Music Appreciation 2

Manuscript
A document that contains the notation of a composition.
Score
The entirety of the instrumental and vocal parts of a composition in written form.
Music notation
A graphical system that strives to represent duration, pitch, and other music elements.
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Duratation
The graphic representation of the symbol (shape).
Pitch
The particular quality of a sound that fixed itself in its position in the scale. The placement of the symbol; higher placement = higher pitch.
Whole Note
Longest value in notated music.
Half note
Half a whole note.
Quarter note
Half a half note.
Eighth note
Half a quarter note.
Sixteenth note
Half an eighth note.
Tempo
Speed of a piece.
Rhythm
Created by the combination of duration and accent.
Rests
The periods of silence in a piece.
Notehead
The main oval shaped part of a note.
Stem
The line that comes up/down from a notehead.
Flag
The little addition to the stem that looks like a wavy line.
Staff
Where notes are placed; consists of five horizontal lines and four spaces in between them. Represents the different pitches.
Frequency
The number of sound waves.
Hertz
The basic unit of frequency; one cycle per second.
Edvard Grieg
Norwegian composer; 1843-1907. Hall of the Mountain King.
Giuseppe Verdi
Italian composer; 1813-1901. Triumphal March and Chorus from opera Aida.
Instrumentation
Which instrument is being used.
PPP
Pianississimo; very, very softly.
PP
Pianissimo; very softly.
P
Piano; soft.
MP
Mezzo piano; half soft.
MF
Mezzo forte; half loud.
F
Forte; loud.
FF
Fortissimo; very loud.
FFF
Fortississimo; very, very loud.
Al niete
To nothing.
Crescendo
Becoming louder.
Decrescrendo; diminuendo
Becoming softer.
Morendo
Dying away.
Energy
The amount of something put in to create motion and sound.
Keyboard mechanism
Allows pianists to play the notes without strumming the strings directly.
Plectrum
The hammer (of a piano) equivalent in a harpsichord.
Performer’s Touch
The skill to control the movement of the hammer or plectrum via the keys.
Carl Orff
Contemporary composer that wrote Carmina Burana: O Fortuna.
1895-1982
Germany
Known widely for his work in music education.
Maurice Ravel
Contemporary composer that wrote Daphnis and Chloé.
1875-1937.
France.
Richard Wagner
Romantic composer that wrote Tannhäuser: Pilgrim’s Chorus and Die Walküre: The Ride of the Valkyries.
1813-1883
Germany
Goal was to produce Gesamtkunstwerk (unified work of art).
Used short, recurring musical ideas called leitmotifs (signature tunes).
Flute
A woodwind instrument held horizontally and sounded by blowing across the mouthpiece of the instrument.
Oboe
Originally created from a shawm; a double reed instrument with a gently tapering conical bore.
Timbre
Tone color; quality of a sound.
Human voice
The first instrument and therefore first timbre.
Chordophones
Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating strings.
Aerophones
Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating columns of air.
Membranophones
Instruments that produce sounds via vibrating membranes.
Idiophones
Instruments that produce sounds by vibrating themselves.
Electrophones
Instruments that produce sounds via electrical means.
Arrangement
The selection and adaptation of a composition of parts of a composition to instruments for which it was not originally designed.
Tessitura
The part of the vocal range that is most used in a song.
Soprano
Highest female voice.
Giacommo Puccini
Romantic composer that wrote O mio Babbino Caro.
1858-1925
Italy
Coloratura Soprano
Agile voices capable of singing elaborate, highly ornamented melodies that sometimes contain the highest pitches in the vocal repertoire.
Mezzo-suprano
A lower voice range than the soprano. (Upper mid range)
Léo Delibes
Romantic composer that wrote Lakmé: The Flower Duet.
1836-1891
France
Known as an outstanding composer of operetta.
Contralto
Alto for short; the lowest ranges for female voices.
Aria
Originally a song sung by a single voice or without accompaniment. Now means a lyric song for solo voice generally having to contrasting parts. Ends with a literal or elaborate repeat of part 1.
Tenor
The highest of male voices.
Bass
The lowest male voice.
Baritone
The male voice range that can reach both tenor and bass ranges. Greek for deep sounding.
Choir
Largest group of singers.
