Molecules of Life Computer Assignment A) What characteristics are typical of molecules that are gases at room temperature? Molecules that are gases at room temperature tend to be smaller in size. This causes it to have a small molecular masses and has a relatively weak intermolecular forces of attraction. B) Compare and contrast the characteristics of soluble and insoluble molecules. Soluble MoleculesInsoluble Molecules -polar-non polar -lots of oxygen atoms-very few oxygen atoms -high electronegativity-low electronegativity C) Describe the general molecular characteristics of mono and disaccharides.
What features account for their high solubility in water. The feature of mono and disaccharides that accounts for their high solubility in water is that they are relatively small-moderate in size and are polar (or ionic). D) What element forms the bridge between the monomers that make up maltose and sucrose? What molecule was made during the condensation reactions that formed these disaccharides? A water molecule is formed during the condensation reactions that formed these disaccharides. This leaves a oxygen behind which bridges between the monomers that make up maltose and sucrose.
E) Compare and contrast the overall shapes of cellulose, amylose, and amylopectin. How do their differences in structure account for their different biological functions? CelluloseAmyloseAmylopectin non-branchingnon-linearnon-linear linearglobular structureglobular structure ability to bond to hydrogennon-branchingbranched FunctionFunctionFunction Structural support for plantsglucose storage moleculesglucose storage molecules F) What features of cellulose molecules account for both the strength and the water absorbing qualities of paper towels?
The features of a cellulose molecule that accounts for both the strength and the water absorbing qualities of paper towels are that it is polar making it attracted to water molecules but because the molecule is so large it is not soluble. Causing it to pick up water easily. G) What type of intermolecular force dominates the interactions of carbohydrates and water? The type of intermolecular force that dominates the interactions of carbohydrates and water would be hydrogen bonds. H) Describe the general characteristics of all fatty acids.
The general characteristics of all fatty acids are they contain mainly carbon and hydrogen with very few oxygen atoms. They also have poor solubility making it “waterproof”. I) Compare the shape and molecular structure of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Provide examples to support your description. The differences between saturated and unsaturated fats is that unsaturated fats contain one or more double bonds of carbon bonds making the molecule look twisted in that area, whereas saturated fats don’t contain any double bonds and are linear.
This causes the saturated fats to have a higher intermolecular force then unsaturated fats. J) What functional groups are involved in the formation of a triglyceride from glycerol and fatty acids? The functional groups that are involved in the formation of a triglyceride from glycerol and fatty acids are three fatty acids are joined to a glycerol atom which then go through three dehydration reactions. K) What is the fundamental difference between a triglyceride and a phospholipid?
How does this difference account for the hydrophobic and hydrophilic nature of the phospholipid molecule? Phospholipids are different then triglyceride because they have a highly polar phosphate group attached to the glycerol instead of having three fatty acids, the highly polar phosphate is strongly attracted to water. The hydrophobic part of the atom is the two non-polar fatty acids at the end of the molecule making a “tail”. While the hydrophilic part of the atom is the highly polar phosphate called the “head”.