and the emperor.
In the worst of these squabbles, emperors had to call on the pope for help. Reading Check Contrasting How did the powers of popes and kings differ? Popes Fight for Power Although the people of western Europe considered the pope the head of the church, people in eastern Europe disagreed. There, bishops controlled religious matters with little or no guidance from the pope. Beginning in the mid-1000s, however, a series of clever and able popes sought to increase their authority over eastern bishops. They believed all religious officials should answer to the pope. Among those who believed this was Pope Leo IX, who became pope in 1049.
He argued that because the first pope, Saint Peter, had been the leader of the whole Christian Church, later popes should be as well. Despite Leo’s arguments, many bishops in eastern Europe, most notably the bishop of Constantinople, wouldn’t recognize his authority. In 1054, Leo decided to excommunicate that bishop. ————————————————- Top of Form Contrasting How did the powers of popes and kings differ? | | | | | | | | Bottom of Form| Leo’s decision created a permanent split within the church. Christians who agreed with the bishop of Constantinople formed the Orthodox Church.
Those who supported Leo’s authority became known as Roman Catholics. With their support, the pope became head of the Roman Catholic Church and one of the most powerful figures in western Europe. ————————————————- Top of Form Generalizing How did Leo IX try to increase popes’ authority? | | | | | | | | | Kings and Popes ClashAs popes worked to increase their power, they often came into conflict with kings. For example, kings thought they should be able to select bishops in their countries. Popes, on the other hand, argued that only they could choose religious officials.
In 1073 a new pope came to power in Rome. His name was Pope Gregory VII. Trouble arose when Gregory disapproved of a bishop chosen by the Holy Roman Emperor Henry IV. Angry because the pope questioned his authority, Henry convinced Germany’s bishops that they should remove Gregory as pope. In response, the pope excommunicated Henry. He called on the empire’s nobles to overthrow Henry. Desperate to stay in power, Henry went to Italy to ask the pope for forgiveness. Gregory refused to see him. For three days Henry stood barefoot in the snow outside the castle where Pope Gregory was staying.
Eventually, Gregory accepted Henry’s apology and allowed the emperor back into the church. Gregory had proven himself more powerful than the emperor, at least for that moment. The fight over the right to choose bishops continued even after Henry and Gregory died. In 1122 a new pope and emperor reached a compromise. They decided that church officials would choose all bishops and abbots. The bishops and abbots, however, would still have to obey the emperor. This compromise did not end all conflict. Kings and popes continued to fight for power throughout the Middle Ages, changing lives all over Europe.
SUMMARY AND PREVIEW In this section you read about the powers of popes and kings. In many cases, these powers led to conflict between the two. In the next section, though, you will read about popes and kings working together against a common enemy. ————————————————- Top of Form Identifying Causes and Effects What caused Gregory and Henry’s power struggle? | | | | | | | | Bottom of Form| Bottom of Form| | ty. In 1054, Leo decided to excommunicate that bishop. | a. Describe What was the pope’s role in the Roman Catholic Church? | | | | | | | b. Draw Conclusions How did cooperation with the pope help kings like
Charlemagne and the early Holy Roman Emperors? | | | | | | | Explain Why did Pope Leo IX excommunicate the bishop of Constantinople? a. Identify With whom did Pope Gregory VII clash? b. Elaborate Why do you think the pope made Emperor Henry IV wait for three days before forgiving him? | | | | | | | 4. Comparing Use the interactive graphic organizer and your notes to compare the power of popes to the power of kings. | | | | | 5. Taking Notes on the Popes and Kings Who were the popes and kings you read about in this section? Why were they important? Start a list of important people. 1.
The pope called on Crusaders to invade the Holy Land. 2. Despite some initial success, the later Crusades failed. 3. The Crusades changed Europe forever. The Big Idea The Christian and Muslim cultures fought over holy sites during a series of medieval wars. The Crusades If YOU were there… | You belong to a noble family that has produced many great knights. One day your uncle, the head of the family, tells you that the pope has called on warriors to defend holy places in a faraway land. Your uncle is too old to fight, so it falls on you to answer the pope’s call to war. The journey will be long and dangerous.
Still, you will see new places and possibly win glory for your family. How do you feel about joining this war? | BUILDING BACKGROUND In the early Middle Ages few people traveled far from home. They spent most of their lives in a single village or farm. As time passed, however, Europeans learned of other people and places. Their contacts with some of these people were peaceful. With others, though, the contact was not peaceful. Wars broke out. The most famous of these wars were the Crusades. | Crusaders Invade the Holy Land The Crusades were a long series of wars between Christians Muslims in Southwest Asia.
