Models In Therapeutic Recreation Services Health And Social Care Essay

Models In Therapeutic Recreation Services Health And Social Care Essay

Curative Recreation seeks to advance the capacity and ability of groups and persons to do ego determined and responsible picks, in visible radiation of their demands to turn, to research new positions and possibilities, and to gain their full potency.

Within this assignment I am traveling to critically compare and measure the usage of the undermentioned theoretical accounts in the Therapeutic Recreation Service: The Leisure Ability Model and the Health Promotion/ Health Protection Model. In making so I will foremost depict the two theoretical accounts in item and so critically compare and measure them both and their usage in the curative diversion service.

The Leisure Ability Model:

Every human being demands, wants, and deserves leisure. Leisure presents chances to see command, learn new accomplishments, run into new people, intensify bing relationships, and develop a clearer sense of ego. Leisure provides the context in which people can larn, interact, show individuality, and self-actualize ( Kelly, 1990 ) .

A big figure of persons are constrained from full and hearty leisure experiences. It so follows that many persons with disablements and/or unwellnesss may see more frequent, terrible, or enduring barriers compared with their non-disabled opposite numbers, merely due to the presence of disablement and/or unwellness.

The Leisure Ability Models underlying footing stems from the constructs of: ( a ) learned helplessness vs. command or self-government ; ( B ) intrinsic motive, internal venue of control, and causal ascription ; ( degree Celsius ) pick ; and ( vitamin D ) flow.

Learned Helplessness:

Learned weakness is the perceptual experience by an person that events go oning in his or her life are beyond his or her personal control, and hence, the single Michigans seeking to consequence alterations or results with his or her life ( Seligman, 1975 ) . They will finally halt desiring to take part in activity or take part in any other manner. They will larn that the regulations are outside of their control and person else is in charge of puting the regulations. Their ability to take a hazard will be diminished and they will larn to be incapacitated. Learned weakness may show a psychological barrier to full leisure engagement and it may, conversely, be unlearned with the proviso of well-designed services.

Intrinsic Motivation, Internal Locus of Control, and Causal Attribution:

All persons are per se motivated toward behavior in which they can see competency and self-government. As such, persons seek experiences of incongruousness or challenges in which they can get the hang the state of affairs, cut down the incongruousness, and demo competency. This procedure is continual and through skill acquisition and command, produces feelings of satisfaction, competency, and control.

An internal venue of control implies that the person has the orientation that he or she is responsible for the behavior and outcomes he or she produces ( Deci, 1975 ) . Typically persons with an internal venue of control take duty for their determinations and the effects of their determinations, while an person with an external venue of control will put duty, recognition, and fault on other persons. An internal venue of control is of import for the person to experience autonomous or responsible, be motivated to go on to seek challenges, and develop a sense of self-competence. hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: //

Attribution implies that an single believes that he or she can impact a peculiar result ( Deci, 1975 ; Seligman, 1975 ) . An of import facet of the sense of achievement, competency, and control is the person ‘s reading of personal part to the result. Without a sense of personal causing, the likeliness of the single development learned weakness additions greatly.


The Leisure Ability Model besides relies to a great extent on the construct of pick, pick implies that the person has sufficient accomplishments, cognition, and attitudes to be able to hold options from which to take, and the accomplishments and desires to do appropriate picks. Lee and Mobily ( 1988 ) stated that curative diversion services should construct accomplishments and supply participants with options for engagement.


When accomplishment degree is high and activity challenge is low, the person is rather likely to be bored. When the accomplishment degree is low and the activity challenge is high, the person is most likely to be dying. When the accomplishment degree and activity challenge are indistinguishable or about indistinguishable, the person is most able to accomplish a province of concentration and energy outgo that Csikszentmihalyi ( 1990 ) has labeled “ flow. ”

Treatment Servicess

During intervention services, the client by and large has less control over the purpose of the plans and is dependent on the professional judgement and counsel provided by the specializer. The client experiences less freedom of pick during intervention services than any other class of curative diversion service. The function of the specializer supplying intervention services is that of healer. Within intervention services, the client has minimal control and the healer has maximum control. The specializer typically designates the client ‘s degree and type of engagement, with well small input from the client. In order to successfully bring forth client results, the specializer must be able to measure accurately the client ‘s functional shortages ; create, design, and implement specific intercessions to better these shortages ; and measure the client outcomes achieved from intervention plans.

hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: // ultimate result of intervention services is to extinguish, significantly better, or learn the client to accommodate to bing functional restrictions that hamper attempts to prosecute to the full in leisure chases. Often these functional shortages are to the grade that the client has trouble acquisition, developing his or her full potency, interacting with others, or being independent. The purpose of intervention services is to cut down these barriers so farther larning and engagement by the client can take topographic point.

