Modern World History: Chapter 13

Nationalism
A deep devotion towards one nation. Can serve as a unifying fore within a country, but can also cause intense competition among nations.
Imperialism
A policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force.
Militarism
The policy of glorifying military power and keeping an army prepared for war.
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Otto von Bismarck
Used war to unify Germany. Saw France as a threat to peace, isolated it.
Triple Alliance
Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy.
Kaiser Wilhelm II
Forced Bismarck to resign. The army was his greatest pride. Began large shipbuilding program.
Triple Entente
Great Britain, France, Russia.
Balkans
“Powder Keg” of Europe. Strong sense of nationalism within region.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
Heir to Austria-Hungary throne. Shot while at a visit to Bosnia & Herzegovina. “Indirect” cause of World War 1.
Assassinated in = June 28, 1914
Central Powers
Germany, Austria-Hungary.
Allies
Great Britain, France, Russia, Japan, Italy.
Western Front
Deadlocked region in Northern France.
Schlieffen Plan
Created by: General Alfred Graf von Schlieffen. Plan called for massively attacking the West (France), then running off to attack the East (Germany).
Trench Warfare
Deep canals used to tightly transport soldiers across the battlefield. Massive casualties resulted from this warfare.
Eastern Front
Stretch of battlefield along the German and Russian border.
The Gallipoli Campaign
Effort (by the Allies) to take the Dardanelles canal that led to Constantinople (capital of Ottoman Empire), to be able to aid Russia.
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
Germany sunk every ship in the waters around Britain.
Total War
A nation dedicates all the manpower and supplies within itself to the war.
Rationing
System in which civilians could only buy small amounts of various items due to their great necessity (items) in the war. Varied from butter to shoe leather.
Propaganda
Efforts to promote war efforts and support.
The Big Four
Woodrow Wilson (United States), George Clemenceau (France), David Lloyd George (Great Britain), Vittorio Orlando (Italy)
Fourteen Points
Wilson’s plan to establish world-wide peace.
Self-determination
Allowing people to decide for themselves under what government they wished to live.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty between Germany, and Allies. Included the creation of the League of Nations, Territorial Losses for various nations, Military Restrictions, as well as War Guilt towards Germany. Signed = June 28, 1919
League of Nations
International Association whose goal would be to keep peace among nations.

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