They were fought over control of Palestine, a region of Southwest Asia. Europeans called Palestine the Holy Land because it was the region where Jesus had lived, preached, and died. Causes of the Crusades For many years, Palestine had been in the hands of Muslims. In general, the Muslims did not bother Christians who visited the region. In the late 1000s, though, a group of Turkish Muslims entered the area and captured the city of Jerusalem. Pilgrims returning to Europe said that these Turks had attacked them in the Holy Land, which was no longer safe for Christians. Before long, the Turks began to raid the Byzantine Empire.
The Byzantine emperor, fearing an attack on Constantinople, asked Pope Urban II of the Roman Catholic Church for help. Although the Byzantines were Orthodox Christians and not Catholic, the pope agreed to the request. Crusader Battlefield| | The Holy Land was the scene of many bloody battles during the Crusades, like the one near the city of Antioch shown in this medieval painting. The menbelow show what Crusaders may have worn. What was the goal of the Crusaders? The Call to Arms Pope Urban called on Christians from all over Europe to retake the Holy Land from the Muslim Turks.
He challenged Europe’s kings and nobles to quit fighting among themselves and fight together against the Turks. In response, people joined the pope’s army by the thousands. Crusaders from all over Europe flocked to France to prepare for their long journey. They sewed crosses onto their clothing to show that they were fighting for God. In fact, the word crusade comes from the Latin for “marked with a cross. ” As they marched off to war, the Crusaders yelled their rallying cry, “God wills it! ” Why would people leave home to fight in a distant land? Some just hoped to save their souls or to do what they thought God wanted.
They thought that God would look favorably on them for fighting his enemies, as one French abbot noted: “What a glory to return in victory from such a battle! …if they are blessed who die in the Lord, how much more are they who die for the Lord! ” —Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, from In Praise of the New Knighthood Other Crusaders wanted land and treasure. Still others were looking for something to do. Adventure called to them. The First Crusade About 5,000 Crusaders left Europe for the Holy Land in 1096. Some of the first ones to set out were peasants, not soldiers.
On their way to the Holy Land, these peasant Crusaders attacked Jews in Germany. They blamed the Jews for Jesus’s death. Before they even reached the Holy Land, Turkish troops killed most of these untrained, poorly equipped peasants. The nobles and knights fared better. When they reached Jerusalem in 1099, they found the Muslim army disorganized and unready to fight. After about a month of fighting, the Crusaders took Jerusalem. After the Europeans took Jerusalem, they set up four small kingdoms in the Holy Land. The rulers of these kingdoms created lord and vassal systems like they had known at home.
They also began to trade with people back in Europe. ————————————————- Top of Form Summarizing What did the First Crusade accomplish? | Bottom of Form| Richard I 1157–1199 | Called “Lion Heart” for his courage, Richard I was a skilled soldier and a great general. He did not succeed in taking Jerusalem during the Third Crusade, but he earned the respect of Muslims and Christians alike. Since his death, he has become the hero of countless stories and legends. Later Crusades Fail The kingdoms the Christians created in the Holy Land didn’t last, though.
Within 50 years the Muslims had started taking land back from the Christians. In response, the Europeans launched more Crusades. The Second and Third Crusades French and German kings set off in 1147 to retake land from the Muslims. This Second Crusade was a terrible failure. Poor planning and heavy losses on the journey to the Holy Land led to the Christians’ total defeat. Ashamed, the Crusaders returned to Europe in less than a year. The Third Crusade began after the Muslims retook Jerusalem in 1189. The rulers of England, France, and the Holy Roman Empire led their armies to the Holy Land to fight for Jerusalem, but problems soon arose.
The German king died, and the French king left. OnlyKing Richard Iof England stayed in the Holy Land. King Richard’s main opponent in the Third Crusade was Saladin, the leader of the Muslim forces. Saladin was a brilliant leader. Even Crusaders respected his kindness toward fallen enemies. In turn, the Muslims admired Richard’s bravery. For months, Richard and Saladin fought and negotiated. Richard captured a few towns and won protection for Christian pilgrims. In the end, however, he returned home with Jerusalem still in Muslim hands. The Fourth Crusade
In 1201 French knights arrived in Venice ready to sail to the Holy Land to begin a Fourth Crusade. However, the knights didn’t have money to pay for the voyage. For payment the Venetians asked the knights to conquer Zara, a rival trade city. The knights agreed. Later they also attacked Constantinople and carried off many treasures. The city that had been threatened by Muslims before the Crusades had been sacked by Christians! The End of the Crusades Other Crusades followed, but none were successful. By 1291 the Muslim armies had taken back all of the Holy Land, and the Crusades had ended. The Major Crusades, 1096–1204| | Place From which countries did the first three Crusades start out? Movement About how far was the journey from Paris to Jerusalem? Biography Saladin: Credit: © alleria degli Uffizi Florence / Dagli Orti/Art Archive. Saladin 1137–1193 Saladin is often called one of the greatest generals of the Middle Ages. The Muslim leader successfully held Jerusalem against Richard I in the Third Crusade. Saladin ’s people considered their leader a wise ruler. Crusaders respected his sometimes kind treatment of fallen enemies. Many Christians saw him as a model of knightly chivalry. Why did the Crusades fail?
