Muscle Cross Sectional Area Health And Social Care Essay

Muscle Cross Sectional Area Health And Social Care Essay

Strength has been documented to hold a positive relationship with the cross sectional breadth of the musculus ( Knuttgen, 1976 ) . Those jocks with the ability to bring forth a greater maximum voluntary contraction will hold advantages over rivals during featuring events associated with strength.

The neuromuscular system of the human organic structure is by and large the most antiphonal to developing ( McArdle et al, 2001 ) . Muscle is really basic in the manner that it increases with size and strength when being exercised, but will diminish in size and strength when non being trained. When the musculus additions strength, it is normally accompanied by a addition in the size of the musculus, likewise, when a musculus loses strength, it loses musculus size ( Marieb et al, 1999 ) . Although musculus size does impact the strength of the musculus, nervous factors such as motor unit enlisting and the frequence of the stimulation of the motor units are besides of import to strength addition.

When a musculus additions in size after long term opposition preparation it is known as chronic hypertrophy. This occurs when structural alterations within the musculus are made due to the addition in size of the bing musculus fibers. This fiber hypertrophy occurs due to an addition in sarcostyles and actin and myosin fibrils, which will let a greater sum of force to be produced due to the greater sum of cross-bridges available, ( McArdle et al, 2001 )

When opposition preparation, the bizarre constituent of preparation is of import in seeking to enable the maximal addition in the cross sectional country of each musculus fiber. It is good documented that greater hypertrophy can be gained from merely utilizing bizarre contractions, in comparing to concentric contraction preparation, or a combination of both homocentric and bizarre contraction preparation ( Higbie et al, 1996 ) . An bizarre contraction occurs when the opposition applied to the musculus exceeds the musculus force, hence intending the musculus would lengthen, while staying under tenseness ( McArdle et al, 2001 ) .

The absorbing action of the manus uses isometric contractions of the forearm to bring forth the tight clasp. An isometric contraction is when a musculus generates a force despite the deficiency of noticeable prolongation of shortening of the musculus ( McArdle et al, 2001 ) . The articulations of the manus do non travel, nevertheless, the manus could bring forth sufficient force, so as to non drop the object.

The purpose of this paper was to analyze the effects of the cross sectional country of the forearm, on the maximum voluntary contraction of the manus executing a absorbing action in male topics. Based on old research it was hypothesised that there will be a positive correlativity between the maximum voluntary contraction of the manus and the cross sectional country of the forearm in males.

Method

Thirty seven healthy, male voluntaries ( Aged 20 +/- 3years, Height 1.7meters +/- 0.2meters ) participated in a survey, all were pupils.

First, all topics had their forearm cross sectional country recorded. This was done by mensurating the subjectaa‚¬a„?s largest country of the forearm utilizing a tape step. The perimeter of the forearm was so used to work out the radius, utilizing the equation C = 2Pi r. Once the radius of the forearm was recorded, this figure was so used to work out the cross-sectional country of the forearm utilizing the equation 2pi2.

Each topic performed three, maximum voluntary contractions, gripping the digital ergometer utilizing their right manus, while their forearm would be perpendicular to their organic structure. When the topic felt they had reached their maximal contraction, they would allow travel of the ergometer. Forty-five seconds remainder was given to the topics between each test. Out of the three figures produced by the ergometer, the highest figure was recorded to be analysed ( see appendix 1 )

Data was analysed utilizing a goodness of fit value, and was tested for significance utilizing a studentaa‚¬a„?s t trial.

Consequences

The information shows a little positive correlativity between the cross sectional country of the forearm, and the maximum voluntary contraction of the manus ( R2 = 0.0334 ) . T-tests on the information gathered, concluded that the forearm cross sectional country did non hold a important impact on the MVC recording ( p=0.180 ) .Figure 1 illustrates the information collected.

Figure 1. Exemplifying the relationship between forearm cross sectional country, and the maximum voluntary contraction during the hand-grip motion

Discussion

The preset survey shows that although there was a little positive correlativity between strength and the cross sectional country for male topics, there was besides a considerable sum of incompatibility between persons. However, the informations gathered was non statistically important when analysed utilizing t-tests. Studies into the relationship between cross sectional country and the maximum voluntary contraction have produced contradictory consequences. Maughan et Al ( 1983 ) besides found that there was a positive correlativity between cross sectional country and the maximum voluntary contraction, but likewise to the present survey, there consequences showed a really high degree of variableness. In the present survey, there is an anomalousness, where one of the topics with the smallest transverse sectional country, was able to bring forth one of the highest maximum voluntary contractions, and likewise, how the largest cross sectional country measured, produced a comparatively weak contraction in comparing. This could be explained by taking into consideration the single differences of the topics.