Vocal range
Based on the highest and lowest sounds a person can produce.
Cappella
A choir without instrument accompaniment.
Chamber Choir
A small group of singers.
John Farmer
English composer and organist that wrote Fair Phyllis, a poem of pastoral love that reveals the hidden implications of the texts through the deliberately suggestive musical setting.
Symphony Orchestra
Can consist of more than 100 players separated according to the four families of instruments: strings, woodwinds, brass, and percussion. Occasionally the keyboard family appears.
Benjamin Britten
Contemporary composer that wrote The Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra.
1913-1976
England
TYPttO plays music written by Henry Purcell. The theme is played six times: full orchestra, woodwinds, brass, strings, percussion, then full orchestra again.
Fugue
A traditional form of composition in which one part enters after another using the same theme, such that the music grows gradually in size and intensity.
Conductor
Keeps everyone playing together and balanced as well as how the music should be performed for best interpretation. Before the 19th century, their job was to mainly beat time.
Strum
Brushing the fingers over the strings.
Pluck
Picking or pulling the strings and causing them to vibrate.
Concerto
A composition that shows off a specific instrument(s) with the orchestra as accompaniment.
Vibrato
A technique that consists of a quick back and forth movement or rocking of the finger that is in contact with the string, with the intent of producing a fluctuation of pitch for expressive purposes.
Violin
Highest pitch string instrument. Usually divided into 2 sections.
Viola
Second highest pitch string instrument.
Cellos
Third highest pitch string instrument.
Double Bass
Lowest pitch string instrument.
Harp
Part time fifth member of the orchestral strings.
Bow
Arco
Plucked
Pizzicato
Reed
A thin piece of cane, plastic, or metal used as the principal vibrating source for many instruments.
Embouchure
The technical term for the way a performer places his or her lips, teeth, and tongue on the mouthpiece.
Flute
Any instrument for which an air column confined within a hollow body is set in motion by a stream of air from a player’s lips positioned against the sharp edge of a hole. Modern flute patented by German maker Theobald Boehm.
Oboe
The main orchestral instrument in the double reed category. Requires an immense burst of energy to the column of air inside the body.
English Horn
A lower sounding Oboe (tenor).
Shawm
The predecessor to the oboe, creates a loud penetrating sound.
Benedetto Marcello
Baroque composer that wrote Oboe Concerto in D minor.
1686-1739
Italy
Clarinet
Most recent member of the woodwind family. Has a single reed and looks like the oboe but is 3 inches longer. Created by German flute maker Johann Christoph Denned in Nürnerg in early 1700s.
Saxophone
Single-reed woodwind instrument made by Adolphe Sax.
George Gershwin
Contemporary composer that wrote Rhapsody in Blue.
1898-1937
USA
Bassoon
Double-reed instrument developed in the 17th century. Consists of four sections. Modern version developed in France 1636 then perfected in Germany. Mainly a solo instrument.
Trumpet
One of the oldest instruments. Brass, traditionally didn’t have valves. Most start with B-flat.
Franz Joseph Hayden
Classical composer who wrote Trumpet Concerto in E flat major: II. Andante cantabile
1732-1809
Austria
Horn
Also known as the French horn. Traditionally associated with hunting calls. Different lengths in 18th century; valves in 19th century.
Fanfares
Elaborate pieces of music specifically designed to showcase the novel properties of the French horn.
Trombone
Derived from Italian word tromba for trumpet. Basically a long trumpet without valves. Mainly bass and tenor.
Tuba
Lowest pitched instrument of the brass family. From Latin tube, meaning trumpet. Deep cup-shaped mouthpiece and upward pointing bell. Modern one invented by Prussian Wilhelm Wieprecht and German Johann Gottfried in 1835.
Modest Petrovich Mussorgksy
Romantic composer that wrote Night on the Bald Mountain, and Bydlo (4th movement in Pictures at an exhibition).1839-1881
Russia
Drums
Most universal percussion instrument. Cylindrical frame over which a membrane is stretched.
Shaking
Moving the instrument back and forth to produce sound.
Striking
Hitting the instrument to produce sound. Often done with a mallet or drumstick.
Mallet
A device used by a percussion player to strike the instrument. Appearance of a light hammer typically.