There were many reasons. The Crusaders had to travel huge distances just to reach the war. Many died along the way. Crusaders weren’t prepared to fight in Palestine’s desert climate. The Christians were outnumbered by their well-led and organized Muslim foes. Christian leaders fought among themselves and planned poorly. Whatever the reasons for their failure, the Crusades ended just as they had begun so many years before, with the Holy Land under Muslim control. Reading Check Analyzing How did geography limit the success of the Crusades? Crusades Change Europe Although the Crusades failed, they changed Europe forever.
Trade between Europe and Asia grew. Europeans who went to the Holy Land learned about products such as apricots, rice, and cotton cloth. Crusaders also brought ideas of Muslim thinkers to Europe. Politics in Europe also changed. Some kings increased their power because many nobles and knights had died in the Holy Land. These kings seized lands that were left without clear owners. During the later Crusades, kings also gained influence at the popes’ expense. The popes had wanted the church to be in charge of all the Crusades. Instead, rulers and nobles took control. The Crusades| | Causes| Effects| | Turks take control of the Holy Land in 1071. | ? | Trade between Europe and Asia increases. | ? | Turks threaten Constantinople in the 1090s. | ? | Kings become more powerful. | ? | Byzantine emperor asks pope for help. | ? | Tension between Christians, Jews, and Muslims grows. | | The Crusades had lasting effects on relations among peoples as well. Because some Crusaders had attacked Jews, many Jews distrusted Christians. In addition, tension between the Byzantines and western Christians increased, especially after Crusaders attacked Constantinople. The greatest changes occurred with Christian and Muslim relationships.
Each group learned about the other’s religion and culture. Sometimes this led to mutual respect. In general, though, the Crusaders saw Muslims as unbelievers who threatened innocent Christians. Most Muslims viewed the Crusaders as vicious invaders. Some historians think that the distrust that began during the Crusades still affects Christian and Muslim relationships today. ————————————————- Top of Form Finding Main Ideas What were some results of the Crusades? | Bottom of Form| SUMMARY AND PREVIEW In this section you learned how religious beliefs led to a series of wars.
In the next section you will learn about the role of religion in most people’s daily lives in the Middle Ages. Reviewing Ideas, Terms, and People 1. a. Recall What did Pope Urban II ask Christians to do? b. Elaborate Why do you think so many people were willing to go on a Crusade? 2. a. Identify In which Crusade did Saladin and King Richard I fight? b. Rank Which Crusade do you think was the least successful? Why? 3. a. Identify What new products were introduced to Europe after the Crusades? b. Draw Conclusions Why did the Crusades change relationships between Christians and other groups?
Critical Thinking 4. Identifying Cause and Effect Use the interactive graphic organizer and your notes to compare and contrast Europe before and after the Crusades. Focus on Writing 5. History Close-up| The Cluny Monastery| | Thinking about the Crusades Look back through what you’ve just read and make a list of people who were important in the Crusades. What made them important? he great monastery at Cluny, France, is shown here as it appeared in the 1100s. Together the buildings made up something like a small town. At one point, more than 300 monks lived there. | | A Monk’s Daily Schedule| 2:30 A.
M. | Wake up| 3:00 A. M. | Early prayers| 5:00 A. M. | Study religious texts| 6:00 A. M. | Dawn prayers| 7:30 A. M. | Study religious texts| 8:00 A. M. | Morning prayers, church service, meeting| 9:45 A. M. | Work in the fields or copy books| 12:00 P. M. | Noon prayers and mass| 2:00 P. M. | Eat the daily meal| 2:45 P. M. | Work in the fields or copy books| 4:15 P. M. | Afternoon prayers| 6:15 P. M. | Evening prayers| 6:30 P. M. | Go to sleep| | How does this illustration show the wealth of the church? The Church and Society In the Middle Ages, life revolved around the local church.
Markets, festivals, and religious ceremonies all took place there. For some people, however, the local church was not enough. They wanted to see important religious sites—the places where Jesus lived, where holy men and women died, and where miracles happened. The church encouraged these people to go on pilgrimages, journeys to religious locations. Among the most popular destinations were Jerusalem, Rome, and Compostela, in northwestern Spain. Each of these cities had churches that Christians wanted to visit. Another popular pilgrimage destination was Canterbury, near London in England.
