My Father

My Father

Electronic mail, also known as email or e-mail, is a method of exchanging digital messages from an author to one or more recipients. Modern email operates across the Internet or other computer networks. Some early email systems required that the author and the recipient both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today’s email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Emailservers accept, forward, deliver and store messages.

Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously; they need connect only briefly, typically to an email server, for as long as it takes to send or receive messages. Historically, the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission. [2][3] As a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today.

An Internet email message[NB 1] consists of three components, the message envelope, the message header, and the message body. The message header contains control information, including, minimally, an originator’s email address and one or more recipient addresses. Usually descriptive information is also added, such as a subject header field and a message submission date/time stamp. Originally a text-only (7-bit ASCII and others) communications medium, email was extended to carry multi-media content attachments, a process standardized in RFC 2045 through 2049.

Collectively, these RFCs have come to be called Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions(MIME). Electronic mail predates the inception of the Internet, and was in fact a crucial tool in creating it,[4] but the history of modern, global Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET. Standards for encoding email messages were proposed as early as 1973 (RFC 561). Conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services. An email sent in the early 1970s looks quite similar to a basic text message sent on the Internet today.

Network-based email was initially exchanged on the ARPANET in extensions to the File Transfer Protocol (FTP), but is now carried by theSimple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), first published as Internet standard 10 (RFC 821) in 1982. In the process of transporting email messages between systems, SMTP communicates delivery parameters using a message envelope separate from the message (header and body) itself. The diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events[48] that takes place when Alice composes a message using her mail user agent (MUA).

She enters the email address of her correspondent, and hits the “send” button. 1. Her MUA formats the message in email format and uses the Submission Protocol (a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), see RFC 6409) to send the message to the local mail submission agent (MSA), in this casesmtp. a. org, run by Alice’s internet service provider (ISP). 2. The MSA looks at the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol (not from the message header), in this [email protected] org. An Internet email address is a string of the [email protected]

The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address, often the username of the recipient, and the part after the @ sign is a domain name or afully qualified domain name. The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the fully qualified domain name of the mail exchange server in the Domain Name System (DNS). 3. The DNS server for the b. org domain, ns. b. org, responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx. b. org, a message transfer agent (MTA) server run by Bob’s ISP. 4. smtp. a. org sends the message to mx. b. org using SMTP.

This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent (MDA). 1. The MDA delivers it to the mailbox of the user bob. 2. Bob presses the “get mail” button in his MUA, which picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol (POP3) or theInternet Message Access Protocol (IMAP4). That sequence of events applies to the majority of email users. However, there are many alternative possibilities and complications to the email system: * Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange.

These systems often have their own internal email format and their clients typically communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the product’s Internet mail gateway which also does any necessary reformatting. If Alice and Bob work for the same company, the entire transaction may happen completely within a single corporate email system. * Alice may not have a MUA on her computer but instead may connect to a webmail service. Alice’s computer may run its own MTA, so avoiding the transfer at step 1. * Bob may pick up his email in many ways, for example logging into mx. b. org and reading it directly, or by using a webmail service. * Domains usually have several mail exchange servers so that they can continue to accept mail when the main mail exchange server is not available. * Email messages are not secure if email encryption is not used correctly. Many MTAs used to accept messages for any recipient on the Internet and do their best to deliver them. Such MTAs are called open mail relays.

This was very important in the early days of the Internet when network connections were unreliable. If an MTA couldn’t reach the destination, it could at least deliver it to a relay closer to the destination. The relay stood a better chance of delivering the message at a later time. However, this mechanism proved to be exploitable by people sending unsolicited bulk email and as a consequence very few modern MTAs are open mail relays, and many MTAs don’t accept messages from open mail relays because such messages are very likely to be spam. ————————————————- [edit]Message format

The Internet email message format is now defined by RFC 5322, with multi-media content attachments being defined in RFC 2045through RFC 2049, collectively called Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions or MIME. RFC 5322 replaced the earlier RFC 2822 in 2008, and in turn RFC 2822 in 2001 replaced RFC 822 – which had been the standard for Internet email for nearly 20 years. Published in 1982, RFC 822 was based on the earlier RFC 733 for the ARPANET. [49] Internet email messages consist of two major sections: * Header – Structured into fields such as From, To, CC, Subject, Date, and other information about the email. Body – The basic content, as unstructured text; sometimes containing a signature block at the end. This is exactly the same as the body of a regular letter. The header is separated from the body by a blank line. [edit]Message header Each message has exactly one header, which is structured into fields. Each field has a name and a value. RFC 5322 specifies the precise syntax. Informally, each line of text in the header that begins with a printable character begins a separate field. The field name starts in the first character of the line and ends before the separator character “:”.