Leisure Education:

Leisure instruction services focus on the client geting leisure-related attitudes, cognition, and accomplishments. Participating successfully in leisure requires a diverse scope of accomplishments and abilities, and many clients of curative diversion services do non possess these, have non been able to utilize them in their leisure clip, or need to re-learn them integrating the effects of their unwellness and/ or disablement. Leisure instruction services are provided to run into a broad scope of client demands related to prosecuting in a assortment of leisure activities and experiences. ( Howe, 1989, p. 207 ) .

The overall result sought through leisure instruction services is a client who has enough cognition and accomplishments that an informed and independent pick can be made for his or her future leisure engagement. Leisure instruction agencies increased freedom of pick, increased venue of control, increased intrinsic motive, and increased independency for the client.

Diversion Engagement: hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: //

Diversion engagement plans are structured activities that allow the client to pattern freshly acquired accomplishments, and/or experience enjoyment and self-expression. These plans are provided to let the client greater freedom of pick within an organized bringing system and may, in fact, be portion of the person ‘s leisure life style. The client ‘s function in diversion engagement plans includes greater determination devising and increased self-regulated behavior. The client has increased freedom of pick and his or her motive is mostly intrinsic. In these plans, the specializer is by and large no longer learning or “ in charge ” per Se. The client becomes mostly responsible for his or her ain experience and result, with the specializer traveling to an organiser and/or supervisor function.

As Stumbo and Peterson ( 1998 ) noted, diversion engagement allows the client an chance to pattern new accomplishments, experience enjoyment, and accomplish self-expression. From a clinical position, diversion engagement does much more. For case, diversion chances provide clients with reprieve from other, more backbreaking, therapy services.

Leisure instruction plans may concentrate on: ( a ) self-awareness in relation to clients ‘ new position ; ( B ) larning societal accomplishments such as assertiveness, get bying, and friendly relationship devising ; ( c ) re-learning or accommodating pre-morbid leisure accomplishments ; and ( vitamin D ) placement leisure resources appropriate to new involvements and that are accessible. Diversion engagement plans may affect practising a assortment of new leisure and societal accomplishments in a safe, structured environment.

In planing and implementing these plans, the specializer physiques on chances for the person to exert control, command, intrinsic motive, and pick. The ultimate result would be for each client to be able to accommodate to and get by with single disablement to the extent that he or she will see a satisfying and independent leisure life style, and be able to get the hang accomplishments to accomplish flow.

Health Promotion/ Health Protection Model:

The Health Protection/Health Promotion Model ( Austin, 1996, 1997 ) stipulates that the intent of curative diversion is to help individuals to retrieve following menaces to wellness, by assisting them to reconstruct themselves or recover stableness. ( wellness protection ) , and secondly, optimizing their potencies in order that they may bask every bit high a quality of wellness as possible ( wellness publicity ) .

Within this theoretical account ( Austin, 1997, p. 144 ) provinces that

aa‚¬A“the mission of curative diversion is to utilize activity, diversion, and leisure to assist people to cover with jobs that serve as barriers to wellness and to help them to turn toward their highest degrees of wellness and health ”

The wellness publicity, wellness protection theoretical account is broken up into four wide constructs which are the humanistic position, high degree health, stabilization and realization and wellness.

Humanist Position:

Those who embrace the humanistic position believe that each of us has the duty for his or her ain wellness and the capacity for doing autonomous and wise picks sing our wellness. Since persons are responsible for their ain wellness, it is critical to authorise persons to go involved in decision-making to the fullest extent possible ( Austin, 1997 ) .