Hundreds of visitors went to the cathedral in Canterbury each year. One such visit is the basis for one of the greatest books of the Middle Ages, The Canterbury Tales by Geoffrey Chaucer (CHAW-suhr). Chaucer’s book tells of a group of pilgrims who feel drawn, like many people, to Canterbury: | “When in April the sweet showers fall And pierce the drought of March to the root Then people long to go on pilgrimages And palmers long to seek the stranger strands Of far-off saints, hallowed in sundry lands And specially, from every shire’s end Of England, down to Canterbury they wend. ”| —Geoffrey Chaucer, from The Canterbury Tales|
The Church and PoliticsThe church also gained political power during the Middle Ages. Many people left land to the church when they died. In fact, the church was one of the largest landholders in Europe. Eventually, the church divided this land into fiefs. In this way, it became a feudal lord. Of all the clergy, bishops and abbots were most involved in political matters. They often advised local rulers. Some clergy got so involved with politics that they spent little time dealing with religious affairs. ————————————————- Top of Form Analyzing In what ways were clergy members important political figures? | | | | | | | | Bottom of Form| Monks and FriarsSome people were unhappy with the political nature of the church. They thought the clergy should focus only on spiritual matters. These people feared that the church had become obsessed with wealth and power. The Monks of ClunyAmong those unhappy with the church were a group of French monks. In the early 900s they started a monastery in the town of Cluny (KLOO-nee). The monks of Cluny followed a strict schedule of prayers and religious services. They paid little attention to the world, concerning themselves only with religious matters. | | |
The changes at Cluny led to the creation of a religious order, the Cluniac monks. A religious order is a group of people who dedicate their lives to religion and follow common rules. Across Europe, people saw Cluny as an example of how monks should live. They built new monasteries and tried to live like the Cluniacs. Other New Orders By the 1100s, though, some monks thought that even Cluny’s rules weren’t strict enough. They created new orders with even stricter rules. Some took vows of silence and stopped speaking to each other. Others lived in tiny rooms and left them only to go to church services.
Men were not the only ones to create and join religious orders. Women were allowed to join these kinds of orders as well. Communities of nuns called convents appeared across Europe. Like monks, these nuns lived according to a strict set of rules. The nuns of each convent prayed and worked together under the watchful eyes of an abbess, the convent’s leader. Although monks and nuns lived apart from other people, they did a great deal for society. For example, they collected and stored texts that explained Christian teachings. Monks spent hours copying these documents, and they sent copies to monasteries across Europe.
The Friars Not everyone who joined a religious order wanted to live apart from society. Some wanted to live in cities and spread Christian teachings. As a result, two new religious orders were begun in the early 1200s. These orders were the Dominicans and the Franciscans, named for their founders, Dominic de Guzmn andFrancis of Assisi. Because they didn’t live in monasteries, members of these orders were not monks. They were friars, people who belonged to religious orders but lived and worked among the general public. Friars lived simply, wearing plain robes and no shoes. Like monks, they owned no property.
They roamed about, preaching and begging for food. For that reason, friars were also called mendicants, from a Latin word for beggars. The main goal of the friars was to teach people how to live good Christian lives. They taught people about generosity and kindness. A prayer credited to Francis illustrates what the friars hoped to do: | “Lord, make me an instrument of your peace. Where there is hatred, let me sow love; where there is injury, pardon; where there is doubt, faith; where there is despair, hope; where there is darkness, light; and where there is sadness, joy. ” | –Francis of Assisi, from The Prayer of Saint Francis| ————————————————- Top of Form Summarizing Why did people create new religious orders? | Bottom of Form| Saint Francis of Assisi 1182? –1226 | Born in Assisi, Italy, Francis was the son of a wealthy merchant. As a young man, however, Francis gave all his money and possessions away and left his father’s house. He lived a simple life, preaching and tending to people who were poor or ill. Francis considered everyone his brother or sister, including animals. He encouraged people to take care of animals just as they would take care of other people.
Within a few years other people had begun to copy his lifestyle. In 1210 they became the first members of the Franciscan Order. Making Generalizations How do you think Francis’s generosity and compassion might inspire Christians to follow the church’s teachings? | | | | | | | LINKING TO TODAY| School Days| | | | Did you know that many customs that schools and universities follow today began in the Middle Ages? For example, medieval teachers taught groups of students instead of individuals. Classes ran according to a fixed schedule, and students had to take tests.
At night, students went to their rooms to study and complete assignments. Many students participated in sports such as races and ball games after classes. At graduation, students dressed up in caps and gowns. All of these customs are still common today. Medieval universities were not exactly the same as universities are now, however. Medieval students entered the university at age 14, and only boys could attend. | ANALYZING INFORMATION| | | ————————————————- Top of Form Why do you think some customs followed by universities in the Middle Ages have lasted until today? | | | | | | | | | Bottom of Form| Universities Are BuiltWhile some people were drawing away from the world in monasteries and convents, others were looking for ways to learn more about it. In time, their search for knowledge led to the creation of Europe’s first universities. Some of the earliest universities were created by the church. The church’s goal was to teach people about religion. Other universities were created by groups of students who went searching for teachers who could tell them about the world. Most teachers in these universities were members of the clergy. Besides religion, schools taught law, medicine, astronomy, and other courses.
