Nanjing Massacre

Genocide Research Project Questions and Instructions Research Reminders * Each student must answer all questions. * Record references for all information used to answer the questions. (copy and paste to a word document or save to your H: drive or print a copy) * Only research will be conducted today. You will not work on your presentation until all research is completed. * You must get information from 9 sources, most from Galileo. * In Galileo, select History References and Full Text. Enter your country and genocide as search terms. You will have to READ the articles to find information. Write the answers, cut and paste, or type into your word document with a reference to the source. * Use the citation option to get the APA citation for the source. Copy and paste into your word document. All questions must be answered with correct source citations by the end of class. This assignment will count as a quiz grade. You can access the word document on Edmodo or Ms. Youse’s webpage. Open it and save it to your H: drive before you begin your research. Name _______________ Date ___________ Period______ Country___________

Research Questions, Answers, and Sources 1. What historical, cultural, social events led to this particular case of genocide? In December 1937, the then-Chinese capital of Nanjing fell to the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA). China, under the control of the Nationalist government (the KMT), had been engaged in full-scale conflict with Japan since July of that year in what is known as the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945). During 1937, Japanese forces captured several major Chinese cities, including Shanghai, whose taking enabled the invading army to advance on the capital.

By the time the IJA entered an already-bombarded Nanjing on December 13, the KMT had withdrawn its army, leaving the city officially defenceless. Source: Kinney, D. (2012). Rediscovering a massacre: The filmic legacy of Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nanking. Continuum: Journal Of Media ; Cultural Studies, 26(1), 11-23. doi:10. 1080/10304312. 2012. 630136 2. Where did this genocide occur? Identify a specific place and its relative location on the planet. Nanjing (nan? jing? ) or Nanking (nan? king? ) [southern capital], city (1994 est. pop. 2,224,200), capital of Jiangsu prov. E central China, in a bend of the Chang (Yangtze) River. It has served at times in the past as capital of China. The second largest city in the region (after Shanghai), Source: Nanjing. (2013). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1. 3. When did this case of genocide occur? How long did it last? The events that ensued over six weeks – including mass rape and killing of both civilians and disarmed military personnel – are known collectively as the Nanjing Massacre. Its death toll remains hotly disputed particularly among Japanese historians, though the official Chinese estimate is 300,000.

Source: Kinney, D. (2012). Rediscovering a massacre: The filmic legacy of Iris Chang’s The Rape of Nanking. Continuum: Journal Of Media & Cultural Studies, 26(1), 11-23. doi:10. 1080/10304312. 2012. 630136 4. What are/were the targeted races, ethnicities, tribes, or religions? On December 13, 1937, the invading Japanese army captured Nanking and ruthlessly butchered Chinese disarmed soldiers and civilians, madly looted Chinese properties, and indulgently torched down private and public buildings. However, the most heinous of all was their shameless, cruel rape of Chinese women.

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An eyewitness, H. J. Timperley, a reporter of the “Manchester Guardian,” said in his book that the desecrated Nanking was “an earthly hell. ” Source: Hu, H. W. (1992). Don’t forget the Chinese Women under the Rape of Nanking. Chinese American Forum, 7(4), 20-23 5. Provide relevant background information about the region and the conflict. Nanjing is at the intersection of three major railroad lines. Industry, which once centered around nankeen cloth (unbleached cotton goods), was vigorously developed under the Communist government.

The city now has an integrated iron-steel complex, an oil refinery, food-processing establishments, and hundreds of plants making chemicals, textiles, cement, fertilizers, machinery, weapons, electronic equipment, optical instruments, photographic equipment, and trucks. Nanjing has long been celebrated as a literary and political center. It was the capital of China from the 3d to 6th cent. A. D. and again from 1368 to 1421. The Treaty of Nanjing, signed in 1842 at the end of the Opium War, opened China to foreign trade. During the Taiping Rebellion insurgents held the city from 1853 to 1864.

It was captured by the revolutionists in 1911, and in 1912 it became the capital of China’s first president, Sun Yat-sen. When in 1927 the city fell to the Communists, the foreign residents fled to the protection of British and American warships on the Chang River. The Kuomintang under Chiang Kai-shek retook the city, and it became (1928) the regular Nationalist capital. In 1932, when the Japanese were threatening to attack the city, the government was temporarily removed to Luoyang, and on Nov. 21, 1937, just before Nanjing fell to the Japanese, it was moved to Chongqing.

The Japanese entry into the city, accompanied by widespread killing and brutality, became known as the rape of Nanking. Source: Nanjing. (2013). Reloaded Content, 1. 6. Name all of the groups involved in the conflict. Describe each group. Source: 7. What were the major and the underlying causes of the genocide? What do the perpetrators of the genocide hope to accomplish? Source: 8. Was there an event that “sparked” the killings? (for example, the President’s plane crash in Rwanda) If so, what was the inciting incident? Source: 9. What occurred during the genocide? A.

Who was targeted and why? B. Who did the killing? C. What methods were used? D. How long did it last? E. How many people were killed? Source: 10. How did the genocide end? Source: 11. Was there any involvement from the international community (individual countries or the United Nations)? If so, what? If not, why? Source: 12. What were/are the lasting effects of the genocide? Some questions to consider are? A. What was the country/region like directly after the genocide? B. What is the country/region like today? C. Are there still tensions between the groups involved? Source:

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