The separator is then followed by the field value (the “body” of the field). The value is continued onto subsequent lines if those lines have a space or tab as their first character. Field names and values are restricted to 7-bit ASCII characters. Non-ASCII values may be represented using MIME encoded words. Email header fields can be multi-line, and each line ahould be at most 78 characters long and in no event more than 998 characters long. [50] Header fields defined by RFC 5322 can only contain US-ASCII characters; for encoding characters in other sets, a syntax specified in RFC 2047 can be used. 51] Recently the IETF EAI working group has defined some standards track extensions[52][53], replacing previous experimental extensions, to allow UTF-8 encoded Unicode characters to be used within the header. In particular, this allows email addresses to use non-ASCII characters. Such characters must only be used by servers that support these extensions. The message header must include at least the following fields:[54] * From: The email address, and optionally the name of the author(s). In many email clients not changeable except through changing account settings. Date: The local time and date when the message was written. Like the From: field, many email clients fill this in automatically when sending. The recipient’s client may then display the time in the format and time zone local to him/her. The message header should include at least the following fields:[55] * Message-ID: Also an automatically generated field; used to prevent multiple delivery and for reference in In-Reply-To: (see below). * In-Reply-To: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to. Used to link related messages together. This field only applies for reply messages.

RFC 3864 describes registration procedures for message header fields at the IANA; it provides for permanent and provisionalmessage header field names, including also fields defined for MIME, netnews, and http, and referencing relevant RFCs. Common header fields for email include: * To: The email address(es), and optionally name(s) of the message’s recipient(s). Indicates primary recipients (multiple allowed), for secondary recipients see Cc: and Bcc: below. * Subject: A brief summary of the topic of the message. Certain abbreviations are commonly used in the subject, including “RE:” and “FW:”. Bcc: Blind Carbon Copy; addresses added to the SMTP delivery list but not (usually) listed in the message data, remaining invisible to other recipients. * Cc: Carbon copy; Many email clients will mark email in your inbox differently depending on whether you are in the To: or Cc: list. * Content-Type: Information about how the message is to be displayed, usually a MIME type. * Precedence: commonly with values “bulk”, “junk”, or “list”; used to indicate that automated “vacation” or “out of office” responses should not be returned for this mail, e. g. o prevent vacation notices from being sent to all other subscribers of a mailinglist. Sendmailuses this header to affect prioritization of queued email, with “Precedence: special-delivery” messages delivered sooner. With modern high-bandwidth networks delivery priority is less of an issue than it once was. Microsoft Exchange respects a fine-grained automatic response suppression mechanism, the X-Auto-Response-Suppress header. [56] * References: Message-ID of the message that this is a reply to, and the message-id of the message the previous reply was a reply to, etc. * Reply-To: Address that should be used to reply to the message. Sender: Address of the actual sender acting on behalf of the author listed in the From: field (secretary, list manager, etc. ). * Archived-At: A direct link to the archived form of an individual email message. [57] Note that the To: field is not necessarily related to the addresses to which the message is delivered. The actual delivery list is supplied separately to the transport protocol, SMTP, which may or may not originally have been extracted from the header content. The “To:” field is similar to the addressing at the top of a conventional letter which is delivered according to the address on the outer envelope.

In the same way, the “From:” field does not have to be the real sender of the email message. Some mail servers apply email authentication systems to messages being relayed. Data pertaining to server’s activity is also part of the header, as defined below. SMTP defines the trace information of a message, which is also saved in the header using the following two fields:[58] * Received: when an SMTP server accepts a message it inserts this trace record at the top of the header (last to first). * Return-Path: when the delivery SMTP server makes the final delivery of a message, it inserts this field at the top of the header.

Other header fields that are added on top of the header by the receiving server may be called trace fields, in a broader sense. [59] * Authentication-Results: when a server carries out authentication checks, it can save the results in this field for consumption by downstream agents. [60] * Received-SPF: stores the results of SPF checks. [61] * Auto-Submitted: is used to mark automatically generated messages. [62] * VBR-Info: claims VBR whitelisting[63] Filename extensions Upon reception of email messages, email client applications save messages in operating system files in the file system.

Some clients save individual messages as separate files, while others use various database formats, often proprietary, for collective storage. A historical standard of storage is the mbox format. The specific format used is often indicated by special filename extensions: eml Used by many email clients including Microsoft Outlook Express, Windows Mail and Mozilla Thunderbird. The files are plain text inMIME format, containing the email header as well as the message contents and attachments in one or more of several formats. emlx Used by Apple Mail. msg Used by Microsoft Office Outlook and OfficeLogic Groupware. bx Used by Opera Mail, KMail, and Apple Mail based on the mbox format. Some applications (like Apple Mail) leave attachments encoded in messages for searching while also saving separate copies of the attachments. Others separate attachments from messages and save them in a specific directory. Lesson 1: Entering Text and Numbers The Microsoft Excel Window Microsoft Excel is an electronic spreadsheet. You can use it to organize your data into rows and columns. You can also use it to perform mathematical calculations quickly. This tutorial teaches Microsoft Excel basics.