All classes were taught in Latin. Although relatively few people in Europe spoke Latin, it was the language of scholars and the church. As people began to study new subjects, some of them developed new ideas about the world. In particular, they wondered how human reason and Christian faith were related. In the past, people had believed that some things could be proven with reason, but other things had to be taken on faith. Some people in universities, though, began to wonder if the two ideas could work together. One such person was the Dominican philosopher Thomas Aquinas (uh-KWY-nuhs).
Thomas was a teacher at the University of Paris. He argued that rational thought could be used to support Christian beliefs. For example, he wrote an argument to prove the existence of God. Gothic Architecture| | | | One of the most beautiful of all Gothic cathedrals is in Chartres (SHAHRT), near Paris, France. At 112 feet high it is about as tall as a 10-story building. | | | | Thomas also believed that God had created a law that governed how the world operated. He called it natural law. If people could study and learn more about this law, he argued, they could learn to live the way God wanted.
Generalizing How did universities help create new ideas? The Church and the Arts In addition to politics and education, the church was also a strong influence on art and architecture. Throughout the Middle Ages, religious feeling inspired artists and architects to create beautiful works of art. Religious Architecture Many of Europe’s churches were incredible works of art. The grandest of these churches were cathedrals, large churches in which bishops led religious services. Beginning in the 1100s Europeans built their cathedrals using a dramatic new style called Gothic architecture.
Gothic cathedrals were not only places to pray, but also symbols of people’s faith. As a result, they were towering works of great majesty and glory. What made these Gothic churches so unusual? For one thing, they were much taller than older churches. The walls often rose up hundreds of feet, and the ceilings seemed to reach to heaven. Huge windows of stained glass let sunlight pour in, filling the churches with dazzling colors. Many of these amazing churches still exist. People continue to worship in them and admire their beauty. Saint Thomas Aquinas 1225–1274 |
Though he was born in Italy, Thomas Aquinas lived most of his life in France. As a student and then a teacher at the University of Paris, Thomas spent most of his time in study. He wrote a book called the Summa Theologica, in which he argued that science and religion were related. Although some people did not like Thomas’s ideas, most considered him the greatest thinker of the Middle Ages. Later teachers modeled their lessons after his ideas. | ————————————————- Top of Form Making Generalizations Why might people believe someone is a great thinker even if they disagree with his or her ideas? | | | | | | | Bottom of Form| Religious Art Medieval churches were also filled with beautiful objects created to show respect for God. Ornate paintings and tapestries covered the walls and ceilings. Even the clothing priests wore during religious services was marvelous. Their robes were often highly decorated, sometimes with threads made out of gold. Many of the books used during religious ceremonies were beautiful objects. Monks had copied these books carefully. They also decorated them using bright colors to adorn the first letters and the borders of each page.
Some monks added thin sheets of silver and gold to the pages. Because the pages seem to glow, we use the word illuminated to describe them. Reading Check Generalizing How were medieval art and religion related? SUMMARY AND PREVIEW Besides its religious role, the church played important roles in politics, education, and the arts. The church changed as time passed. In the next section, you will learn about other changes that took place in Europe at the same time. These changes created new political systems around the continent. Section AssessmentOnline Quiz Reviewing Ideas, Terms, and People 1. a.
Recall What are church officials called? b. Explain Why did people go on pilgrimages? 2. a. Identify What new monastery founded in France in the 900s served as an example to people around Europe? b. Contrast How were friars different from monks? 3. Analyze How did Thomas Aquinas think reason and faith could work together? 4. a. Identify What new style of religious architecture developed in Europe in the 1100s? b. Elaborate Why do you think so much of the art created in the Middle Ages was religious? Critical Thinking 5. CategorizingUsing the interactive graphic organizer and your notes, decide hich of the church’s roles were political, which were intellectual, and which were artistic. List each role in the appropriate column of your chart. Interactive Graphic Organizer Interactive Graphic Organizer Focus on Writing 6. Taking Notes on Church Leaders In this section, you’ve read about at least two people who became saints. Add them to your list and note why they’re important. Political and Social Change If YOU were there… You are a baron, one of England’s great nobles, living in northern Britain. Winter is approaching, and it looks like it will be very cold soon.
