Migration, Immigration, and Emigration, and Their Effects

Vietnam has a wide variety of religions practiced in their country. Nine point three percent of Vietnams population are Buddhist, six point seven percent are Catholic, One point five percent are Hoa Hao, one point one percent are Cao Dai. Less than one percent are Protestant and Muslim. Even though Vietnam has a lot of variety of religions over eighty percent claim no religion (East and Southeast Asia, 2012). Even thought there is a wide variety of religions in Vietnam, most of the people who live there have a sense of the richness and variety of traditional Vietnamese religion.

In older tradition the majority of Vietnamese people believed they inhabited a world alive with gods and spirits. They didn’t make a distinction of the living world and the spirit or dead world. They also didn’t make a distinction between the world human beings, nature, vegetable, an animal. the believed that the energy of these worlds are all connected. Because of this religion plays a big part in the daily life of a Vietnamese person. In addition, your social status also affects how and what you believe. or example, Confucian scholars, who prided themselves for their rationality, often scoffed at what they considered the superstitious nature of peasant religion. But they, also had religious believes that they lived by. Where you work also determines what you believe. Fishermen, were notorious for the variety and richness of their beliefs. Some beliefs were shared by all Vietnamese. Others were adhered to only in one region or a small locality. Some were so deeply embedded in the culture as to be considered a part of tradition, holding sway over believers and non-believers alike.

Maybe because of the many religions or the way the Vietnamese people think, religion doesn’t play a big part in their country as a whole, but it does play a big part in the lives of the citizens of Vietnam. Even though, half of the world’s population lives in The Asia region people aren’t migrating to Vietnam (Stephen Castles, 2009). Vietnam is a very traditional country with allot of different ethnic groups. Vietnam is home to fifty-four official ethnic groups, the majority of which live in highland areas. Although some large groups such as, the Cham or Chinese, live in lowlands or urban areas.

I will go over a couple of the most known ethnic groups. There are eighty-five point seven percent of the Vietnamese are Kinh, which is said to be the native people of Vietnam. There are one point nine percent Tay people, who originates from the Chinese side of the Vietnamese – Chinese border. One point eight percent are Thai and are from Thailand. One point five percent are Muong which are the people who live in the mountains in Vietnam, and Khmer who come from Cambodia. One point two percent are Mong and they come from Mongolia. Less than one percent are Nung which are considered to be the “poor” people of Vietnam.

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The last five point three percent are labeled as other (East and Southeast Asia, 2012). Most people in Vietnam are natives to that land but their ancestors migrated from china long ago. Because of this migration doesn’t play a big part in Vietnams present but it does play a big part in its history. Even though they have been ruled by other countries most of the time, they kept a strong belief in their country and culture. Migration in Asia isn’t a new thing for them. Asians from these regions have been migrating for centuries. But in the 1970s and 1980s, international migration from Asia grew dramatically.

The main destinations were North America, Australia, and the oil economies of the Middle East. Since the 1990s, migration within Asia has grown, particularly from less-developed countries with massive labor surpluses to fast-growing newly industrializing countries (Stephen Castles, 2009). In today’s society migration has dropped. The reason for this is the Asian government wanted to control migration and migration rights were limited. They also made migration temporary in that region so people were prohibited to have family reunions.

Even though migration has dropped, emigration has risen six percent over the past ten years (Stephen Castles, 2009). There are about 2. 6 million people leaving Asia to look for work. In the 21st century over 6 million Asians are employed outside of their own countries within the Asian region. This has grown a great deal since the 1980s and has helped the Asian region grow. A lot of Asia’s were able to find work in the Middle East after the oil prices rose in 1973. This also contributed to the migration and emigration in Vietnam. The referred to these workers as contract labor.

The companies that employed them made it clear that they couldn’t bring family with them. In the 70s most of the works who migrated were male so the men of the house had to leave their families just to find work and provide for them. In the 1980s the economy was growing so rapidly and fertility was declining it cause a strong demand for labor workers. Even though they in Asia, most of the workers aren’t Asian. While existing flows from countries like Bangladesh, Indonesia, and the Philippines have continued, new source countries like Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos, and Burma have become more significant (Stephen Castles, 2009).

In the 1990s there was a demand for female domestic workers that started in the Middle East and then Asia. If women didn’t work in the domestic sector they often had the “typical female” jobs. Some examples of these jobs are entertainers(mostly prostitutes), restaurant and hotel staff, and assembly line workers in clothing or electronics. These jobs were poor paying and had terrible conditions. They were also associated with patriarchal stereotypes of female docility, obedience, and willingness to give personal services (Stephen Castles, 2009).

Another big form of female migration in Asia is female migration marriage. Since the 1900s, foreign brides have been sought out by farmers in areas likes Japan and Taiwan. This is one of the only permanent forms of immigration in Asia that is permitted. From the Asian government sand point it seem that these practices with women help their country, but it is sexist and will put the government in a terrible situation with women rights groups. The diversity in the religion and culture have shaped the Vietnamese people into who they are today.

Even though it doesn’t play a big part in the economy or government, religion is still a big part of the lives of the Vietnamese citizen. The religion is mixed in with their culture which makes the citizens of Vietnam a pride people. With the ever growing Asian economy Vietnam is in a good place to grow also. Even though the country has had allot of adversity, it has overcome it all. In the future maybe they will work on their women’s rights issues and continue to grow its economy. If that is done I have no doubt that the citizens of Vietnam will be happy and the economy will grow. ?

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