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Chapter 12 Basic Approaches to Leadership MULTIPLE CHOICE What Is Leadership? 1. John Kotter’s view argues that management focuses on coping with complexity, whereas leadership focuses on coping with _____. a. conflict b. success c. defeat d. morale e. change (e; Moderate; Management and Leadership; p. 385) 2. Which of the following roles focuses on bringing about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans? a. leadership b. management c. task structure d. initiating structure e. none of the above (b; Easy; Management; p. 385) 3. Leadership is best defined as _____. a. he ability to influence a group in goal achievement b. keeping order and consistency in the midst of change c. implementing the vision and strategy provided by management d. coordinating and staffing the organization and handling day-to-day problems e. not a relevant variable in modern organizations (a; Moderate; Leadership; p. 385) 4. Which of the following statements regarding leadership is true? a. All leaders are managers. b. Formal rights enable managers to lead effectively. c. All managers are leaders. d. All leaders are hierarchically superior to followers. . Nonsanctioned leadership is as important as or more important than formal influence. (e; Challenging; Leadership; p. 386) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Trait Theories 5. Which theory differentiates leaders from nonleaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics? a. Fiedler’s perspective b. characteristic theory c. LPC d. contingency theory e. trait theory (e; Easy; Trait Theories; p. 386) 6. According to a comprehensive review of the leadership literature, what is the most important trait of effective leaders? a. conscientiousness b. openness c. extraversion d. greeableness e. emotional stability (c; Easy; Big Five and Trait Theories; p. 386) 7. Recent studies indicate that ________ may indicate effective leadership. a. an endless supply of terrific ideas b. a compelling vision c. a highly analytical mind d. outstanding training e. emotional intelligence (e; Easy; Emotional Intelligence and Trait Theories; p. 387) 8. Emotional intelligence is so critical to effective leadership because one of its core components is ________. a. conscientiousness b. empathy c. openness d. extraversion e. agreeableness (b; Easy; Trait Theories; p. 387) 9.

There is fairly strong evidence that traits can predict _____ more accurately than leadership effectiveness. a. leadership emergence b. extraversion in leaders c. leadership awareness d. leadership competence e. the conscientiousness of leaders (a; Moderate; Trait Theories; p. 388) Behavioral Theories 10. Trait research suggests that we focus on _____, whereas behavioral studies imply that we can effectively _____. a. teaching people certain traits; teach people certain behaviors b. selecting the right person for a job; train leaders c. changing jobs to suit people; change people to suit jobs d. raining new employees; dispense with training e. identifying certain traits in leaders; ignore leaders’ traits (b; Moderate; Trait Theories versus Behavioral Theories; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 11. If trait theories of leadership are valid, then leaders are _____. a. trained b. born c. authoritarian d. educated e. grown (b; Moderate; Trait Theories; p. 389) 12. If behavioral leadership theories are correct, then _____. a. leadership behaviors are consistent b. leaders are born with leadership behaviors c. leaders’ behavior should be altered d. leadership can be taught e. omen generally make better leaders than men (d; Moderate; Behavioral Theories; p. 389) 13. Which of the following is not a behavioral theory of leadership? a. Ohio State studies b. Fiedler model c. University of Michigan studies d. managerial grid e. All of the above are behavior theories of leadership. (b; Moderate; Behavioral Theories; pp. 389-390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 14. The two dimensions of leadership behavior explained in the Ohio State studies are _____. a. coercion and motivation b. concern for people and concern for production c. employee-oriented and production-oriented d. nitiating structure and consideration e. operant conditioning and classical conditioning (d; Moderate; Ohio State Studies; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 15. According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader’s behavior is directed toward getting the job done is called _____. a. consideration b. maximization c. relationship-oriented d. path-goal e. initiating structure (e; Moderate; Initiating Structure; p. 389) 16. A leader high in initiating structure would do which of the following? a. seek consensus b. exhibit laissez-faire type of leadership c. maximize leader-member relations d. ssign group members to particular tasks e. empower employees to make their own decisions (d; Moderate; Initiating Structure; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 17. According to the Ohio State studies, the extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust and respect for his/her employees is _____. a. consideration b. matrix c. consensus-building d. LPC e. maximization (a; Moderate; Consideration; p. 389) 18. The two dimensions of leadership behavior identified in the University of Michigan studies are _____. a. coercion and motivation b. emotional and rational c. mployee-oriented and production-oriented d. initiating structure and consideration e. initiation and completion (c; Moderate; University of Michigan Studies; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 19. The University of Michigan studies define a(n) _____ leader as one who takes personal interest in the needs of his/her subordinates. a. LMX b. contextual c. employee-oriented d. consensus-building e. consummate (c; Moderate; Employee-Oriented Leaders; p. 390) 20. If a leader’s main concern is accomplishing his/her group’s tasks, the University of Michigan studies label this leader _____. a. consideration-oriented . managerial c. ineffective d. high achieving e. production-oriented (e; Moderate; Production-Oriented Leaders; p. 390) 21. According to University of Michigan researchers, which type of leaders is associated with higher group productivity and higher job satisfaction? a. situational b. employee-oriented c. production-oriented d. initiating structure-oriented e. heliocentric (b; Moderate; Employee-Oriented Leaders; p. 390) 22. The graphic portrayal of a two-dimensional view of leadership style by Blake and Mouton is known as the _____. a. least preferred co-worker scale b. leader-participation model c. utocratic-democratic continuum d. managerial grid e. matrix of discretion (d; Easy; Managerial Grid; p. 390) 23. According to the Managerial Grid, managers perform best using which of the following styles? a. 9,9 b. consideration c. contingency d. development-oriented e. rigid (a; Moderate; Managerial Grid; p. 390) 24. According to Blake and Mouton, a leader with a 9,1 style can best be described as a(n) ____ type of leader. a. visionary b. laissez-faire c. authority d. effusive e. contrasting (c; Moderate; Managerial Grid; p. 390) Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory 5. All contingency theories are based on the idea that effective leadership performance depends on _____. a. the proper match between the leader’s style and the control the situation gives the leader b. selecting the right leadership style based on the level of the followers’ readiness c. using a leadership style that is appropriate to the situational conditions d. making use of the best path for the goal that is identified e. none of the above (c; Challenging; Contingency Models; p. 392) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 26. Who proposed a contingency theory? a. Fiedler b. Surber c. Grey . Deickman e. Swartz (a; Easy; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 27. The first comprehensive contingency model for leadership was developed by _____. a. Hersey and Blanchard b. Blake and Mouton c. Fred Fiedler d. John Kotter e. Douglas Surber (c; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 28. Which model represents the theory that effective group performance depends on the proper match between a leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader? a. Leader-Member Exchange Model b. Fiedler’s Contingency Model c. Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Model d.

Vroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model e. none of the above (b; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 29. Who developed the LPC (least preferred co-worker) questionnaire? a. Wachner b. Fiedler c. House d. Blake and Mouton e. Surber (b; Moderate; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 392) 30. In Fiedler’s model, if a respondent describes his or her least preferred co-worker in relatively positive terms, then the respondent is considered to be _____. a. relationship-oriented b. people-oriented c. consensus-building d. consideration-focused e. unrealistic (a; Challenging; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 92) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 31. If a survey respondent sees his or her least preferred co-worker in unfavorable terms, Fiedler would categorize the respondent as _____. a. overly critical b. task-oriented c. emotionally deficient d. insightful e. laissez-faire (b; Moderate; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 392) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 32. Fiedler’s contingency model assumes that an individual’s leadership style is _____. a. changeable b. contingent c. situational d. fixed e. intangible (d; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 33. Three situational criteria identified in the Fiedler model are _____. . job requirements, position power, and leadership ability b. charisma, influence, and leader-member relations c. leader-member relations, task structure, and position power d. task structure, leadership ability, and group conflict e. emotional intelligence, group orientation, and employee status (c; Moderate; Fiedler’s Key Situational Factors; p. 393) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 34. Fiedler labels the degree of confidence, trust, and respect that subordinates have in their leader as _____. a. leader-member relations b. relationship orientation c. positional power d. employee-orientation . none of the above (a; Easy; Leader-Member Relations; p. 393) 35. The degree to which job assignments are procedurized is classified in the Fiedler model as _____. a. leader-member relations b. task orientation c. task structure d. initiating structure e. productivity oriented (c; Moderate; Task Structures; p. 393) 36. Fiedler’s theory predicts that an individual who is considered task oriented will be most effective when the situation is _____. a. moderately to highly favorable b. moderately favorable c. moderately to highly unfavorable d. very favorable or very unfavorable e. highly favorable d; Challenging; Matching Leaders and Situations; pp. 393-394) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 37. Based on the contingency theory, if the leadership style does not match the situation, you should _____. a. change the leader to fit the situation b. change the situation to fit the leader c. accept this circumstance as unchangeable d. either a or b e. retrain the leader in a more appropriate style (d; Moderate; Matching Leaders and Situations; p. 394) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 38. The reconceptualization of the contingency model by Garcia and Fiedler is called _____ theory. a. situational b. cognitive resource . evaluative d. leadership recognition e. cognitive dissonance (b; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 39. Cognitive resource theory focuses on the role of ____ as a form of situational unfavorableness and how a leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction. a. stress b. task structure c. position power d. conflict e. resolution (a; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 40. All of the following are findings of the cognitive resource theory except _____. a. low stress situations show a positive relationship between intellectual abilities and performance b. ow stress situations show a positive relationship between job experience and performance c. high stress situations show a negative relationship between intellectual abilities and performance d. high stress situations show a positive relationship between job experience and performance e. None of the above are findings of the theory. (b; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 41. Hersey and Blanchard developed which of the following? a. situational leadership theory b. cognitive resource theory c. managerial grid model d. path-goal theory . cognitive orientation model (a; Moderate; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 395) 42. Hersey and Blanchard’s leadership theory differs from other leadership theories primarily because it _____. a. explores the role of the expectations of the leader for the follower b. focuses on the followers c. holds that leadership style should be dependent on the situation d. is normative e. deals strictly and exclusively with contingencies (b; Challenging; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 395) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 43. According to Hersey and Blanchard, readiness encompasses the _____. a. egree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader b. amount of influence a leader has over variables such as hiring, firing, and salaries c. level of morale and satisfaction of the employees d. ability and willingness of the followers to accomplish a task e. all of the above (d; Moderate; Readiness; p. 396) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 44. Hersey and Blanchard say that the laissez-faire leadership style should be used when employees are ____ to accomplish a task. a. unable and willing b. able and unwilling c. unable and unwilling d. able and willing e. none of the above d; Moderate; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 396) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 45. What theory was developed by Robert House? a. cognitive resource model b. decision theory c. leader-member exchange theory d. path-goal theory e. situational leadership theory (d; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory; p. 396) 46. The leadership model that integrates the expectancy theory of motivation with the Ohio State leadership research is _____. a. path-goal b. contingency c. leader-participation d. leader-member exchange e. cognitive arousal (a; Challenging; Path-Goal Theory; p. 396) 47. What is the essence of the path-goal theory? . Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style. b. Stress is a form of situational unfavorableness and a leader’s reaction to it depends on his or her intelligence and experience. c. Effective group performance depends on the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader. d. Leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers because of time pressures. e. The leader is responsible for providing followers with the information, support, or other resources necessary for them to do their jobs. e; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory; p. 397) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 48. The leadership behaviors identified by the path-goal theory are _____. a. supportive, employee-oriented, laissez-faire, and participative b. achievement-oriented, supportive, humanistic, and directive c. participative, achievement-oriented, directive, and supportive d. directive, participative, supportive, and laissez-faire e. affective, cognitive, and behavioral (c; Challenging; Path-Goal Theory; p. 397) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 49. Which path-goal leadership style leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful? . directive b. supportive c. participative d. mixed e. reactive (a; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory; p. 397) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 50. According to House, what leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers? a. the achievement-oriented leader b. the directive leader c. the laissez-faire leader d. the participative leader e. the supportive leader (e; Easy; Path-Goal Theory; p. 397) 51. Which of the following is not an example of a prediction based on path-goal theory? a. Subordinates with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a directive style. b.

Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful. c. Supportive leadership results in high employee performance when performing structured tasks. d. Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant by employees with a lot of experience. e. All of the above are examples of predictions based on path-goal theory. (a; Challenging; Path-Goal Theory Predictions; p. 398) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 52. Which of the following theories argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their subordinates? . managerial grid b. leader-member exchange c. path-goal d. expectancy e. contingency (b; Easy; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 398) 53. According to LMX theory, which of the following is not true of those individuals who fall into the out-group? a. They receive a disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention. b. They have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interaction. c. They are less trusted. d. They receive fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls. e. All of the above statements are true. (a; Easy; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 99) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 54. According to LMX theory, a leader implicitly categorizes followers as “in” or “out” _____. a. after careful analysis b. on a temporary basis c. early in the interaction d. because of political pressure e. based on job requirements (c; Easy; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 399) Decision Theory; Vroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model 55. The leader-participation model was developed by _____. a. Hersey and Blanchard b. Fred Fiedler c. Blake and Mouton d. Vroom and Yetton e. Douglas and Surber (d; Moderate; Leadership-Participation Model; p. 400) 56.

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Vroom and Yetton’s leadership theory could also be described as a _____ theory. a. contingency b. decision c. behavioral d. trait e. cognitive dissonance (b; Moderate; Leadership-Participation Model; p. 400) 57. Criticism of Vroom and Yetton’s leader-participation model focus on ________. a. the model’s overall complexity b. the lack of research testing of the model c. the abstract nature of the model d. the model’s emphasis on follower commitment e. the model’s emphasis on time restrictions related to decision-making (a; Challenging; Criticism of Leadership-Participation Model; p. 400) TRUE/FALSE

What Is Leadership? 58. Leadership and management are two terms that are often confused. (True; Easy; Management and Leadership; p. 385) 59. According to Kotter, management focuses on coping with change; leadership focuses on coping with complexity. (False; Moderate; Management and Leadership; p. 385) 60. Leadership can be defined as the ability to influence a group towards the achievement of cohesiveness. (False; Moderate; Leadership; p. 385) 61. Holding a management position is an important step towards becoming a leader in an organization. (False; Moderate; Management and Leadership; p. 385) 62.