To prepare for the winter, you send some of your servants to a forest on your land to gather firewood. When they return, though, they don’t have much wood. The king has chopped down many of the trees in your forest to build a new castle. Dismayed, you send a messenger to ask the king to pay a fair price for the wood, but he refuses. How can you get the king to respect your rights? BUILDING BACKGROUND Beginning with William the Conqueror, the kings of England fought to increase their power. By the 1200s, the kings felt that they could do as they pleased, whether their nobles agreed with them or not.
The kings’ attitudes upset many nobles, especially when kings began to create new taxes or take the nobles’ property. Some nobles began to look for ways to limit kings’ powers and protect their own rights. Magna Carta Causes Change in England In 1215 a group of nobles decided to force the king to respect their rights. In the middle of a field called Runnymede near London, they made King John approve a document they had written. This document listing rights that the king could not ignore was called Magna Carta. Its name is a Latin phrase meaning “Great Charter. ” William the Conqueror
William the Conqueror. This sculpture is of William the Conqueror. He rides a rearing horse while holding a spear with a waving banner in one hand. Credit: © Ancient Art ; Architecture Collection, Ltd. Primary Source HISTORIC DOCUMENT Magna Carta Magna Carta was one of the first documents to protect the rights of the people. Magna Carta was so influential that the British still consider it part of their constitution. Some of its ideas are also in the U. S. Constitution. Included in Magna Carta were 63 demands that English nobles made King John agree to follow. A few of these demands are listed here.
To all free men of our kingdom we have also granted, for us and our heirs for ever, all the liberties written out below, to have and to keep for them and their heirs, of us and our heirs. (16) No man shall be forced to perform more service for a knight’s ‘fee’, or other free holding of land, than is due from it. (31) Neither we nor any royal official will take wood for our castle, or for any other purpose, without the consent [permission] of the owner. Annotation (38) In future no official shall place a man on trial upon his own unsupported statement, without producing credible [believable] witnesses to the truth of it.
Annotation —Magna Carta, from a translation by the British Library The Magna Carta: The picture is of the remnants of Magna Carta. It was one of the first documents to protect the rights of people. Several demands of the document are reprinted. Credit: Dept. of the Environment, London, UK/Bridgeman Art Library. Analysis Skills ANALYZING PRIMARY SOURCES In what ways do you think the ideas listed above influenced modern democracy? The Effects of Magna Carta Magna Carta required the king to honor certain rights. Among these rights was habeas corpus (HAY-bee-uhs KOHR-puhs), a Latin phrase meaning “you have the body. The right of habeas corpus meant that people could not be kept in jail without a reason. They had to be charged with a crime and convicted at a jury trial before they could be sent to prison. Before, kings could arrest people for no reason at all. More importantly, Magna Carta required that everyone—even the king—had to obey the law. The idea that everyone must follow the law became one of the basic principles of English government. Changes after Magna Carta Magna Carta inspired the English to find more ways to limit the king’s power. A council of nobles was created to advise the king.
In time, the council developed into Parliament (PAHR-luh-muhnt), the lawmaking body that governs England today. Over the years, membership in Parliament was opened to knights and town leaders. By the late Middle Ages, kings could do little without Parliament’s support. The English continued to work to secure and protect their rights. To ensure that everyone was treated fairly, people demanded that judges be free of royal control. Many people believed judges chosen by the king would always side with him. Eventually, in the late 1600s, the king agreed to free the courts of his control.
This creation of an independent judicial system was a key step in bringing democracy to England. Time Line| | Beginnings of Democracy in England| | How long after Magna Carta was signed was habeas corpus made into law? The Hundred Years’ War Although Magna Carta changed England’s government, it had no effect outside of that country. Kings in other parts of Europe continued to rule as they always had. Eventually, however, these kings also had to face great political changes. The Course of the War One of the countries in which political change occurred was France. In 1328 the king of France died with no sons, and two men claimed his throne.
One was French. The other was the king of England. In the end, the French man became king. This did not sit well with the English king, and a few years later he invaded France. This invasion began a long conflict between England and France that came to be called the Hundred Years’ War. At first the English armies did well, winning most of the battles. After nearly 100 years of fighting, however, a teenage peasant girl, Joan of Arc, rallied the French troops. Although the English eventually captured and killed Joan, it was too late. The Impact Today The French drove the English from their country in 1453.
Results of the War The Hundred Years’ War changed the governments of both England and France. In England, Parliament’s power grew because the king needed Parliament’s approval to raise money to pay for the costly war. As Parliament gained more influence, the king lost power. In France, on the other hand, the king’s power grew. During the war, the king had become popular with his nobles. Fighting the English had created a bond between them. As a result, the nobles supported the king after the war as well. Reading Check Contrasting How did the governments of England and France change after the war?