High-level Health:

High-level wellness trades with assisting individuals to accomplish every bit high a degree of health as they are capable of accomplishing ( Austin, 1997 ) . Curative Diversion professionals have concern for the full scope of the illness-wellness continuum ( Austin, 1997 ) . hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: //

Stabilization and Actualization Inclinations:

The stabilizing inclination is concerned with keeping the “ steady province ” of the person. It is an version mechanism that helps us maintain emphasis in a manageable scope. It protects us from biophysical and psychosocial injury. The stabilizing inclination is the motivational force behind wellness protection that “ focal points on attempts to travel off from or avoid negatively valence provinces of unwellness and hurt ” ( Pender, 1996, p. 34 ) . The realization inclination drives us toward wellness publicity that “ focal points on attempts to near or travel toward a positively valency province of high-ranking wellness and wellbeing ” ( Pender, 1996, p. 34 ) .


King ( 1971 ) and Pender ( 1996 ) wellness encompasses both get bying adaptively and turning and going. Healthy people can get by with life ‘s stressors. Those who enjoy optimum wellness have the chance to prosecute the highest degrees of personal growing and development.

Under the Health Protection/Health Promotion Model, therapists* recognize that to assist clients strive toward wellness publicity is the ultimate end of curative diversion. Further, therapists prize the right of each person to prosecute his or her highest province of wellbeing, or optimum wellness. TR pattern is hence based on a doctrine that encourages clients to try to accomplish maximal wellness, instead than merely retrieve from unwellness ( Austin, 1997 ) .

The Component of Prescriptive Activities:

When clients ab initio encounter unwellnesss or upsets, frequently they become self-involved. They have a inclination to retreat from their usual life activities and to see a loss of control over their lives ( Flynn, 1980 ) . Research ( e.g. , Langer & A ; Rodin, 1976 ; Seligman & A ; Maier, 1967 ) has shown that feelings of deficiency of control may convey about a sense of weakness that can finally bring forth terrible depression. At times such as this clients are meeting a important menace to their wellness and are non prepared to bask and profit from diversion or leisure. For these persons, activity is a necessary requirement to wellness Restoration. Activity is a agency for them to get down to derive control over their state of affairs and to get the better of feelings of weakness and depression that on a regular basis accompany loss of control.

At this point on the continuum, Therapeutic Recreation professionals provide way and construction for prescribed activities. Once engaged in activity, clients can get down to comprehend themselves as being able to successfully interact with their environments, to get down to see feelings of success and command, and to take stairss toward recovering a sense of control. Clients come to gain that they are non inactive victims but can take action to reconstruct their wellness. They are so ready to partake in the diversion constituent of intervention.

The Recreation Component:

Diversion is activities that take topographic point during leisure clip ( Kraus. 1971 ) . Client demand to take portion in per se motivated diversion experiences that produce a sense of command and achievement within a supportive and nonthreatening atmosphere. Clients have fun as they learn new accomplishments, new behaviours, new ways to interact with others, new doctrines and values, and new knowledge about themselves. In short, they learn that they can be successful in their interactions with the universe. Through diversion they are able to re-create themselves, therefore battling menaces to wellness and reconstructing stableness. hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: //

The Leisure Component:

Whereas diversion allows people to reconstruct themselves, leisure is growing advancing. Leisure is a agency to self-actualisation because it allows people to hold self-determined chances to spread out themselves by successfully utilizing their abilities to run into challenges. Feelingss of achievement, assurance and pleasance consequence from such growing bring forthing experiences. Therefore leisure assumes an of import function in helping people to make their potencies ( Iso-Ahola, 1989 ) . Core elements in leisure seem to be that it is freely chosen and per se motivated.

The Recreation and Leisure Components:

Although diversion and leisure differ in that diversion is an adaptative device that allows us to reconstruct ourselves and leisure is a phenomenon that allows growing, they portion commonalties. Both diversion and leisure are free from restraint. Both involve intrinsic motive and both provide an chance for people to see a enormous sum of control in their lives. Both permit us to suspend mundane regulations and conventions in order to “ be ourselves ” and “ allow our hair down. ” Both allow us to be human with all of our imperfectnesss and infirmities. It is the undertaking of the curative diversion professional to keep an unfastened, supportive, and nonthreatening atmosphere that encourages these positive properties of diversion and leisure and which help to convey about curative benefit ( Austin, 1996 ) .

