Modern World History Chapter 6

Modern World History Chapter 6

Geocentric Theory
In the Middle Ages, the earth centered view of the universe in which scholars believed that the earth was an immovable object located at the center of the universe
Scientific Revolution
A major change in european thought, starting in the mid 1500’s, in which the study of the natural world began to be characterized by careful observation and questioning of accepted beliefs
Copernicus
A Polish cleric and astronomer who, being interested in an old Greek idea that the sun was at the center of the universe, studied planetary movements for 25 years and concluded that the stars, earth, and the other planets revolve around the sun.
Heliocentric Theory
The idea that the earth and the other planets revolve around the sun
Kepler
A brilliant mathematician who, after reading and coninuing his mentor’s work, concluded that certain mathematical laws govern planetary motion.
Galileo
An Italian scientist who was hated by Catholics and Protestants because his findings defended Copernicus’s findings and went against their beliefs. Under the threat of torture, he knealt down before the court and told everyone that Copernicus’s findings were false.
Scientific Method
A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas. It begins with a problem or question arising from an observation. A hypothesis is then formed and is tested in an experimennt or on the basis of data. Then an analysis interprets the data to form a conclusion.
Frances Bacon
An English statemen and writer who believed that by better understanding the world, scientists would generate practical knowledge that would improve people’s lives.
Rene Descartes
Developed Analytical geometry, which linked Algebra and geometry.
Issac Newton
The Great English scientist who helped to bring together Copernicus’s breakthroughs, Kepler’s breakthroughs, and Galileo’s breakthroughs under a single theory of motion: The Law of Universal Gravitation.
Vesalius
A flemish Physician who dissected human corpses and published his observations
Robert Boyle
Discovered the use of the scientific method in chemistry. Considered the founder of modern chemistry
Enlightenment
A new intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of individuals to solve probems.
Thomas Hobbes
Said without government to keep order there would be “war of every man against every man”
John Locke
A philosopher who believed that people could learn from experience and improve themselves. Said that the purpose of the government was to protect these rights – life, liberty, and property
Social Contract
The agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
Philosophes
Social thinkers in France during the Enlightenment.
Voltaire
Real name was Françoise Marie Arouet. Defended freedom of speech by saying, “I do not agree with a word you say, but will defend to the death your right to say it”.
Montesquieu
Said, “Power should be a check to power”. Created the separation of powers.
Rousseau
Said, “Power should be a check to power”. Created the separation of powers.
Beccaria
An Italian philosophe who believed that laws existed to preserve social order, not to avenge crimes.
Mary Astoll
Mary Wollstonecraft
Salons
Diderot