MUHL 368 – History of Jazz: Ch.7 – Bebop

MUHL 368 – History of Jazz: Ch.7 – Bebop

Bebop
Started in early 1940’s Harlem, bebop marked the changing of jazz from dance focused music to listening focused music.
Minton’s Playhouse
site of many celebrated early bebop sessions
starting place of Thelonious Monk
Clark Monroe’s Uptown House
site of early bebop sessions, owned by onetime tap dancer Clark Monroe, called Dark Gable
The Street
cluster of clubs in tiny narrow basements on 52nd between fifth and sixth avenue
The Street clubs
The Onyx
The Downbeat
The Famous Door
Kelly’s Stables
Jimmy Ryans
Bebop ensemble
five pieces: trumpet, sax, piano, bass, and drums
Bebop musical characteristics
deliberately un-danceable rhythm
arrangements consisted only of a melody played in unison by horns in between solos
Bebop rhythm
syncopated and unpredictable. bass drum used to drop bombs. free form piano playing. rhythmically complex melodies
Bebop Harmony
heavy reharmonization and chord substitution
Bebop Melody
more complex and challenging
often outgrowths of improvisations
heavy use of flatted 5th interval
Bebop repertoire
due to unwillingness to pay royalties, bebop records were often made with independent small record companies and consisted solely of original tunes/though these were often jazz standards with new melodies
Characteristics of Bebop
High-spirited, joyful music
small, five piece ensemble
simple arrangements
emphasis on improvised solos
extreme tempos
reharmonization/chord substitution
unpredictable flatted 5th melodies
new repertoire based on jazz standards
The most influential architects of bebop
Charlie Parker
Dizzy Gillespie
Thelonious Monk
the three often played together
Charlie Parker
1920-1955, alto sax/composer from Kansas City
began gigging at 15
originally awful, revolutionized his style in summer 1937
difficult life, starting heroin at 17
Charlie Parker’s nickname
Bird, because while on tour the band’s car hit a chicken, which Charlie had cooked and then ate at their next stop.
Bird’s major NYC influence
Art Tatum in Jimmy’s Chicken Shack
first major bebop recordings
by Charlie Parker at the Three Deuces on 52nd Street
Bird’s bad influence on jazz….
many younger musicians began experimenting with heroin, in the belief that its influence would help them play like Bird, starting an epidemic in the jazz world
Birdland
venue opened with a live radio broadcast of Parker playing. First club named after a jazz musician
Massey Hall incident
Bird had to borrow a plastic saxophone, he had sold his own to pay off drug debts
Dizzy Gillespie
1917-1993, Trumpet/composer/bandleader
Born John Birks Gillespie
Gillespie’s Nickname
during a two year stay with the Cab Calloway Orchestra starting in 1939, Gillespie’s original and explosive style coupled with clowning and pranks earned him the name Dizzy
Dizzy “The Schoolmaster”
earned name schoolmaster because of the informal sessions he often help with musicians regarding bop chord progressions
first bebop recording session
Dizzy Gillespie and Coleman Hawkins recording of “Woody’n You”
Afro-Cuban
started by Gillespie and Chano Pozo, describes big band music with latin rhythms and percussion
Characteristics of Afro-Cuban
Complex latin rhythms combined with bebop melody and improv
percussion such as bongos, congas, and timbales
originally used by big bands, now in ensembles of all sizes
Thelonious Sphere Monk
1917-1982, Piano/Composer
self taught pianist, early stride influence
house pianist at Minton’s Playhouse
reclusive personality
heavy influence on bop harmony
first Monk recording contract
1947 with upstart label Blue Note, labeled as High Priest of Bop
Characteristics of Monk
sparse, percussive and dissonant playing
rhythmic phrasing, offbeat
often performed with a quartet of drums, bass, and tenor sax
Five Spot
Greenwich Village nightspot where Monk made a triumphant return with a young John Coltrane
Odd habits of Monk
animated stage presencem walking through the audience often while waving his hands
fetish for exotic hats
Bud Powell
1924-1966, Piano/Composer
protege of Monk
Kenny Clarke
drummer, founder of modern jazz drumming
Charlie Christian
Electric guitar. discovered by John Hammond, played in the Benny Goodman orchestra. first great electric guitarist to focus on single note runs rather than rhythm playing
Max Roach
drums/composer/bandleader
melodic and polyrhythmic
Dexter Gordon
tenor sax
Theodore Fats Navarro
Trumpet
Tadd Dameron
piano, arranger, composer
oscar peterson
piano
jj johnson
trombone
during the bebop era, jazz was replaced by
rhythm and blues as popular music, as it was more easy to dance to and commercial
Moldy Figs vs Moderns
1947 article by Barry Ulanov which coined the term that has been used ever since to describe those who refuse to keep up with modern trends
trad jazz
New Orleans revival of traditional jazz during the war between figs and moderns
Billy Eckstine
Singer/Bandleader of the Sepia Sinatra
all star group that played big band bebop, yet few recordings exist due to the recording ban
Claude Thornhill
Piano/Bandleader
orchestral jazz, using french horns
inspiration for miles davis
Woody Herman
clarinet/bandleader
started as a swing band, played bebop inspired modern arrangements
Stan Kenton
Piano/composer/bandleader
wide variety of tunes with progressive arrangement
conducted many jazz clinics
Ella Fitzgerald
widely regarded as greatest scat singer in history of jazz
first hired by Chick Webb after an amateur singing competition
rare female band leader
developed scat technique with Dizzy Gillespie
Sarah Vaughan
vocalist of Billy Eckstine orchestra from 1944 to 45
“sassy”
fine pianist
Eddie Jefferson
perfected vocalese, adding witty lyrics to existing jazz instrumental melodies
Lambert, Hendricks, and Ross
first to apply bop harmonies and performance to vocal ensemble singing
Demise of 52nd Street
after the war ended, police cracked down on the rampant crime on The Street, and the opening of elaborate Broadway jazz clubs killed the scene