Although knowledge of how to navigate in a Windows environment is helpful, this tutorial was created for the computer novice. This lesson will introduce you to the Excel window. You use the window to interact with Excel. To begin this lesson, start Microsoft Excel 2007. The Microsoft Excel window appears and your screen looks similar to the one shown here. Note: Your screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown. In Excel 2007, how a window displays depends on the size of your window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set.

Resolution determines how much information your computer monitor can display. If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. Also, settings in Excel 2007, Windows Vista, and Windows XP allow you to change the color and style of your windows. The Microsoft Office Button In the upper-left corner of the Excel 2007 window is the Microsoft Office button. When you click the button, a menu appears.

You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, and perform many other tasks. The Quick Access Toolbar Next to the Microsoft Office button is the Quick Access toolbar. The Quick Access toolbar gives you with access to commands you frequently use. By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You can use Save to save your file, Undo to roll back an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back. The Title Bar Next to the Quick Access toolbar is the Title bar. On the Title bar, Microsoft Excel displays the name of the workbook you are currently using.

At the top of the Excel window, you should see “Microsoft Excel – Book1” or a similar name. The Ribbon You use commands to tell Microsoft Excel what to do. In Microsoft Excel 2007, you use the Ribbon to issue commands. The Ribbon is located near the top of the Excel window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs; clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes. You may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group.

When you click the dialog box launcher, a dialog box makes additional commands available. The Status bar appears at the very bottom of the Excel window and provides such information as the sum, average, minimum, and maximum value of selected numbers. You can change what displays on the Status bar by right-clicking on the Status bar and selecting the options you want from the Customize Status Bar menu. You click a menu item to select it. You click it again to deselect it. A check mark next to an item means the item is selected. Move Around a Worksheet By using the arrow keys, you can move around your worksheet.

You can use the down arrow key to move downward one cell at a time. You can use the up arrow key to move upward one cell at a time. You can use the Tab key to move across the page to the right, one cell at a time. You can hold down the Shift key and then press the Tab key to move to the left, one cell at a time. You can use the right and left arrow keys to move right or left one cell at a time. The Page Up and Page Down keys move up and down one page at a time. If you hold down the Ctrl key and then press the Home key, you move to the beginning of the worksheet. EXERCISE 1 Move Around the Worksheet

The Down Arrow Key Press the down arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves downward one cell at a time. The Up Arrow Key Press the up arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves upward one cell at a time. The Tab Key Move to cell A1. Press the Tab key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the right one cell at a time. The Shift+Tab Keys Hold down the Shift key and then press Tab. Note that the cursor moves to the left one cell at a time. The Right and Left Arrow Keys Press the right arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the right.

Press the left arrow key several times. Note that the cursor moves to the left. Page Up and Page Down Press the Page Down key. Note that the cursor moves down one page. Press the Page Up key. Note that the cursor moves up one page. The Ctrl-Home Key Move the cursor to column J. Stay in column J and move the cursor to row 20. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press the Home key. Excel moves to cell A1. Go To Cells Quickly The following are shortcuts for moving quickly from one cell in a worksheet to a cell in a different part of the worksheet. EXERCISE 2 Go to — F5 The F5 function key is the “Go To” key.

If you press the F5 key, you are prompted for the cell to which you wish to go. Enter the cell address, and the cursor jumps to that cell. Press F5. The Go To dialog box opens. Type J3 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell J3. Go to — Ctrl+G You can also use Ctrl+G to go to a specific cell. Hold down the Ctrl key while you press “g” (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box opens. Type C4 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C4. The Name Box You can also use the Name box to go to a specific cell. Just type the cell you want to go to in the Name box and then press Enter.

If you wish to perform a function on a group of cells, you must first select those cells by highlighting them. The exercises that follow teach you how to select. EXERCISE 3 Select Cells To select cells A1 to E1: Go to cell A1. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor. Note that “Extend Selection” appears on the Status bar in the lower-left corner of the window. You are in the Extend mode. Click in cell E7. Excel highlights cells A1 to E7. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to clear the highlighting. Alternative Method: Select Cells by Dragging

You can also select an area by holding down the left mouse button and dragging the mouse over the area. In addition, you can select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet by doing the following: Go to cell A1. Hold down the Ctrl key. You won’t release it until step 9. Holding down the Ctrl key enables you to select noncontiguous areas of the worksheet. Press the left mouse button. While holding down the left mouse button, use the mouse to move from cell A1 to C5. Continue to hold down the Ctrl key, but release the left mouse button. Using the mouse, place the cursor in cell D7. Press the left mouse button.