The Black Death While the English and French fought the Hundred Years’ War, an even greater crisis arose. This crisis was the Black Death, a deadly plague that swept through Europe between 1347 and 1351. The plague originally came from central and eastern Asia. Unknowingly, traders brought rats carrying the disease to Mediterranean ports in 1347. From there it quickly swept throughout much of Europe. Fleas that feasted on the blood of infected rats passed on the plague to people. The Black Death was not caused by one disease but by several different forms of plague.
One form called bubonic plague (byoo-BAH-nik PLAYG) could be identified by swellings called buboes that appeared on victims’ bodies. Another even deadlier form could spread through the air and kill people in less than a day. The Black Death killed so many people that many were buried quickly without priests or ceremonies. In some villages nearly everyone died or fled as neighbors fell ill. In England alone, about 1,000 villages were abandoned. The plague killed millions of people in Europe and millions more around the world. Some historians think Europe lost about a third of its population—perhaps 25 million people.
This huge drop in population caused sweeping changes in Europe. In most places, the manor system fell apart completely. There weren’t enough people left to work in the fields. Those peasants and serfs who had survived the plague found their skills in high demand. Suddenly, they could demand wages for their labor. Once they had money, many fled their manors completely, moving instead to Europe’s growing cities. Reading Check Identifying Cause and Effect What effects did bubonic plague have in Europe? SUMMARY AND PREVIEW Magna Carta, the Hundred Years’ War, and the Black Death changed European society.
In the next section, you will learn about other changes in society, changes brought about by religious differences. Section AssessmentOnline Quiz Reviewing Ideas, Terms, and People 1. a. Identify What document did English nobles hope would limit the king’s power? b. Explain How was the creation of Parliament a step toward the creation of democracy in England? 2. a. Identify Who rallied the French troops during the Hundred Years’ War? b. Elaborate The Hundred Years’ War caused much more damage in France than in England. Why do you think this was the case? 3. a. Describe What was the Black Death? . Explain How did the Black Death contribute to the decline of the manor system? c. Elaborate Why do you think the Black Death was able to spread so quickly through Europe? Critical Thinking 4. Identifying Cause and Effect Use the interactive graphic organizer to rank the significance of the effects of Magna Carta, the Hundred Year’s War, and the Black Death. Next to the diagram, write a sentence to explain your choices. Interactive Graphic Organizer Interactive Graphic Organizer Focus on Writing 5. Rating Importance After reading this section, you’ll probably want to add King John to your list.
You should also start to think about which people were the most important. Rank the people on your list from most to least important. How did the Black Death reach Europe from Asia? 2. What helped spread the plague within Europe? Challenges to Church Authority If YOU were there… You are a student at a university in Crdoba, Spain. Your fellow students include Christians, Muslims, and Jews. But a new king and queen want all Muslims and Jews to leave Spain. How will the rulers’ decision affect your friends? BUILDING BACKGROUND As you have read, most Europeans in the Middle Ages belonged to the Catholic Church.
As Christianity spread in Europe, many Jews and Muslims were pressured to become Christian or leave their homes. At the same time, others openly challenged the church’s authority. The Church Reacts to Challengers By around 1100, some Christians had begun to question church teachings. They felt that the clergy focused more on money and land than on God. Others didn’t agree with the church’s ideas. They began to preach their own ideas about religion. Religious ideas that oppose accepted church teachings are called heresy (HER-uh-see). People who hold such ideas are called heretics.
Church officials sent priests and friars throughout Europe to find possible heretics. Most of these priests and friars tried to be fair. A few tortured people until they confessed to heresy, even if they were innocent. Most people found guilty in these trials were fined or put in prison. Others were killed. In the early 1200s, Pope Innocent III decided that heresy was too great a threat to ignore. He called a crusade against heretics in southern France. With this call, the pope encouraged the king of France and his knights to rid their country of heretics. The result was a bloody war that lasted about 20 years.
The war destroyed towns and cost thousands of people their lives. Reading Check Finding Main Ideas How did church leaders try to fight heresy? Place In what year did the Christians capture Crdoba? | | | | | | | Christians Fight the Moors France was not the only place where Christians fought people they saw as the church’s enemies. In Spain and Portugal, armed Christian warriors fought to drive the Muslim Moors out of their lands. The Impact Today The Weakening of Muslim Control By the late 900s the once powerful Muslim government of Spain had begun to weaken. Political and religious leaders fought each other for power.
Various ethnic groups also fought each other. In 1002 the Muslim government fell apart completely. Caught up in fighting among themselves, Muslim leaders were too busy to guard against the Christian kingdoms of northern Spain. The Fight against the Moors For centuries, the kingdoms of northern Spain had been small and weak. But as the Moors’ power declined, these little Christian kingdoms seized the opportunity to attack. Slowly, they took land away from the Moors. They called their efforts to retake Spain from the Moors the Reconquista (reh-kahn-KEES-tuh), or reconquest.