When mensurating cross sectional country of the forearm, this was done merely by mensurating the perimeter of the widest portion of the forearm. This would therefore take into history any fat tissue environing the musculus, which would differ from each topic. As it is merely the skeletal musculus which is bring forthing the contraction which is being measured, the fatso tissue which has non been accounted for is impacting the information.

Another consideration would be the single difference in the physique up of the musculus between the different topics. The musculuss of the human organic structure are composed of a varied ratio of the two chief types of musculus fibers, each holding different contractile features ( Brooke & A ; Kaiser, 1970 ) . Athletes that participate in endurance activity have been shown to hold predominately type I muscle fibers, in comparing to rush and strength jocks with tend to hold largely type II fibers ( Saltin et al 1977 ) . It has been documented that there is a positive correlativity between the strength of the musculus and the proportion of type II musculus fibers present within the on the job musculus, Tesch & A ; Karlsson ( 1978 ) . This would bespeak that the strength of the type II musculus fibers was greater than that of the Type I muscle fibre, and this would in bend reflect the maximum voluntary contraction that could be produced by each topic. This is supported by a study by Burke Edgerton ( 1975 ) , & A ; who agreed that musculuss with a higher proportion of type II musculus fibers could bring forth a greater isometric contraction than musculus with a composing of chiefly type I fibres. In footings of associating the consequences of the Tesch & A ; Karlsson survey to the present one, their survey had no comparing to the cross sectional country of the on the job musculus, and hence no comparing would be able to be drawn against the information in this survey.

The motive of the topics to work at an absolute maximum degree may hold besides impacted upon the truth of the consequences.

It was hypothesised that there will be a positive correlativity between the maximum voluntary contraction of the manus and the cross sectional country of the forearm in males. The survey found that although there was a little positive correlativity, the information was undistinguished, and could non be drawn upon to do a concluding decision.

One decision drawn from this survey is that there was a considerable degree of discrepancy in the subjectsaa‚¬a„? maximum voluntary contraction, with some of the smaller cross sectional countries, bring forthing some of the highest voluntary contractions. This could be due to the manner in which we measured the forearm cross sectional country, taking into history fatty tissue, or could besides come down to the single difference in musculus fiber types, reflecting the ability of the musculus to bring forth a higher contraction than others.

Word Count aa‚¬ ” 1357

Appendix 1

Capable

Age ( Old ages )

Height ( centimeter )

Computer Dynamometer: MVC ( millivolt )

Forearm cross sectional country ( cm2 )

1

20

182

11.32

71.3

2

22

174

10.697

62.4

3

20

163

11

27

4

20

187

16.7

30.5

5

20

177

13.2

63.8

6

19

177

13.5

64.7

7

19

186

14.7

55.91

8

20

179

14.5

69.29

9

19

166

12.5

48.17

10

20

174

15.6

40.69

11

23

179

14.649

62.4

12

18

185

8.83

53.818

13

18

176.5

14.105

67.42

14

19

176

11.34

62.44

15

19

186

15.263

66.92

16

20

186

13.36

76.57

17

19

175

9.536

63.585

18

19

176

17.95

67.02

19

20

176

14.8

81.67

20

19

186

12.911

58

21

19

178

14.181

62.5

22

18

176

16.81

67.02

23

19

176

11.2

62.44

24

19

176

13

62.44

25

19

187

12.1

86.7

26

19

186.5

17.775

68.7

27

19

180

16.05

86.35

28

19

170

15.562

55.38

29

19

173

12.432

49.73

30

19

176

13.468

53.818

31

19

167

12.576

57.38

32

21

177

10.864

49.74

33

18

180

11.97

49.74

34

19

178

10.57

55.91

35

19

175

11.3

54

36

18

181

14.6

62.31

37

19

178

12.8

49.7

Mean

19.32432

177.8648649

13.34376

60.20165

South dakota

1.028863

5.859048852

2.231944

12.69697

Minute

18

163

8.83

27

Soap

23

187

17.95

86.7