While holding down the left mouse button, move to cell F10. Release the left mouse button. Release the Ctrl key. Cells A1 to C5 and cells D7 to F10 are selected. Press Esc and click anywhere on the worksheet to remove the highlighting. Enter Data In this section, you will learn how to enter data into your worksheet. First, place the cursor in the cell in which you want to start entering data. Type some data, and then press Enter. If you need to delete, press the Backspace key to delete one character at a time. EXERCISE 4 Enter Data Place the cursor in cell A1. Type John Jordan. Do not press Enter at this time.

Delete Data The Backspace key erases one character at a time. Press the Backspace key until Jordan is erased. Press Enter. The name “John” appears in cell A1. Edit a Cell After you enter data into a cell, you can edit the data by pressing F2 while you are in the cell you wish to edit. EXERCISE 5 Edit a Cell Change “John” to “Jones. ” Move to cell A1. Press F2. Use the Backspace key to delete the “n” and the “h. ” Type nes. Press Enter. Lesson 2: Entering Excel Formulas and Formatting Data Lesson 1 familiarized you with the Excel 2007 window, taught you how to move around the window, and how to enter data.

A major strength of Excel is that you can perform mathematical calculations and format your data. In this lesson, you learn how to perform basic mathematical calculations and how to format text and numerical data. To start this lesson, open Excel. Set the Enter Key Direction In Microsoft Excel, you can specify the direction the cursor moves when you press the Enter key. In the exercises that follow, the cursor must move down one cell when you press Enter. You can use the Direction box in the Excel Options pane to set the cursor to move up, down, left, right, or not at all.

Perform the steps that follow to set the cursor to move down when you press the Enter key. Click the Microsoft Office button. A menu appears. Click Excel Options in the lower-right corner. The Excel Options pane appears. Click Advanced. If the check box next to After Pressing Enter Move Selection is not checked, click the box to check it. If Down does not appear in the Direction box, click the down arrow next to the Direction box and then click Down. Click OK. Excel sets the Enter direction to down. Perform Mathematical Calculations In Microsoft Excel, you can enter numbers and mathematical formulas into cells.

Whether you enter a number or a formula, you can reference the cell when you perform mathematical calculations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, or division. When entering a mathematical formula, precede the formula with an equal sign. Use the following to indicate the type of calculation you wish to perform: + Addition – Subtraction * Multiplication / Division ^ Exponential In the following exercises, you practice some of the methods you can use to move around a worksheet and you learn how to perform mathematical calculations. Refer to Lesson 1 to learn more about moving around a worksheet. EXERCISE 1

Addition Type Add in cell A1. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 1 in cell A2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 1 in cell A3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type =A2+A3 in cell A4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel adds cell A1 to cell A2 and displays the result in cell A4. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Note: Clicking the check mark on the Formula bar is similar to pressing Enter. Excel records your entry but does not move to the next cell. Subtraction Press F5. The Go To dialog box appears. Type B1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell B1.

Type Subtract. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 6 in cell B2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 3 in cell B3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type =B2-B3 in cell B4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B2 and the result displays in cell B4. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Multiplication Hold down the Ctrl key while you press “g” (Ctrl+g). The Go To dialog box appears. Type C1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell C1 Type Multiply. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 2 in cell C2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell.

Type 3 in cell C3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type =C2*C3 in cell C4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel multiplies C1 by cell C2 and displays the result in cell C3. The formula displays on the Formula bar. Division Press F5. Type D1 in the Reference field. Press Enter. Excel moves to cell D1. Type Divide. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 6 in cell D2. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 3 in cell D3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type =D2/D3 in cell D4. Click the check mark on the Formula bar. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and displays the result in cell D4.

The formula displays on the Formula bar. When creating formulas, you can reference cells and include numbers. All of the following formulas are valid: =A2/B2 =A1+12-B3 =A2*B2+12 =24+53 AutoSum You can use the AutoSum button  on the Home tab to automatically add a column or row of numbers. When you press the AutoSum button , Excel selects the numbers it thinks you want to add. If you then click the check mark on the Formula bar or press the Enter key, Excel adds the numbers. If Excel’s guess as to which numbers you want to add is wrong, you can select the cells you want. EXERCISE 2 AutoSum The following illustrates AutoSum:

Go to cell F1. Type 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell. Type 3. Press Enter. Excel moves down one cell to cell F4. Choose the Home tab. Click the AutoSum button  in the Editing group. Excel selects cells F1 through F3 and enters a formula in cell F4. Press Enter. Excel adds cells F1 through F3 and displays the result in cell F4. Perform Automatic Calculations By default, Microsoft Excel recalculates the worksheet as you change cell entries. This makes it easy for you to correct mistakes and analyze a variety of scenarios. EXERCISE 3 Automatic Calculation