In 1085 Castile (ka-STEEL), the largest of the Spanish kingdoms, won a great victory against the Moors. The Castilian victory inspired other Christian kingdoms to fight the Moors. The kingdoms of Aragon and Portugal soon joined the fight. The Christian armies won victory after victory. By the 1250s, the victorious Christian armies had nearly pushed the Moors completely out of Europe. The only territory still under Muslim control was a small kingdom called Granada (grah-NAH-dah). The Rise of Portugal and Spain As a result of their victories, both Portugal and Spain grew more powerful than before.
Portugal, once a part of Castile, broke free and declared its independence. Meanwhile, Castile and Aragon decided to unite. In 1469 Ferdinand, the prince of Aragon, married Isabella, a Castilian princess. Ten years later, they became king and queen of their countries. Together, they ruled all of Spain as King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella. Ferdinand and Isabella finally brought an end to the Reconquista. In 1492 their army conquered Granada, the last Muslim stronghold in Spain. That same year, they required all Spanish Jews to convert to Christianity or leave the country.
A few years later, they banned the practice of Islam as well. Through this policy all of Spain became Christian. Biography Queen Isabella Queen Isabella 1451–1504 Although she is considered one of the greatest monarchs in Spanish history, Isabella was never actually the queen of Spain. She was the queen of Castile, but she had no official power in her husband’s kingdom, Aragon. In practice, however, the two ruled both kingdoms together. In addition to her role in the Reconquista, Isabella made great contributions to Spanish society. She encouraged religion and education and supported many artists.
She also helped pay for the transatlantic voyages of Christopher Columbus, during which he discovered America. Analyzing How did Isabella help promote Spanish culture? The Spanish Inquisition Ferdinand and Isabella wanted only Christians in their kingdom. To ensure that Christianity alone was practiced, they created the Spanish Inquisition, an organization of priests that looked for and punished anyone in Spain suspected of secretly practicing their old religion. Later, the Inquisition spread to Portugal as well. The Spanish and Portuguese Inquisitions were ruthless in seeking heretics, Muslims, and Jews.
People found guilty of heresy were sentenced in public ceremonies. Many of those found guilty were killed. They were often burned to death. In total, the Spanish sentenced about 2,000 people to die. Almost 1,400 more were put to death by the Portuguese Inquisition. Reading Check Summarizing What was the purpose of the Spanish Inquisition? Jews Face Discrimination Heretics and Muslims were not the only groups punished for their beliefs in the Middle Ages. European Jews also suffered. This suffering was caused by Christians who believed that the Jews had been responsible for the death of Jesus. These Christians thought Jews should be punished.
You have already read about how Jews were killed during the Crusades. You have also read that Jews were forced to leave their homes in Spain. Similar things happened all over Europe. Rulers, supported by the church, forced Jews to leave their countries. For example, in 1290, the king of England arrested all English Jews and forced them to leave the country. The same thing happened in France in 1306 and again in 1394. The Spanish Inquisition The painting shows accused heretics, in the pointed hats, before the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish artist Francisco Goya painted it in the early 1800s. Many people are sitting around in an open room.
One person with a pointed hat is sitting alone up on a stage. Credit: Scala / Art Resource, NY The painting shows accused heretics, in the pointed hats, before the Spanish Inquisition. The Spanish artist Francisco Goya painted it in the early 1800s. How did the artist show what the accused heretics are feeling? In the Holy Roman Empire, frightened people blamed Jews for the arrival of the Black Death. Many Jews had to flee their homes to escape angry mobs. Because the Jews were not Christian, many Europeans didn’t want them in their towns. Reading Check Summarizing How were Jews discriminated against in the Middle Ages?
SUMMARY AND PREVIEW During the Middle Ages, religion shaped how people thought, what they did, and where they lived. In some places religion led to wars and punishment for those who didn’t agree with the Catholic Church. In the next chapter, you will learn about the era that followed the Middle Ages. Section AssessmentOnline Quiz Reviewing Ideas, Terms, and People 1. a. Define What is heresy? b. Explain Why did the church send priests and friars to find heretics? 2. a. Identify Who did Spanish Christians try to drive out of their lands? b. Explain What was the purpose of the Spanish Inquisition? c.
Predict How might Spanish history have been different if the Spanish had not defeated the Moors? 3. Summarize How did kings and other rulers punish Jews in the Middle Ages? Critical Thinking 4. Categorizing Use the interactive graphic organizer and your notes to help you fill in each box with a description of Christians’ reactions to that group. Interactive Graphic Organizer Interactive Graphic Organizer Focus on Writing 5. Choosing Important People There are two more people in this section whose names you can add to your list. Where do they go on the list of most-to-least important? Who is most important?