Strong leadership is the primary element needed for optimum organizational effectiveness. (False; Moderate; Leadership; p. 385) Trait Theories 63. By the 1990s, numerous studies indicated that leaders differed from nonleaders only in ambition and self-confidence. (False; Challenging; Leadership; p. 386) 64. Research efforts at isolating leadership traits achieved a breakthrough, of sorts, when researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework. (True; Moderate; Big Five and Trait Theories; p. 386) 65. The Big Five personality framework revealed that traits are most useful as predictors of leadership emergence. True; Moderate; Big Five and Trait Theories; p. 386) Behavioral Theories 66. Trait research would provide a basis for selecting the “right” persons to assume formal positions requiring leadership. (True; Easy; Trait Theories; p. 389) 67. One assumption of the trait view of leadership is that leaders cannot be trained. (True; Moderate; Trait Theories; p. 389) 68. If behavioral theories of leadership are valid, selection of leaders should focus on length of experience an individual has obtained in the right situations. (False; Easy; Behavioral Theories; p. 389) 69.

If behavioral theories of leadership are valid, we could have an infinite supply of effective leaders. (True; Challenging; Behavioral Theories; p. 389) 70. The most comprehensive and replicated of the behavioral theories resulted from research begun by Fred Fiedler. (False; Moderate; Ohio State Studies; p. 389) 71. The Ohio State Studies involved research on only two dimensions – initiating structure and consideration. (True; Moderate; Ohio State Studies; p. 389) 72. A leader designated as high on initiating structure would be likely to clearly define the roles of his or her subordinates. (True; Easy; Initiating Structure; p. 389) 3. According to the University of Michigan studies, production-oriented leadership is defined as the extent to which a leader tends to emphasize the technical or task aspects of the job. (False; Moderate; University of Michigan Studies; p. 390) 74. The University of Michigan studies found that production-oriented leaders were associated with higher group productivity than employee-oriented leaders. (False; Challenging; University of Michigan Studies; p. 390) 75. The managerial grid model of leadership uses a grid containing nine possible positions on each axis, representing 81 different positions in which a leader’s style may fall. True; Moderate; Managerial Grid; p. 390) 76. The managerial grid model holds that managers tend to perform best under a 9,9 management style. (True; Moderate; Managerial Grid; p. 390) 77. The managerial grid was developed by a team of researchers known as the Scandinavian Studies group. (False; Easy; Managerial Grid; p. 390) 78. The managerial grid helped promote the progress of leadership research by identifying the productivity results produced by each of 81 different leadership styles. (False; Challenging; Managerial Grid; p. 390) Contingency Theories: Fiedler Model and Situational Leadership Theory 79.

The Fiedler contingency model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between a leader’s style and the degree to which a situation gives control to the leader. (True; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 80. Fiedler’s contingency model is considered to be the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership. (True; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 81. Contingency models of leadership suggest that there is no one best style of leadership. (True; Easy; Contingency Models; p. 392) 82. Fiedler believes that a key factor in leadership success is the follower’s preferences for co-worker types. False; Easy; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 83. Fiedler’s findings focused on results obtained from his pioneering use of the most preferred co-worker (MPC) questionnaire. (False; Easy; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 392) 84. In Fiedler’s approach, if a respondent uses unfavorable terms to describe the co-worker in question, the respondent can be said to be primarily task-oriented. (True; Moderate; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 392) 85. Fiedler’s theory is based on the assumption that leaders can’t change their styles to fit changing situations. (True; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 86.

Fiedler’s theory suggests that training is an effective tool to improve leader effectiveness. (False; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) 87. Fiedler’s three situational factors include: leader-member relations, task structure, and stress. (False; Moderate; Fiedler’s Key Situational Factors; p. 393) 88. According to Fiedler, task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. (True; Moderate; Task Structures; p. 393) 89. According to Fiedler, leader-member relations concern the degree to which a leader takes a personal interest in the needs of his or her employees and accepts individual differences among them. False; Challenging; Position Power; p. 393) 90. According to Fiedler’s contingency model, task-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of high or low control. (True; Moderate; Matching Leaders and Situations; pp. 393-394) 91. Fiedler assumes that we should concentrate on changing situations to suit the leaders or changing the leaders to fit the situation. (True; Moderate; Matching Leaders and Situations; p. 394) 92. Taken as a whole, tests of the overall validity of the Fiedler model tend to support substantial parts of the model. (True; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 394) 93.