Make the changes described below and note how Microsoft Excel automatically recalculates. Move to cell A2. Type 2. Press the right arrow key. Excel changes the result in cell A4. Excel adds cell A2 to cell A3 and the new result appears in cell A4. Move to cell B2. Type 8. Press the right arrow key. Excel subtracts cell B3 from cell B3 and the new result appears in cell B4. Move to cell C2. Type 4. Press the right arrow key. Excel multiplies cell C2 by cell C3 and the new result appears in cell C4. Move to cell D2. Type 12. Press the Enter key. Excel divides cell D2 by cell D3 and the new result appears in cell D4.

Align Cell Entries When you type text into a cell, by default your entry aligns with the left side of the cell. When you type numbers into a cell, by default your entry aligns with the right side of the cell. You can change the cell alignment. You can center, left-align, or right-align any cell entry. Look at cells A1 to D1. Note that they are aligned with the left side of the cell. Microsoft Excel 2007 – It is a program used to create, format, and compute numbers. It displays datain row-and-column format. MS Excel makes it easy to compute numbers andallows different ways to format data including charts and reports. It is a very powerful electronic spreadsheet that lets the user enter and usenumerical data with formulas and built-in functions. It consists of 16worksheets, 65536 rows, and 256 columns. A Workbook is a file in MS Excel that holds worksheets. A Worksheet is composed of columns and rows that are similar to an accounting ledger. Itdisplays characters like letters, and numbers, and can do computations. Parts and Uses of the MS Excel Environment 1. Toolbars – display commands that are commonly used for easy access 2. Name Box – displays the address of the active cell 3. Formula bar displays the contents and formula entered on the active cell 4. Status bar – displays the information about a selected command 5. Select all Button – selects every cell in a worksheet 6. Sheet Tabs – let you display worksheets in the open workbook 7. Row headers – a number used to identify a row 8. Column headers – a letter used to identify a column 9. Active cell – the cell that has a thick border that will hold any data that you type or entered 10. Scroll bars – includes vertical and horizontal scroll bar and four arrow used to move thescreen display horizontally or vertically 11. Title bar displays the program and the name of the workbook that you are currentlyusing 12. Menu bar (7 Tabs) – lists the names of the menus or tabs in Excel 13. Minimize button – minimizes the window to a button on the task bar 14. Maximize/Restore button – switch between maximizing a window and restoring awindow to its previous size 15. Close button – closes the window Parts of the Microsoft Office Excel 2007 Environment Parts of the PowerPoint screen: * Title bar – displays the document name * Menu bar – click on a menu option to see a list of commands * Standard toolbar – frequently used menu options Formatting toolbar – displays formatting commands * Placeholder – click or double-click to add an element to a slide * Outline view button – displays document in outline form * Slide view button – displays slides one at a time * Slide Sorter view button – displays all slides in a single screen * Slide show button – displays slide show * Drawing toolbar – displays drawing tools * Status bar – shows the current page number and position of the insertion point in the document * Office Assistant – quick help when you need it This lesson introduces you to PowerPoint 2007.

You use the PowerPoint window to interact with the software, place text, graphics, and other features on a slide. When you launch PowerPoint 2007, the PowerPoint 2007 Window appears and your screen looks like the one shown below. Your PowerPoint 2007 Window screen will probably not look exactly like the screen shown above. In PowerPoint 2007, how a window displays depends on the size of the window, the size of your monitor, and the resolution to which your monitor is set. Screen Resolution determines how much information your computer monitor can display.

If you use a low resolution, less information fits on your screen, but the size of your text and images are larger. If you use a high resolution, more information fits on your screen, but the size of the text and images are smaller. The Microsoft Office Button In the upper-left corner of the PowerPoint 2007 window is the Microsoft Office button. It’s similar to the old File Menu. When you click the button, a menu appears. You can use the menu to create a new file, open an existing file, save a file, print, and perform many other tasks. The Quick Access Toolbar

Next to the Microsoft Office button in the upper left corner is the Quick Access toolbar outlined in red in the image above. The Quick Access toolbar provides you with access to commands that are frequently used. By default, Save, Undo, and Redo appear on the Quick Access toolbar. You use Save to save your file, Undo to rollback an action you have taken, and Redo to reapply an action you have rolled back. You can customize this toolbar by right clicking on it or click the small black down arrow to the right. The Title Bar The Title bar is located at the top in the center of the PowerPoint 2007 window.

