Music is defined as sound organized into meaningful patterns that express human emotions and meaning. Music can include a wide variety of forms from a long and complex classical symphony performed by a large orchestra to a simple, traditional folk song.
The word music comes from “Muse” the name for the goddesses of ancient Greek mythology who presided over the arts and sciences. Unlike other fine arts, such as paintings, sculpture, and literature. Music is a performance art and thus exists only in time. It is a universal language that enables every culture to present its own distinctive voice. Music was performed by early people in religious rites, at public gatherings, as accompaniment to dancing, storytelling, and simply for pleasure.
Music is a super – stimulus for the perception of musicality, where “musicality” is actually a perceived property of speech. It refers to the property of music that determines how” good” it is, how strong an emotional effect it has, and how much we enjoy listening it. Music is part of virtually every culture in Earth. But it varies widely among cultures in style and structure. It is a uniquely human form of communication with well-developed rules of construction much like grammar.
“Music was my first love, and it well is my last music in the future and the music in the past. To live without my music would be impossible to do in this world of troubles, my music pulls me through” (Miles John}.
Music is the art of arranging sounds in time so as to produce a continues, unified, and evocative composition, as through melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre.
This essay will discuss about the theories in music concerning the following:
Brands and Sub-Cultural Capital
Relationship between Music and Identity
Sexuality in Music
Anti – Essentialist ideas
In developing countries, cultural creations in music are improving However expressed, will play an increasing role as an instrument of development and as a source of job creation. The general aim is to furnish the conceptual grounding and the operational competencies needed to use cultural heritage and cultural capital as a resource for economic growth and employment creation in music industry.
Social capital emphasizes the importance of social ties and shared norms for societal well-being and economic efficiency.
Social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. In that sense social capital is closely related to what some have called “civic virtue.” The difference is that “social capital” calls attention to the fact that civic virtue is most powerful when embedded in a sense network of reciprocal social relations. A society of many virtuous but isolated individuals is not necessarily rich in social capital. (Putnam 2000: 19)
Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions… Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together. (The World Bank 1999)
Social capital consists of the stock of active connections among people: the trust, mutual understanding, and shared values and behaviors that bind the members of human networks and communities and make cooperative action possible. (Cohen and Prusak 2001: 4) al c
Social capital is believed to function as an important resource leading towards a diverse array of benefits the music industry. To gain Social tolerance, economic prosperity, reduced ethnic violence and a good institutional performance.
Economic capital uses a small set of powerful and flexible tools to understand trades: between producers and consumers, trades between workers and employers, trades between
Investors and firms, trades between one generation and the next, trades between countries, and the taxation and regulation of trades. Economics considers issues associated with equity and property rights. “We want to ensure that as the live music capital of the world, we are attracting true artist. In order to do that, we have to engage the support of committed musicians. And in order to do that, we have created a lifestyle that is more affordable” (Carmichael).
Brands and Sub Cultural Capital
Brands and sub cultural capital Sub-Urban’s provocative brands have been engineered to generate consumer buzz and to maximize marketplace sales and exposure. The Company’s brands have been widely featured in high-profile fashion magazines, online publications and news media. The Company is committed to aggressive appreciation through organic and acquisitioned growth, including the purchase of additional trademarked apparel and accessory lines.
The Relationship between Music and Identity
The relationship between music and identity since at least the 1950’s it has been evident that music plays a central role in the process of identity construction of young people. This process includes not only elements of personal identity but also important aspects of national, regional, cultural, ethnic, and gender identity.
Music is one of the oldest forms of human communication, a human universal to be found in all cultures at all times, it is in many ways the most global aspect of the “global village”. Music has many facets and many uses, but it is generally acknowledged that its primary appeal is.
To the emotions. As hymn, national anthem, love song, or political protest song, music may provoke feelings of religiosity, patriotism, romance or revolt..
Sexuality in Music
Sexuality in music, it is not possible to analyze popular music without considering sexuality, the main reason of much music how it shapes both the music and the fans reading of that music. Through music it is one way in which humans can communicate their sexuality with out taking their clothes off. Many teenagers in the whole world over get their first erotic charges from pop music and it can provide learning channel for both boys and girls to articulate their emotions.
Music is both a physical and emotional form of expression; it affects us in our feelings. Music is universal; it knows no boundaries of language and culture. Popular music which is accessible to all, which easily possessed as a commodity and understand\ ingested as a medium, becomes a channel for communicating human sexuality.
Essentialist refers to the traditional or back to the basic approach of music or ideal in nature that is independent of and prior to their existence. Some of the composers prefer to make songs that is sang in the past generations because they believed that old songs that to be revived will hit in the market. It is known that today’s music is pattern in the old traditional way they just revised it and some change the tune or tempo.
The anti-essentialist subject is complicated, more “complex and wieldy” than an idealized “thinking racial self” Anti – Essentialist idea of Music means opposing to something or expressing or holding an apposing view, particularly regarding a musical issue. Composers of the songs in anti – essentialist idea make songs that is more complex and wildly in nature opposing the new trends in the environment of music industry.
Works of artists in the field of music namely:
Johann Sebastian Bach, and organist and choirmaster for Lutheran Churches near his birthplace. He devoted his life composing music for church services. His incredible output marks the summit of his career. He is versatile and productive; he wrote magnificent music for the organ and for choral groups. He perfected the chorale prelude or hymn tune. His identity is based on the music cultural capital. Economic capital, social capital he produced in the industry.
Richard Wagner, one of the most illustrious of the German Composers. He revolutionized opera with such spectacular works. His aimed is to write upon equal terms the dramatic, musical. And the visual arts. He preferred to call his works music dramas, rather than opera. His contributions to social capital, and economic capital in the music industry.
Music remains an important part of modern life. Religious music continues to uplift worshipers. What would a wedding be like without special music to celebrate the occasion? Music is a vital part of our lives, it has been to the military, signaling the troops and providing a steady beat for marching. It is a social activity that friends get together to sing songs or play the piano and guitar.
Finally, Music has a large impact on the economy worldwide. Through the musicians, composer and singers who give more contributions to uplift the economy of the country Music also helps in the improvement of our social cultural environment, through their music our country is known of our identity.
Arnel Denis (1983) The New Oxford Companion to Music, 2 vols. (Oxford)
Bourdieu, P. (1984) Distinction; a Social Critique of the Judgment of Taste, Trans. R. Nice. London: Routledge
Bordwell, D. (1984) Making Meaning, Cambridge: Harvard UP.
Caine, A. (2004) Interpreting Rock Movies: The Pop Film an it’s Critics in Britain, Manchester
Kennedy, Michael (1985) Oxford Dictionary of Music (Oxford)
Sionimsky, Nicolas (1972) A Thing or TWO About Music, rev.ed. (Greenwood)
Talbot, M., K. Atkension and D. Atkension (2003) language and Power in the Modern World, Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP.
Yachanin Michael E. Music, Hart School of Music, University of Harford New Book of Knowledge Encyclopedia Volume 12 pages 545 – 549
Robert D. Putnam: Why social capital is important
First, social capital allows citizens to resolve collective problems more easily… People often might be better off if they cooperate, with each doing her share. But each individual benefits more by shirking their responsibility, hoping that others will do the work for her…. [Resolving this dilemma is] best served by an institutional mechanism with the power to ensure compliance with the collectively desirable behavior. Social norms and the networks that enforce them provide such a mechanism