One criticism of the Fiedler model concerns the fact that the logic underlying the model’s questionnaire is not well understood. (True; Moderate; Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 395) 94. Studies regarding the Fiedler model have shown that respondents’ questionnaire scores tend to be relatively stable. (False; Moderate; Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 395) 95. One advantage of the Fiedler model is that its contingency variables are simple and easy to assess. (False; Moderate; Problems with Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 395) 96. The essence of cognitive resource theory is that stress is the enemy of rationality. True; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 97. Cognitive resource theory predicts that in low-stress situations, bright individuals perform better in the leadership role than their less intelligent counterparts. (True; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 98. Cognitive resource theory predicts that in high-stress situations, more experienced individuals perform better than do less experienced people. (True; Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 99. Under the cognitive resource theory, experience is generally a strong predictor of leadership effectiveness. False; Easy; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) 100. Hersey and Blanchard argue that the correct leadership style is contingent on the level of the follower’s readiness. (True; Easy; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 395) 101. Situational leadership theory essentially views the leader-follower relationship as analogous to that between a parent and child. (True; Easy; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 396) 102. Situational leadership theory has been well validated by research but not well received by practitioners because there are so many factors to examine. (False; Moderate; Situational Leadership Theory; p. 96) 103. SLT is an example of a trait theory. (False; Easy; Situational Leadership Theory; pp. 395-396) 104. The path-goal model of leadership integrates the expectancy model of motivation with key elements of the Ohio State Studies. (True; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory; p. 396) 105. Path-goal theory assumes leaders are flexible and can display different leadership behavior depending on the situation. (True; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory; p. 397) 106. A hypothesis that has evolved out of path-goal theory is that directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful. True; Moderate; Path-Goal Theory Predictions; p. 398) Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory 107. In the leader-member exchange theory, leaders don’t treat all of their subordinates alike. (True; Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 397) 108. According to LMX theory, out-group members get more of the leader’s time, but in a negative manner. (False; Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 397) 109. In the leader-member exchange theory, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of employees called the “supportive followers. ” (False; Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 397) 110.

Research testing of LMX theory has been generally supportive. (True, Moderate, Evaluation of Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 398) Decision Theory; Vroom and Yetton’s Leader-Participation Model 111. The leader-participation model provides a set of rules that leaders can use to determine the appropriate leadership behavior for a given task structure. (True; Moderate; Leadership-Participation Model; p. 400) 112. The complexity of the leadership-participation model enables leaders to apply it realistically when they are assessing decision-making situations. (False; Challenging; Criticism of Leadership-Participation Model; p. 00) SCENARIO-BASED QUESTIONS Application of Trait Theories Your company’s HR director is a believer in trait theories of leadership. He believes that he can differentiate leaders from non-leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics. The HR director plans to promote Lawrence, a highly extroverted manager with a great deal of ambition and energy. Furthermore, the president of the company is preparing to retire, and the HR director is searching for her replacement. He asks for your expertise in helping him to apply trait theory to leadership selection within your company. 13. You explain that research efforts at isolating leadership traits have ________. a. identified six leadership traits that predict leadership b. been supportive of the Big Five leadership traits predicting leadership c. shown that conscientiousness does not help much in predicting leadership d. identified emotional stability as the most strongly related trait to leader emergence e. been more focused on developing contingency theories and replacing trait theories (b; Easy; Big Five and Trait Theories; p. 386) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 114.

When selecting individuals for leadership positions, trait theory suggests that which of the following is least helpful for identifying leaders? a. extraversion b. conscientiousness c. openness to experience d. agreeableness e. ambition (d; Moderate; Big Five and Trait Theories; p. 387) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 115. You advise the director to prioritize which of the following when looking for appropriate candidates for the president’s replacement? a. goal-orientation b. analytical capacity c. emotional intelligence d. emotional stability e. training (c; Moderate; Emotional Intelligence and Trait Theories; p. 387) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 16. The director believes that because of these innate characteristics, Lawrence will be highly effective at helping the company achieve its production goals. You advise the director against this decision because ________. a. research has identified emotional stability as the strongest predictor of leadership effectiveness b. studies have found that the Big Five traits are difficult to identify in leaders c. studies have shown that traits are poor predictors of leadership effectiveness d. research has found that conscientiousness is a better predictor of effectiveness than extraversion e. esearch has shown that effective managers are often unlikely to become effective leaders (c; Moderate; Trait Theories; p. 388) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Trait and Behavioral Theories You are the CEO of an engineering design firm that has several departments, each specializing in the design of different products. You have noticed a great deal of difference between the styles of the various department directors. You also see a big difference in the morale, employee satisfaction levels, and effectiveness (productivity) levels of the departments.

One of your goals as CEO is to maximize productivity across all departments. 117. As you look at the difference between the department directors, you notice that some are more charismatic and enthusiastic than others. In identifying this difference, you are looking at the directors’ _____. a. behaviors b. traits c. personalities d. attitudes e. all of the above (b; Easy; Traits; p. 386) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 118. Some of the departmental directors spend more time training and helping their employees, while other spend more time on the technical issues that arise in the development process.