The Title bar displays the name of the presentation on which you are currently working. By default, PowerPoint names presentations sequentially, starting with Presentation1. When you save your file, you can change the name of your presentation. The Ribbon The Ribbon holds all of the commands and features of each of the tabs in the Ribbon. The Tabs are located across the top of the ribbon under the Title Bar. These contextual tabs will appear when you have something highlighted that calls for it. For example, if you have a picture highlighted on your slide, a Picture Tools tab will appear.

Similar tools are located in Command Groups across the ribbon. Each Command Group includes Command Buttons to perform various actions on that group of tools. Getting PowerPoint to Do What You Want You use commands to tell PowerPoint what to do. In PowerPoint 2007, the commands you use are located on the the Ribbon. The Ribbon is located near the top of the PowerPoint 2007 window, below the Quick Access toolbar. At the top of the Ribbon are several tabs and clicking a tab displays several related command groups. Within each group are related command buttons. You click buttons to issue commands or to access menus and dialog boxes.

You may also find a dialog box launcher in the bottom-right corner of a group. When you click the dialog box launcher, a dialog box makes additional commands available. Clipboard – Contains the cut, copy, paste commands. The Format Painter tool is located here as are the Paste Special, Paste as Hyperlink, and Duplicate commands. Slides – All the commonly used commands for creating new slides Font – Includes the most commonly used commands for formatting font Paragraph – Includes all of the paragraph formatting commands, vertical and horizontal alignments, text direction, bullets, numbering, indenting, spacing before and after, columns, etc.

It also includes the dialog box for tabs. Drawing – Allow you to add shapes and draw on your slides. This is Format Shape Dialog Box. Rulers Rulers are vertical and horizontal guides. You use them to determine where you want to place an object. If the rulers do not display in your PowerPoint 2007 window: 1. Click the View tab. 2. Click Ruler in the Show/Hide group. The rulers appear. Slides, Placeholders, and Notes The Slide Window is broken up into several areas including the Slide Pane and the Notes Section. The Slide Pane appears in the center of the window while the Notes Section is at the bottom.

There are also Placeholders on each slide depending on the slide layout that has been selected. These layouts may include placeholders for a slide title, subtitle, text, images, video, charts, graphs, etc. The placeholders hold the objects on your slides. Slides appear in the center of the window. You create your presentation by adding content to the slides. You can use the notes area to creates notes to yourself. You can refer to these notes as you give your presentation. For narrated presentations, this area is frequently used to write the script for the audio. Main Window Components, Status Bar, Tabs, View Buttons, and More

The Status bar generally appears at the bottom of the window. The Status bar displays the number of the slide that is currently displayed, the total number of slides, and the name of the design template in use or the name of the background. The Outline tab displays the text contained in your presentation in an outline format. The Slides tab displays a thumbnail view of all your slides. You click the thumbnail to view the slide in the Slide pane. The View buttons appear near the bottom of the screen. You use the View buttons to change between Normal view, Slider Sorter view, and the Slide Show view. Normal View

Normal view splits your screen into three major sections: the Outline and Slides tabs, the Slide pane, and the Notes area. The Outline and Slides tabs are on the left side of your window. They enable you to shift between two different ways of viewing your slides. The Slides tab shows thumbnails of your slides. The Outline tab shows the text on your slides. The Slide pane is located in the center of your window. The Slide pane shows a large view of the slide on which you are currently working. The Notes area appears below the Slide pane. You can type notes to yourself on the Notes area. Slide Sorter View

Slide Sorter view shows thumbnails of all your slides. In Slide Sorter view, you can easily add, delete, or change their order of your slides. Slide Show View Use the Slide Show view when you want to view your slides, as they will look in your final presentation. When in Slide Show view: Esc| Returns you to the view you were using previously. | Left-clicking| Moves you to the next slide or animation effect. When you reach the last slide, you automatically return to your previous view. | Right-clicking| Opens a pop-up menu. You can use this menu to navigate the slides, add speaker notes, select a pointer, and mark your presentation. |

Zoom In & Zoom Out Zoom controls allows you to zoom in and zoom out on the window. Zooming in makes the window larger so you focus in on an object. Zooming out makes the window smaller so you can see the entire window. You can click and drag the vertical and horizontal splitter bars to change the size of your panes. What is a computer virus? A computer virus is a small software program that spreads from one computer to another and interferes with computer operation. A computer virus might corrupt or delete data on a computer, use an email program to spread the virus to other computers, or even delete everything on the hard disk.

Computer viruses are frequently spread by attachments in email messages or by instant messaging messages. Therefore, you must never open an email attachment unless you know who sent the message or you are expecting the email attachment. Viruses can be disguised as attachments of funny images, greeting cards, or audio and video files. Computer viruses also spread through downloads on the Internet. They can be hidden in pirated software or in other files or programs that you might download. Symptoms of a computer virus For information about the symptoms of a computer virus, go to the  Microsoft PC Security website. What is a worm?