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Harmonizing to Bandura ( 1986 ) , bolstered efficaciousness outlooks allow clients to hold assurance in themselves and in their abilities to win in the face of defeat. Thus, clients experience more and more able to be in control of their lives and to run into hardship as they move along the continuum toward higher degrees of wellness. It is the function of the TR professional to assist each client assume increasing degrees of independency as he or she moves along the illness-wellness continuum. Of class, the client with the greatest dependance on the healer will be the person who is in the poorest wellness. At this point the stabilizing inclination is paramount while the client efforts to guard off the menace to wellness and to return to his or her usual stable province. At this clip the healer engages the client in normative activities or diversion experiences in order to help the client with wellness protection. During normative activities the client ‘s control is the smallest and the healer ‘s is the largest. During diversion there is more of a common engagement by the client and healer. With the aid of the healer, the client learns to choose, and take part in, diversion experiences that promote wellness betterment. Approximately center across the continuum, the stabilising inclination reduces and the actualising inclination begins to originate. Leisure begins to emerge as the paramount paradigm. As the realization inclination additions, the client becomes less and less dependent on the healer and more and more responsible for self-government. The function of the healer continues to decrease until the client is able to work without the assistant. At this point the client can work comparatively independently of the TR professional and there is no demand for TR service bringing ( Austin, 1997 ) .

Comparison of the usage of the Leisure Ability Model to the Health Promotion/ Health Protection Model in Therapeutic Recreation Services:

The function of the curative diversion specializer, in order to change by reversal the effects of erudite weakness, is to help the person in: ( a ) increasing the sense of personal causing and internal control, ( B ) increasing intrinsic motive, ( degree Celsius ) increasing the sense of personal pick and options, and ( vitamin D ) accomplishing the province of optimum experience or “ flow. ”

In theory, so, curative diversion is provided to impact the entire leisure behavior ( leisure life style ) of persons with disablements and/or unwellnesss through decreasing learned weakness, and increasing personal control, intrinsic motive, and personal pick. This result is accomplished through the specific proviso of intervention, leisure instruction, and diversion engagement services which teach specific accomplishments, cognitions, and abilities, and take into consideration the matching of client accomplishment and activity challenge.

Another strength is the Model ‘s flexibleness. One degree of flexibleness is with the three constituents of service. Each constituent of service is selected and programmed based on client demand. That is, some clients will necessitate intervention and leisure instruction services, without diversion engagement. Other clients will necessitate merely leisure instruction and diversion engagement services. Clearly, services are selected based on client demand. In add-on, plans conceptualized within each service constituent are selected based on client demand.

flexibleness allow the specializer to custom design plans to suit the demands of every and any client group served by curative diversion. The ultimate end of leisure life style remains the same for every client, but since it is based on the person, how the life style will be implemented by the person and what it contains may differ. As such, the content of the Leisure Ability Model is non specific to any one population or client group, nor is it confined to any specific service or bringing scene. Some writers, including Kinney and Shank ( 1989 ) , have reported this as a strength of the Model.

Harmonizing to the theoretical account, intercession may happen in a broad scope of scenes and references persons with “ physical, mental, societal, or emotional restrictions ” ( Peterson & A ; Gunn, p. 4 ) . The intercession theoretical account is conceptually divided into three stages along a continuum of client operation and restrictiveness. The three stages of curative diversion intercession are arranged in a sequence, from greater healer control to lesser healer control, and from lesser client independency to greater client independency. This agreement is purposeful and is meant to convey that the ultimate purpose of the “ appropriate leisure life style ” is that it be engaged in independently and freely.


The Health Protection/Health Promotion Model contains three major constituents ( i.e. , prescribed activities, diversion, and leisure ) that range along an illness-wellness continuum. Harmonizing to their demands, clients may come in anyplace along the continuum. The theoretical account emphasizes the active function of the client who becomes less and less reliant on the TR professional as he or she moves toward higher degrees of wellness. Initially, way and construction are provided through normative activities to assist trip the client. During diversion, the client and healer articulation together in a common attempt to reconstruct normal operation. During leisure, the client assumes primary duty for his or her ain wellness and wellbeing.

Evaluation of both theoretical accounts and there usage in curative diversion services:

The overall intended result of curative diversion services, as defined by the Leisure Ability Model, is a satisfying, independent, and freely chosen leisure life style.

