Modern World History Chapter 6: Enlightenment and Revolution

Modern World History Chapter 6: Enlightenment and Revolution

Geocentric
Belief that earth was the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution
New way scientists were looking at the natural world; careful observation and desire to question; caused by exploration, printing press, navagation
(Nicolaus) Copernicus
Came up with the heliocentric theory; feared persecution
A Polish astronomer who proved that the Ptolemaic system was inaccurate, he proposed the theory that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the solar system.
Heliocentric (Theory)
Belief that the sun is at the center of the universe
Johannes Kepler
Assistant to Brahe; used Brahe’s data to prove that the earth moved in an elliptical, not circular, orbit; Wrote 3 laws of planetary motion based on mechanical relationships and accurately predicted movements of planets in a sun-centered universe; Demolished old systems of Aristotle and Ptolemy
Galileo Galilei
Built the telescope in 1609; wrote Starry Messenger; put on trial for heresy; confessed Copernicus was wrong; lived under house arrest until death
Scientific Method
A series of steps followed to solve problems including collecting data, formulating a hypothesis, testing the hypothesis, and stating conclusions.
(Francis) Bacon
developed the scientific method
Isaac Newton
Defined the laws of motion and gravity. Tried to explain motion of the universe.
Andreas Vasalius
Called the father of Biology. He is one of the first people to undertake the systematic and scientific study of the human body.
(Edward) Jenner
Made first vaccine for smallpox
(Robert) Boyle
Scientist who found out matter was made up of small particles
Father of modern chemistry
Enlightenment
A popular philosophical movement of the 1700s that focused on human reasoning, natural science, political and ethical philosophy.
(Thomas) Hobbes
Thought all humans are wicked, need strong ruler to keep order; wrote Leviathan
Leviathan
Book written by Thomas Hobbes
Social Contract
Agreement by people to create a government because they need it; thought of by Thomas Hobbes
(John) Locke
17th century English philosopher who opposed the Divine Right of Kings and who asserted that people have a natural right to life, liberty, and property.
Voltaire
(1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Montesqueiu
had the idea of having three branches of government so that no one branch may have too much power
Rousseau
Philosophe who wanted direct democracy; no classes, no nobility
Wrote the Social Contract; Believed freedom is society’s general will
(Mary) Wollstonecraft
Believed women needed education and should have jobs
British feminist of the eighteenth century who argued for women’s equality with men, even in voting, in her 1792 “Vindication of the Rights of Women.”
Paris
City that was the capital of the Enlightenment
Salon
An intellectual social gathering held by wealthy women
Denis Diderot
Philosopher who edited a book called the Encyclopedia which was banned by the French king and pope.
Encyclopedia
A collection of essays and articles by Denis Diderot; angered church and government
Baroque (style)
Grand, ornate, elaborate style
Neoclassic
Simple, elegant style
Enlightened despots
Rulers who respected enlightenment, but did not want to give up their power
Frederick the Great
This was the Prussian king who embraced culture and wrote poetry and prose. He gave religious and philosophical toleration to all subjects, abolished torture and made the laws simpler
Catherine the Great
Russian ruler; educated; wanted to reform- failed; promised to free serfs but never did
George III
King of England during the American Revolution
Thomas Jefferson
Wrote the Declaration of Independence in 1776
Articles of Confederation
Documents of the new American government that had too weak of a central government
Constitution
Document of the new American government that had a stronger central government
Federal System
Power divided between national and state governments; American government
Bill of Rights
Amendments to protect basic rights; American government
First 10 amendments
Tycho Brahe
(1546-1601), established himself as Europe’s leading astronomer, collected a mass of data, believed that all planets revolved around the sun and that system revolved around the earth-moon system
rene descartes
17th century French philosopher; wrote Discourse on Method; 1st principle “i think therefore i am”; believed mind and matter were completly seperate; known as father of modern rationalism
Torricelli
Italian physicist who invented the barometer (used to forecast weather) and made many advances in optics.
Causes of the Scientific Revolution
A combination of discoveries and circumstances including: exploration of Africa, Asia in the Americas. This led to the thought that there were new truths to be found, navigators needed better equipment and people wanted to know more
Controversy of Scientific Revolution
New inventions/subjects
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Father of microbiology
Goals of Enlightenment