A worm is computer code that spreads without user interaction. Most worms begin as email attachments that infect a computer when they’re opened. The worm scans the infected computer for files, such as address books or temporary webpages, that contain email addresses. The worm uses the addresses to send infected email messages, and frequently mimics (or spoofs) the “From” addresses in later email messages so that those infected messages seem to be from someone you know. Worms then spread automatically through email messages, networks, or operating system vulnerabilities, frequently overwhelming those systems before the cause is known.

Worms aren’t always destructive to computers, but they usually cause computer and network performance and stability problems. What is a trojan horse? A trojan horse is a malicious software program that hides inside other programs. It enters a computer hidden inside a legitimate program, such as a screen saver. Then it puts code into the operating system that enables a hacker to access the infected computer. Trojan horses do not usually spread by themselves. They are spread by viruses, worms, or downloaded software. What is spyware? Spyware can install on your computer without your knowledge.

These programs can change your computer’s configuration or collect advertising data and personal information. Spyware can track Internet search habits and can also redirect your web browser to a different website than you intend to go to. What is rogue security software? A rogue security software program tries to make you think that your computer is infected by a virus and usually prompts you to download or buy a product that removes the virus. The names of these products frequently contain words like Antivirus, Shield, Security, Protection, or Fixer. This makes them sound legitimate.

They frequently run right after you download them, or the next time that your computer starts. Rogue security software can prevent applications, such as Internet Explorer, from opening. Rogue security software might also display legitimate and important Windows files as infections. Typical error messages or pop-up messages might contain the following phrases: Warning! Your computer is infected! This computer is infected by spyware and adware. Note If you receive a message in a popup dialog box that resembles this warning, press ALT + F4 on your keyboard to close the dialog box.

Do not click anything inside the dialog box. If a warning, such as the one here, keeps appearing when you try to close the dialog box, it’s a good indication that the message is malicious. Are you sure you want to navigate from this page? Your computer is infected! They can cause data lost and file corruption and need to be treated as soon as possible. Press CANCEL to prevent it. Return to System Security and download it to secure your PC. Press OK to Continue or Cancel to stay on the current page. If you see this kind of message, then don’t download or buy the software.

What is malware? Malware is a term that is used for malicious software that is designed to do damage or unwanted actions to a computer system. Examples of malware include the following: Viruses Worms Trojan horses Spyware Rogue security software How to remove malware such as a virus, spyware, or rogue security software Removing a computer virus or spyware can be difficult without the help of malicious software removal tools. Some computer viruses and other unwanted software reinstall themselves after the viruses and spyware are detected and removed.

Fortunately, by updating the computer and by using malicious software removal tools, you can help permanently remove unwanted software. For more information about how to remove a computer virus and spyware, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 2671662 – Microsoft resources and guidance for removal of malware and viruses Note If you cannot access the Internet on your computer, use another computer to help you follow the steps in the “How to reset your Internet Explorer proxy settings” section on the computer that may be infected.

To remove a computer virus and other malicious software, follow these steps in order. Install the latest updates from Microsoft Update Note A computer virus may prevent you from accessing the Microsoft Update website to install the latest updates. We recommend that you set the Automatic Updates service to run automatically so that a computer is not missing any important updates. For more information, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base:  306525 – How to configure and use Automatic Updates in Windows Windows Vista and Windows 7 Click Start, and then type Windows Update in the search box.

In the results area, click Windows Update. Click Check for Updates. Follow the instructions to download and install the latest Windows Updates. Windows XP Click Start, and then click Run. Type sysdm. cpl, and then press Enter. Click the Automatic Updates tab, and then click the Automatic (recommended) option. Click OK. Use the free Microsoft Safety Scanner Microsoft offers a free online tool that scans and helps remove potential threats from your computer. To perform the scan, go to the Microsoft Safety Scanner website. Use the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool

For more information about the Microsoft Malicious Software Removal Tool, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 890830 – The Microsoft Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool helps remove specific, prevalent malicious software from computers that are running Windows 7, Windows Vista, Windows Server 2003, Windows Server 2008, or Windows XP Manually remove the rogue security software If the rogue security software can’t be detected or removed by using Microsoft Safety Scanner or the Windows Malicious Software Removal Tool, try the following steps: Note the name of the rogue security software.

For this example, we’ll call it XP Security Agent 2010. Restart your computer. When you see the computer’s manufacturer’s logo, repeatedly press the F8 key. When you are prompted, use the arrow keys to highlight Safe Mode with Networking, and then press Enter. Click Start and check whether the rogue security software appears on the Start menu. If it’s not listed there, clickAll Programs and scroll to find the rogue security software’s name. Right-click the name of the rogue security software program, and then click Properties. Click the Shortcut tab.