In order to ease these perceptual experiences, curative diversion specializers must be able to plan, implement, and measure a assortment of activities that increase the individual ‘s single competency and sense of control. In relation to leisure behavior, Peterson ( 1989 ) felt that this includes bettering functional abilities, bettering leisure-related attitudes, accomplishments, cognition, and abilities, and voluntarily prosecuting in autonomous leisure behavior. Therefore, the three service countries of intervention, leisure instruction, and diversion engagement are designed to learn specific accomplishments to better personal competency and a sense of achievement. Csikszentmihalyi ( 1990 ) summed up the importance of these perceptual experiences: “ In the long tally optimum experiences add up to a sense of mastery-or possibly better, a sense of engagement in finding the content of life-that comes every bit close to what is normally meant by felicity as anything else we can conceivably conceive of ” ( p. 4 ) .

The curative diversion specializer must be able to adequately assess clients ‘ accomplishment degree ( through client appraisal ) and activity demands ( through activity analysis ) in order for the two to come close one another. Given Deci ‘s ( 1975 ) theory of intrinsic motive which includes the construct of incongruousness, curative diversion specializers may supply activities somewhat above the skill degree of clients in order to increase the sense of command. When this lucifer between the activity demands and client accomplishment degrees occurs, clients are most able to larn and see a higher quality leisure. To ease this, curative diversion specializers become responsible for groking and integrating the: ( a ) theoretical bases ( including but non limited to internal venue of control, intrinsic motive, personal causing, freedom of pick, and flow ) ; ( B ) typical client features, including demands and shortages ; ( degree Celsius ) facets of quality curative diversion plan bringing procedure ( e.g. , client appraisal, activity analysis, outcome rating, etc. ) ; and ( vitamin D ) curative diversion content ( intervention, leisure instruction, and diversion engagement ) .

These countries of understanding are of import for the curative diversion specializer to be able to plan a series of coherent, organized plans that meet client demands and travel the client farther toward an independent and satisfactory leisure life style. Again, the success of that life style is dependent on the client deriving a sense of control and pick over leisure options, and holding an orientation toward intrinsic motive, an internal venue of control, and a personal sense of causality. The Leisure Ability Model provides specific content that can be addressed with clients in order to ease their development, care, and look of a successful leisure life style. Each facet of this content applies to the hereafter success, independency, and wellbeing of clients in respect to their leisure. hypertext transfer protocol: // tag=rbxira.2.a.10 & A ; destUrl=http: //

The client has reduced major functional restrictions that prohibit or significantly limit leisure engagement ( or at least has learned ways to get the better of these barriers ) ; understands and values the importance of leisure in the entirety of life experiences ; has adequate societal accomplishments for engagement with others ; is able to take between several leisure activity options on a day-to-day footing, and do determinations for leisure engagement ; is able to turn up and utilize leisure resources as necessary ; and has increased perceptual experiences of pick, motive, freedom, duty, causality, and independency with respect to his or her leisure. These results are targeted through the designation of client demands, the proviso of plans to run into those demands, and the rating of results during and after plan bringing. A curative diversion specializer designs, implements, and evaluates services aimed at these results

Austin ( 1989 ) objected to the Leisure Ability Model on the footing that is back uping a leisure behavior orientation, alternatively of the therapy orientation. “ A figure of writers have objected to the Leisure Ability Model, holding observed that its across-the-board attack is excessively wide and lacks the focal point needed to direct a profession ” ( Austin, p. 147 ) . Austin advocated an alliance of curative diversion with allied wellness and medical scientific discipline subjects, instead than leisure and diversion professionals

The Model in Practice

The Health Protection/Health Promotion Model may be applied in any scene ( i.e. , clinical or community ) in which the end of curative diversion is holistic wellness and wellbeing. Thus, anyone who wishes to better his or her degree of wellness can go a TR client. TR professionals view all clients as holding abilities and integral strengths, every bit good as possessing intrinsic worth and the possible for alteration. Through purposeful intercession utilizing the TR procedure ( i.e. , appraisal, planning, execution, rating ) , curative results emphasize enhanced client operation. Typical curative results include increasing personal consciousness, bettering societal accomplishments, heightening leisure abilities, diminishing emphasis, bettering physical operation, and developing feelings of positive self-regard, self-efficacy and perceived control ( Austin, 1996 ) .