Music Appreciation Review 1

Music Appreciation Review 1

Syncopation
Placement of accents away from their normal stresses in the meter
Sound in time
What music can be defined as the art of
Beats
How musical time is measured
Triple meter grouping
ONE two three, ONE two three
Measure or Bar
Each occurrence of a repeated pattern of a principal strong beat and one or more weaker beats
Duple meter grouping
ONE two, ONE two, ONE two, ONE two
Meter
Any recurring pattern of strong and weak beats
Tempo indication
An individual movement of music is often referred to by this
6 common tempo indications from slow to fast
Adagio: very slow
Andante: slow; walking
Moderato: medium
Allegretto: moderately fast
Allegro: fast or cheerful
Presto: very fast
Adagio
Very slow
Andante
Slow; walking
Moderato
Medium; moderate
Allegretto
Moderately fast
Allegro
Fast; cheerful
Presto
Very fast
Simple meter grouping
ONE two *three* four, ONE two *three* four
Tempo
Speed at which beats follow one another
Gregorian chant
An example of nonmetrical music
Pitch
Highness or lowness of a sound
Dynamics
Musical term for level of sound
Timbre
Another term for tone color
Subito
Musical term for “suddenly”
Italian
The language in which dynamics are usually described
Crescendo
Gradual increase in dynamic level
6 dynamic levels and abbreviations
Pianissimo: pp, very soft
Piano: p, soft
Mezzo piano: mp, medium soft
Mezzo forte: mf, medium loud
Forte: f, loud
Fortissimo: ff, very loud
Pianissimo
Very soft, pp
Piano
Soft, p
Mezzo piano
Medium soft, mp
Mezzo forte
Medium loud, mf
Forte
Loud, f
Fortissimo
Very loud, ff
Tunes
They tend to be simple and easily singable
Diatonic scale
A particular arrangement of whole steps and half steps
Sequence
A melodic pattern of pitches that is repeated at different pitch levels
Climax
Musical term for a high point
Diatonic scale
The set of 7 pitches used in western music
Chromatic scale
Consists of half steps
Cadences
Moments at ends of phrases where melody pauses or stops altpgether
Scale
A collection of fixed pitches
Octave
Distance between two pitches that seem to duplicate each other and blend very well together
The lines of poetry
In songs, musical phrases generally coincide with these
Consonant
A chord that creates a sense of rest
Chords
Groupings of several pitches sounded simultaneously
Harmony
The effect of chords with a melody
Monophony, homophony, and polyphony
3 main textures of Western art in music
Homophony
Occurs when the melody is heard in one line and the other parts have clearly less important material that forms and accompaniment
Polyphony
The texture that combines two or more individual melody lines
Counterpoint
Closely related to polyphony
Tonality
Principle of organizing music around a central, “home” pitch
The location of the tonic
A change in key indicates a change in?
Major
Which mode is formed with the diatonic scale oriented around C?
Twenty four
Number of major and minor scales that can be built on the notes of the chromatic scale
Sad; happy
Music in minor mode can be described as ___, while major mode can be considered ___
Modulation
Moving from one key to another in the middle of a composition
Repetition and contrast
A musical composition takes on its form through?
Form
A way to connect the beginning, middle and end of a musical piece
Repetition of elements
Can trigger an emotional click when the tune reoccurs later in a piece, like melody in form
Repetition; contrast
In a piece of music that can be diagrammed as A B A, the A indicates ___, and the B indicates ___.
Text, function, and performing forces
The genre of a musical work can be determined by its
Religious praise
Troubadours and trouveres did not sing about
Pope Gregory I
Traditionally associated with collecting and codifying the chants of the church
False
Plainchant is metered, T/F?
Motet
The medieval polyphonic form that resulted from the addition of texts to the upper parts while retaining the Gregorian chant in the lower part
It became more removed from church services
What happened to polyphonic music during the thirteenth century?
The Christian church
The early history of Western music was dominated by
Ars nova
In Western music, what the musical style in the period after 1300 was called
Jongleurs
Popular musicians of the middle ages
Plainchant
The single line melodies of the early Christian church
Middle Ages time period
5th century to the 14th and 15th centuries
D Dorian, E Phrygian, F Lydian, G Mixolydian
4 medieval modes, and each starting pitch in the diatonic scale
Lowest; highest
In medieval music the plainchant melody ___ voice, but in the early Renaissance it moved to the ___ voice
Duple; triple
The pavan is in ___ meter, and the galliard is in ___ meter.
5
How many standard sections to the polyphonic Mass?
The Renaissance
The basis for the development of great Baroque instrumental music was laid in this time period
The pavan and the galliard
Types of Renaissance dance music
Voices alone
Preferred tone color of High Renaissance style
It allowed for different texts, but the Mass always had the same text
Why was the motet more attractive than the Mass to 16th century composers?
Hymn
In church music, a short tune sung through many stanzas of text
Word painting
Device used by Renaissance composers to depict in music the words or ideas of a text
Rhythm unaccented and fluid, meter often obscured
How can rhythm in the High Renaissance style be characterized?
Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, Kyrie eleison
The text of the Kyrie section of the Mass
Mass
Most important part of the daily church services
Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Name the 5 parts of the mass
Suite
Set of dances collected from and opera or ballet
Recitative
There is very little accompaniment for the soloist in this
Basso continuo
Refers to the bass line and continuous chords of a Baroque composition
Aria
Extended piece for a solo singer having more musical elaboration and a steadier pulse than a recitative
The emotions of the individual
Opera provided the perfect vehicle for the Baroque idea of expressing?
1600 to 1750
The Baroque period spans these years
Cello and harpsichord
Two instruments that would have most likely played the basso continuo in the Baroque era
Sonorous effects
In the early Baroque period, composers subdivided choirs to exploit more:
Fugue
A Baroque composition that treats one melody imitatively
Madrigal
Most advanced form in late Renaissance music
Meter became more accepted, bar lines came into use
Baroque treatment of meter
Opera
Drama set to music
Controlled and systematic
Musical form in the Baroque period became more?
Dance, virtuosity, and vocal music
3 main sources of instrumental music