In the Properties dialog box, check the path of the rogue security software program that is listed in Target. For example, C:Program FilesXP Security Agent 2010. Note The folder name frequently is a random number. Click Open File Location. In the Program Files window, click Program Files in the address bar. Scroll until you find the rogue security software program folder. For example, XP Security Agent 2010. Right-click the folder, and then click Delete. Restart your computer. Go to the Microsoft Safety Scanner website. Follow the steps to run the scan and to help remove the rogue security software.

If you suspect that your computer is infected with rogue security software that was not detected by using Microsoft security solutions, you can submit samples by using the Microsoft Malware Protection Center submission form. For more information about rogue security software, go to the Watch out for fake virus alerts website. Install and run Microsoft Security Essentials Microsoft offers a free malicious removal program called Microsoft Security Essentials that helps protect your computer from becoming infected. To install Microsoft Security Essentials, follow these steps: Go to the Microsoft Security Essentials website.

Click Free Download. Click Run, and then follow the instructions to install Microsoft Security Essentials. After installation, restart your computer. Click Start, click All Programs, and then click Microsoft Security Essentials. On the Home tab, select the Full scan option, and then click Scan now. Install Windows Defender Offline Windows Defender Offline is a malware tool that helps remove difficult to eliminate viruses that start before Windows starts. To use Windows Defender Offline, follow these steps: On an uninfected computer, go to the What is Windows Defender Offline website.

Click Download the 32 bit version or Download the 64 bit version, depending on which operating system that you are running. If you’re unsure of which operating system that you are running, go to the Is my PC running the 32-bit or 64-bit version of Windows website. When you are prompted, click Save As, and then save the file to a DVD, CD, or USB flash drive. On the infected computer, insert the DVD, CD, or USB flash drive, and then restart the computer. When you are prompted, press a key to select an option to use to start your computer, such as F12, F5, or F8, depending on the kind of computer that you are using.

Use the arrow key to scroll to the drive where you installed Windows Defender Offline file. Windows Defender Offline starts and immediately scans for malware. For more information about how to remove a computer virus, go to the How do I remove a computer virus website. How to protect your computer against malware There are actions that you can take to help protect your computer against malware. Turn on the firewall For information about how to turn on your firewall in Windows 7, go to the Turn Windows 7 Firewall on or offwebsite.

For information about how to turn on your firewall in Windows Vista, go to the Turn Windows Vista Firewall on or off website. For information about how to turn on your firewall in Windows XP, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 283673 – How can I turn on or turn off the firewall in Windows XP Service Pack 2 or later versions? Keep your computer up to date For more information about how to set Automatic Updates in Windows, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge Base: 306525 – How to configure and use Automatic Updates in Windows Install Microsoft Security Essentials and keep it up to date

For more information about how to install and use Microsoft Security Essentials, go to the Microsoft Security Essentialswebsite. Don’t be tricked into downloading malware Here are some tips that can help protect you from downloading software that you don’t want: Only download programs from websites that you trust. If you’re not sure whether to trust a program that you want to download, enter the name of the program into your favorite search engine to see whether anyone else has reported that it contains spyware. Read all security warnings, license agreements, and privacy statements that are associated with any software that you download.

Never click “Agree” or “OK” to close a window that you suspect might be spyware. Instead, click the red “x” in the corner of the window or press Alt + F4 on your keyboard to close a window. Be wary of popular “free” music and movie file-sharing programs, and make sure that you understand all the software packaged with those programs. Use a standard user account instead of an administrator account. For more information, go to the Why use a standard account instead of an administrator account website. For more information about how to protect a computer against viruses, go to the How to boost your malware defense and protect your PC website.

How to reset your Internet Explorer proxy settings Malicious software might change Internet Explorer proxy settings, and these changes can prevent you from accessing Windows Update or any Microsoft Security sites. To have us change your Internet Explorer proxy settings for you, follow these steps: On an uninfected computer, see the following article in the Microsoft Knowledge base: 2289942 – How to reset your Internet Explorer proxy settings Go to the Fix it for me section. Click the Fix it button. Save the file to a flash drive or a CD when you are prompted. Insert the flash drive or CD in the infected computer.

Start Windows, click Start, and then click Run. Click Browse. Select the location of the flash drive or CD. Double-click the file that you saved, and then click Open. To change your Internet Explorer proxy settings yourself, follow these steps: Click Start, and then click Run. In the Run box, copy and paste the following: reg add “HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet Settings” /v ProxyEnable /t REG_DWORD /d 0 /f Click OK. Click Start, and then click Run. In the Run box, copy and paste the following: reg delete “HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet Settings” /v ProxyServer /f Click OK.