According to the categories used in the University of Michigan studies, the directors can be described as ________. a. oriented toward initiating structure vs. oriented toward consideration b. employee-oriented vs. production-oriented c. training-oriented vs. development-oriented d. assistance-oriented vs. growth-oriented e. authority-type leaders vs. laissez faire-type leaders (b; Moderate; University of Michigan Studies; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 119. Based on the results of the University of Michigan studies, which directors most likely have departments with higher productivity and job satisfaction? . the employee-oriented leaders b. the production-oriented leaders c. the consideration-oriented leaders d. the development-oriented leaders e. the task-oriented leaders (a; Moderate; Employee-Oriented Leaders; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 120. Of all the departments, Gerard’s department has the greatest production output. His employees seem most satisfied with his leadership as well. You categorize the behavioral styles of each department director using the managerial grid. According to the work of Blake and Mouton, who developed the grid, which of the following is most likely to reflect Gerard’s score on he grid? a. 8,8 b. 5,5 c. 1,7 d. 7,1 e. 1,1 (a; Moderate; Managerial Grid; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 121. It can be inferred that the poorest performing director is most likely to receive which of the following scores on the managerial grid? a. 9,9 b. 1,9 c. 9,1 d. 5,5 e. 1,1 (e; Challenging; Managerial Grid; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Fiedler’s Contingency Theory You have decided to use Fiedler’s LPC questionnaire to help your employees learn more about their leadership styles. Each of your employees has filled out and scored the instrument.

It is your job to try to explain to them how to use the survey information. 122. According to Fiedler’s approach, your employees should assume which of the following about the leadership styles determined through using the survey? a. Each person’s style is essentially fixed. b. Each person can use the information to change his/her style to a more productive style. c. Task-oriented leaders will not perform as well as relationship-oriented leaders in situations that are very unfavorable. d. Task-oriented leaders will perform better than relationship-oriented leaders in moderately favorable situations. . Each person’s style will change in accordance with the situation at hand. (a; Moderate; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 123. Fran completes the LPC questionnaire and finds that she described her least preferred co-worker in relatively positive terms. She is surprised by this finding because she recalls being particularly annoyed by this difficult co-worker. Based on your understanding of Fiedler’s model, you explain to Fran that her LPC score makes sense within the model because ________. a. Fran tends to become very dominating when given ambiguous tasks b.

Fran is usually much more focused on productivity than on developing relationships c. Fran tends in general to focus on building good relationships with the other employees at your company d. Fran has a spotty work history and has tended to switch jobs every couple of years e. Fran is usually chosen for positions of high responsibility within your organization (c; Challenging; Least Preferred Coworker; p. 392) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 124. In utilizing Fiedler’s contingency model, which of the following contingency dimensions should your employees pay attention to? a. leader-member relations b. ask structure c. position power d. All of the above are important dimensions in this model. e. None of the above are important dimensions in this model. (d; Moderate; Fiedler’s Key Situational Factors; p. 393) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 125. The Fiedler model proposes ________. a. changing the leader b. changing the situation c. matching leaders and situations d. changing the employees e. training the leader to match each situation (c; Easy; Matching Leaders and Situations; p. 394) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Various Theories Your boss has been reading several books on leadership. You notice that every ew months he is spouting a different approach and philosophy. You have been trying to keep up with him and figure out which “leadership theory of the month” he is studying. 126. Suddenly your boss begins sending people to training to help them develop more effective leadership styles. It is clear that he is reading an author who supports _____. a. trait theories b. behavioral theories c. Fiedler’s contingency model d. the reflection effect e. none of the above (b; Easy; Behavioral Theories; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 127. You have noticed that your boss is often asking you what types of peers you least like to work with.

You suspect that he is trying to covertly determine your leadership style according to _____. a. Hersey and Blanchard b. Vroom and Yetton c. Fiedler d. Sondak e. none of the above (c; Easy; Fiedler Contingency Model; p. 392) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 128. This month your boss seems less concerned about his leaders than he is about the people who work for them and whether these employees are willing and able to perform particular tasks. Your boss is most likely reading _____. a. Hersey and Blanchard b. Vroom and Yetton c. Fiedler d. Christos e. Fiedler and Garcia (a; Easy, Situational Leadership Theory; p. 95) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 129. Now your boss seems to be trying to analyze each leader according to which employees they interact with most and least, and which employees they rate highest and lowest. You suspect that he is reading about which of the following models? a. SLT b. LMX c. LPC d. PGT e. SNFU (b; Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; p. 398) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} Application of Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory As you have observed your department manager and her interactions with the department’s employees, you have come to believe in LMX theory.

Sarah and Joe get less of the manager’s time. Sally gets fewer of the preferred rewards that the manager controls and John has a relationship with the manager based on formal authority interactions. Rebecca is trusted. Jennifer gets a disproportionate amount of the manager’s attention and is more likely to receive special privileges. 130. According to LMX theory, the in-group is likely to be comprised of _____. a. Rebecca and Jennifer only b. Jennifer only c. Rebecca only d. John, Rebecca, and Jennifer only e. Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only (a; Moderate; In-Group; pp. 398-399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 31. According to LMX theory, which of the following employees is likely to be included in the out-group? a. Rebecca only b. Jennifer only c. Sarah and Jennifer only d. Sarah and Joe only e. Sarah, Joe, Sally, and John only (c; Easy; Out-Group; p. 399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 132. When you look at this department’s performance evaluations, you expect to find that _____. a. Rebecca and Jennifer have high ratings b. Rebecca, John, and Jennifer have high ratings c. Rebecca and Jennifer have high ratings, John has moderate ratings, and the rest of the employees have low ratings d.

