Modern World History: The French Revolution and Napoleon

Modern World History: The French Revolution and Napoleon

Old Regime
The social and political system of old France
Estate
One of three classes France was divided into
1st (Estate)
Estate that contained clergy and paid almost no taxes
2nd (Estate)
Estate that contained rich nobles who paid no taxes
3rd (Estate)
Estate that contained middle class and peasants; 97% of the population
American Revolution
Event that inspired the 3rd Estate to change the government
Louis XVI
King who doubled France’s huge debt; weak leader
Marie Antoinette
Austrian queen; wife of Louis XVI; increased France’s debt; very unpopular
Estates General
Meeting in Versailles to approve taxes; first time it met in 175 years; each estate gets one vote
National Assembly
Group that would pass laws and reforms; wanted by 3rd estate
Tennis Court Oath
Rebellion by the 3rd estate; they would stay put until a new constitution was made
Bastille
Held prisoners of war and gunpowder; stormed by the French to get guns and ammunition
(The) Great Fear
Time period when peasants feared that the nobles were hiring outlaws to kill them
Declaration of the Rights of Man
Document to restore France; “men are born free and equal in rights”; freedoms to liberty, property, security, resistance to oppression; not for women
Olympe de Gouges
Executed for her writings for women
Limited Monarchy
Type of government in France where King Louis had much less power and authority
Legislative Assembly
New group in France that could create laws and approve wars
Radicals
Group that wanted big changes
Moderates
Group that wanted some change
Conservatives
Group that wanted limited monarchy
Emigres
Nobles who had fled; wanted to bring back old regime
Sans-culottes
Lower class workers who wanted change
Austria, Prussia
Two countries that urged France to restore Louis as absolute monarch
Jacobins
Radical group that took over and began executions
Jean-Paul Marat
Jacobin who called for the death of all supporters of the king
Guillotine
Beheading machine used to behead people more efficiently
Robespierre
Jacobin who took power; wanted to erase all trace of old France; took out churches and Sundays; leader of committee of public safety; governed during the Reign of Terror
Reign of Terror
Time period when many people were executed using the guillotine
The Directory
The executive body and legislative group in a new constitution after the death of Robespierre; middle class power
Napoleon Bonaparte
Officer in army who defended the National Convention from royalist rebels; won tons of victories; took power as first consul; made peace agreements with other countries
Napoleon Bonaparte
Ruler of France after the death of Robespierre; still loyal to the Revolution while restoring order; got rid of government corruption; set up schools; efficient taxes and banking; restored the Catholic Church
Consul
Dictator
Coup d’etat
“blow to the state”
Plebiscite
Vote of the people; approved Napoleon’s constitution
Lycees
Schools set up by Napoleon to train officials
Concordat
Agreement; signed by Pope Pius VII; restored the Catholic Church but the church could not interfere in government affairs
Pope Pius VII
Signed the Concordat with Napoleon
Napoleonic Code
System of laws; promoted order and authority over rights; no freedom of speech/press; restored slaves; made by Napoleon
Saint Domingue
American colony lost by Napoleon because of a slave rebellion
Austria, Prussia, Russia
Countries that were forced to sign a peace treaty with Napoleon
Battle of Trafalgar
Napoleon’s only major loss; naval battle against Britain; Horatio Nelson destroyed French fleet
Horatio Nelson
British hero who destroyed the French fleet in the Battle of Trafalgar
Continental System
The blockade of all trade/communication between Britain and Europe; thought of by Napoleon; to make Europe more self-sufficient; failed
Peninsular War
Spanish vs French; Spanish were afraid Napoleon would attack the Church; peasant fighters ambushed army and won; occurred because Napoleon wanted to enforce the Continental System
Guerrilla
A peasant fighter who ambushed the French army and won in the Peninsular War
Scorched-Earth Policy
Burning fields, destroying livestock, leaving no supplies for the enemy; tactic that Russia used against Napoleon
Elba
Tiny island off the Italian coast to which Napoleon was first banished
Louis XVIII
King of France after Napoleon’s downfall and banishment; unpopular
Waterloo
French vs British; Napoleon fought this battle after just escaping banishment on Elba
Hundred Days (of Power)
The name for the time when Napoleon escaped Elba and regained control of France
St. Helena
Remote island to which Napoleon was banished for the second time
Congress of Vienna
Meeting to make policies to stabilize Europe; the 5 great powers: Russia, Britain, Prussia, Austria, France; strengthened countries around France, kept balance of power, restored rulers; first time a whole continent got together to solve problems
Russia, Britain, Prussia, Austria, France
The five ‘great powers’ that met at the Congress of Vienna
Klemons van Metternich
Austrian prince who was the most influential person at the Congress of Vienna; wanted to stop French aggression, restore a balance of power, and restore royal families
Legitimacy
The principle that the rulers who Napoleon had driven form power could be restored
Holy Alliance
Group of Prussia, Russia, and Austria that used Christianity to combat revolution
Concert of Europe
Agreement that nations would help each other if there was a revolution
Louisiana Territory (Louisiana Purchase)
Land sold by France to America for $15 million; helped finance European wars and punish the British