Drumstick
Metal or wooden dowell-shaped item used to strike a drum.
Idiophones
Instruments that produce sounds from the vibrations of their own bodies.
Castanets
Idiophones in the concussion percussion group. Used widely in Spanish folk music to provide a rhythmic accompaniment to dancing.
Concussion
Percussion group of instruments where two similar objects are clapped together to make sound.
Membranophones
Instruments that produce sound by vibrating a membrane of skin that is stretched over a wood or metal frame.
Bass Drum
Large drum instrument, 90cm in diameter and 40 cm deep. Used in both symphony orchestras, military bands (originally Turkish), and marching bands.
Snare Drum
Drum instrument 35 cm diameter and 13 cm deep. Used exclusively in army bands until incorporated into the orchestra in 1700s.
Percussion Pitch
Produced only by some percussion instruments. Specifically the timpani (kettledrums), chimes, xylophone, vibraphone, and marimba.
Timpani (Kettledrum)
Most important instrument of the symphony orchestra, usually used in pairs. Can produce pitch. 50-82cm diameter.
Gong
Instrument primarily used in Asian countries. No pitch and are suspended from a frame and played with a padded mallet. Most common has 76+cm diameter.
Indefinite Pitch
Unpitched or non-pitched. Includes the tambourine, triangle, cymbals, and most drums.
Xylophone
Definite pitched percussion instrument known for its beautiful sound. Made up of several wooden bars tuned to a specific pitch. Has resonators under each bar. Variations include the vibraphone(metal) and marimba (mellower).
Camille Saint-Saëns
Romantic composer that wrote Carnival of the Animals. Didn’t publish it fearing it’d damage his reputation.
1835-1921
France
Keyboard Instruments
Sometimes included in the orchestra but more often solo instruments in recitals or concertos. Largest repertoire of written music. Includes the piano, organ, harpsichord, and synthesizer.
Recitals
Where a soloist plays by themselves.
Concerto
Where a soloist plays accompanied by an orchestra.
Synthesizer
Unique keyboard instrument that’s also an electrophone. Fails the identity and development checks for the most part.
Harpischord
Keyboard instrument where tones are produced by strings stretched over a soundboard. Pressing a key causes a plectrum to pluck a string. Could be multiple strings per key. Also can be in recitals or in concertos. Very important in orchestras in 16th, 17th, and early 18th centuries until the invention of the fortepiano.
Soundboard
Thin piece of wood that amplifies the sound of strings.
Piano
Short for pianoforte. One of the best known and best loved musical instruments. Used in a wide variety, including jazz, art, and contemporary avant-garde. May be considered percussion since key causes hammers to strike the strings. 88 keys total, over 200 steel strings. Soundboard that amplifies the vibrations.
Alpheus Babcock
Boston resident that invented the one piece cast iron frame for pianos in 1825. 340 lbs of major development in piano history.
Pedals
Crucial component of piano involving your feet. Soft pedal reduces amount and quality of sound. Sustain or damper pedal allows the player to let the sound last longer.
Bartolomeo Cheistofori
Credited with creating the fortepiano in 1709. Italian. 1655-1731.
Piano history
1709 further developed by Gottfried Silberman and Johann Andreas Stein. Also by Johannes Zumpe and John Broadwood. Further innovated big Sebastian Erard with things like virtuoso effects(quick repetition). Upright piano developed by John Isaak Hawkins at beginning of 19th century. Electronic digital piano is most recent.
Organ
Keyboard instrument where tone is produced by wind flowing through pipes. Keys and pedals are connected to the pipes of differing lengths and materials. Can have up to five keyboards and a pedalboard. Most complex and oldest keyboard instrument.
Catesibius
Engineer from Alexandria. Credited with creating the organ in 250 BC. Called it the hydraulos.
Manual
The keyboard of an organ.
Stops
White buttons on side of manual that control the flow of air to the different pipes.
Reed pipes
Pipes that produce sound via a vibrating strip called a reed. Supplies tones of great variety and brilliance.
Flue pipes
Pipes that produce sound from the vibration of the air column. Majority of organs are this.
Rank
A complete set or row of pipes.
Oscillation
Movement of electric current changing polarity (positive to negative).

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