John has received more promotions than any of the other employees e. Rebecca and John compete with each other for the highest ratings (a; Moderate; In-Group; p. 399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 133. The manager of this particular department is very goal-oriented in his leadership style. Which of the following employees is also likely to be very goal-oriented? a. Sarah b. Jennifer c. Joe d. Sally e. John (b; Moderate; In-Group; p. 399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} SHORT DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 134. What is the difference between leadership and management? Leadership is defined as the ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals.

Leadership is about coping with change, management is about coping with complexity. Good management brings about order and consistency by drawing up formal plans, designing rigid organization structures, and monitoring results against plans. Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems. (Easy; Management and Leadership; p. 385) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 135. What “breakthrough” resulted in consistent and strong support for traits as predictors of leadership?

When researchers began organizing traits around the Big Five personality framework, it became clear that most of the dozens of traits that emerged in various leadership reviews could be subsumed under one of the Big Five. This approach resulted in consistent and strong support for traits as predictors of leadership emergence. (Easy; Leadership; p. 385) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 136. What are the implications of the behavioral theories of leadership? If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a basis for selecting the “right” persons to assume formal positions in groups and organizations requiring leadership.

In contrast, if behavioral studies were to turn up critical behavioral determinants of leadership, we could train people to be leaders. The difference between trait and behavioral theories, in terms of application, lies in their underlying assumptions. If trait theories were valid, then leaders are born rather than made. On the other hand, if there were specific behaviors that identified leaders, then we could teach leadership – we could design programs that implanted these behavioral patterns in individuals who desired to be effective leaders. Moderate; Implications of Behavioral Theories; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 137. Identify and explain the two dimensions of leadership described in the Ohio State studies. The Ohio State studies proposed that two categories accounted for most of the leadership behavior described by employees. They called these two dimensions initiating structure and consideration. a) Initiating structure refers to the extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of employees in the search for goal attainment. ) Consideration is described as the extent to which a person is likely to have job relationships that are characterized by mutual trust, respect for employees’ ideas, and regard for their feelings. (Easy; Ohio State Studies; p. 389) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 138. Explain the components of Blake and Mouton’s managerial grid. Blake and Mouton proposed a managerial grid based on the styles of concern for people and concern for production. This grid shows the dominating factors in a leader’s thinking in regard to getting results. Managers were found to perform best under a 9,9 style.

The dimensions represent the Ohio State dimensions of consideration and initiating structure and the Michigan dimensions of employee oriented and production oriented. (Easy; Managerial Grid; p. 390) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 139. How was cognitive resource theory developed, and what are its main findings? Fiedler and Joe Garcia re-conceptualized Fiedler’s contingency model. They focused on the role of stress as a form of situational unfavorableness and how a leader’s intelligence and experience influence his or her reaction to stress. The essence of the theory is that stress is the enemy of rationality.

Fiedler and Garcia found that a leader’s intellectual abilities correlate positively with performance under low stress but negatively under high stress. According to the theory, it’s the level of stress in the situation that determines whether an individual’s intelligence and experience will contribute to leadership performance. (Moderate; Cognitive Resource Theory; p. 395) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 140. Describe LMX theory and identify its main beliefs. This theory argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers.

These individuals make up the in-group – they are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. They get less of the leader’s time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interactions. The leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an “in” or “out” and that relationship is relatively stable over time. (Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; pp. 398-399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 141. Describe the leader-participation model.

Victor Vroom and Phillip Yetton developed a model that related leadership behavior and participation in decision making. Recognizing that task structures have varying demands for routine and non-routine activities, these researchers argued that leader behavior must adjust to reflect the task structure. The model was normative – it provided a sequential set of rules that should be followed in determining the form and amount of participation in decision making, as determined by different types of situations. The model was a decision tree incorporating seven contingencies and five alternative leadership styles. Easy; Leadership-Participation Model; p. 400) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} MEDIUM LENGTH DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 142. Explain the principles of Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory. Situational leadership is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which they argue is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leaders.

Readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. SLT says if a follower is unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions; if followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the followers’ lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get the follower to “buy into” the leader’s desires; if followers are able and unwilling, the leader needs to use a supportive and participative style; and if the employee is both able and willing, the leader doesn’t need to do much. Moderate; Situational Leadership Theory; pp. 395-396) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 143. What are the predictions of path-goal theory? Path-goal theory made several predictions: a) Directive leadership leads to greater satisfaction when tasks are ambiguous or stressful than when they are highly structured and well laid out. b) Supportive leadership results in high employee performance and satisfaction when employees are performing structured tasks. c) Directive leadership is likely to be perceived as redundant among employees with high perceived ability or with considerable experience. ) Employees with an internal locus of control will be more satisfied with a participative style. e) Achievement-oriented leadership will increase employees’ expectancies that effort will lead to high performance when tasks are ambiguously structured. (Moderate; Path-Goal Theory Predictions; p. 398) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 144. Summarize the leader-member exchange theory. The leader-member exchange (LMX) theory argues that because of time pressures, leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of their followers.

These individuals make up the in-group—they are trusted, get a disproportionate amount of the leader’s attention, and are more likely to receive special privileges. Other followers fall into the out-group. They get less of the leader’s time, fewer of the preferred rewards that the leader controls, and have leader-follower relations based on formal authority interactions. The theory proposes that early in the history of the interaction between a leader and a given follower, the leader implicitly categorizes the follower as an “in” or an “out” and that relationship is relatively stable over time.

The theory and research surrounding it provide substantive evidence that leaders do differentiate among followers; that these disparities are far from random; and that followers with in-group status will have higher performance ratings, lower turnover intentions, greater satisfaction with their superior, and higher overall satisfaction than will the out-group. These positive findings for in-group members are consistent with our knowledge of the self-fulfilling prophesy. (Moderate; Leader-Member Exchange Theory; pp. 98-399) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} COMPREHENSIVE ESSAYS 145. Explain Fiedler’s contingency model. In your discussion, describe the role of the LPC (least preferred coworker) questionnaire and identify the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness, according to this model. Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive contingency model for leadership. This model proposes that effective group performance depends upon the proper match between the leader’s style and the degree to which the situation gives control to the leader.

The least preferred co-worker (LPC) questionnaire is used to determine what the leader’s basic style is. Sixteen contrasting adjectives are used to ask respondents to describe their least-preferred co-worker. If the least preferred co-worker is described in relatively positive terms (a high LPC score), then the respondent is primarily interested in good personal relations with this co-worker. This person is considered relationship oriented. If the least preferred co-worker is primarily interested in productivity, they would be labeled task oriented.

Fiedler assumes that an individual’s leadership style is fixed. Fiedler identified three contingency dimensions that define the key situational factors that determine leadership effectiveness. a) Leader-member relations are the degree of confidence, trust, and respect members have in their leader. b) Task structure is the degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. c) Position power is the degree of influence a leader has over power variables such as hiring, firing, discipline, promotions, and salary increases.

The better the leader-member relations, the more highly structured the job, and the stronger the position power, the more control the leader has. With knowledge of an individual’s LPC and an assessment of the three contingency variables, Fiedler proposes matching them up to achieve maximum leadership effectiveness. Task-oriented leaders tend to perform better in situations that were very favorable to them and in situations that were very unfavorable. Relationship oriented leaders perform better in moderately favorable situations.

Fiedler has suggested recently that task-oriented leaders perform best in situations of high and low control, while relationship-oriented leaders perform best in moderate control situations. There are two ways to improve leader effectiveness. You can change the leader to fit the situation. The second alternative would be to change the situation to fit the leader. This could be done by restructuring tasks or increasing or decreasing the power that the leader has to control factors such as salary increases, promotions, and disciplinary actions. (Challenging; Fiedler Contingency Model; pp. 92- 394) {AACSB: Analytic Skills} 146. Compare and contrast Hersey and Blanchard’s situational leadership theory with House’s path-goal theory. Hersey and Blanchard’s situation leadership theory is a contingency theory that focuses on the followers. Successful leadership is achieved by selecting the right leadership style, which Hersey and Blanchard argue is contingent on the level of the followers’ readiness. The emphasis on the followers in leadership effectiveness reflects the reality that it is the followers who accept or reject the leaders.

The term readiness refers to the extent to which people have the ability and willingness to accomplish a specific task. SLT says if a follower is unable and unwilling to do a task, the leader needs to give clear and specific directions; if followers are unable and willing, the leader needs to display high task orientation to compensate for the followers’ lack of ability and high relationship orientation to get the follower to “buy into” the leader’s desires; if followers are able and unwilling, the leader needs to use a supportive and articipative style; and if the employee is both able and willing, the leader doesn’t need to do much. Path-goal theory was developed by Robert House. The essence of the theory is that it’s the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.

The term path-goal is derived from the belief that effective leaders clarify the path to help their followers get from where they are to the achievement of their work goals and make the journey along the path easier by reducing roadblocks. House identified four leadership behaviors. The directive leader lets followers know what is expected of them, schedules work to be done, and gives specific guidance as to how to accomplish tasks. The supportive leader is friendly and shows concern for the needs of followers.

The participative leader consults with followers and uses their suggestions before making a decision. The achievement-oriented leader sets challenging goals and expects followers to perform at their highest level. House assumes that leaders are flexible and that the same leader can display any or all of these behaviors depending on the situation. (Challenging; Situational Leadership Theory and Path-Goal Theory; pp. 395-396) {AACSB: Analytic Skills}

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