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Chapters 5 and 6 Study Guide

1. For the Romans, _________ Italy’s __________ geography made Rome a natural crossroads and an area easy to defend. P114

2. Rome was established in the first millennium B. C. on the plain of __________ plain of Latium ___________. P114

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4. ______________ Rome ____________ set a precedent for treating its vanquished foes after forming the Roman Confederation by offering the most favored “allied” peoples full Roman citizenship, thus giving them a stake in successful Roman expansion. p. 120

5. _____________ Rome’s ______’s conquest of the Italian peninsula by 264 B. C. can be attributed in part to superb diplomacy. p. 121

6. In defeating the ___________ Greek ____________ city-states in southern Italy, Rome had to fight the soldiers of King Pyrrhus, sent against them by the Greeksp. 20

7. The Roman ____________ Dictator _____________ was a temporary executive during the period of the Republic and exercised unlimited power for a period of usually six months. p. 117

8. Executive authority or ___________ imperium ___________ during the Roman Republic was held by the consuls and praetors. p. 117

9. As Rome expanded, it became Roman policy to govern the provinces with officials known as ______________ proconsuls __________ and propraetors. p. 117

10. The ___________ paterfamilias ________ in Roman society was the male head of the household. p. 118

11.Originally the Roman ________ Senate __________ could only advise the magistrates in legal matters. p. 117

12. In their struggle with the patricians, Roman __________ plebeins ____________employed which of the following tactics: a physical withdrawal from the state undercutting its military manpower and the formation of popular assemblies to lobby for more political reforms. p. 118

13. The _______ twelve _______ Tables was/were the first formal codification of Roman law and customs. p. 118-119

14. The following statements about the Roman armies in the early Republic are correct. . 125 a. | All soldiers were citizens. | b. | Most soldiers were farmers. | c. | Soldiers were enrolled for only a year. | d. | In the fourth century BCE there were four legions, each consisting of 4,000 to 5,000 men. |

15. The _________ Carthaginians __________originated from Phoenician Tyre. p. 121 16. The immediate cause of the First Punic War was Rome sending an army to_______ Sicily ____________. p. 122

17. As a result of the First Punic War the Carthaginians were forced to withdraw from ___________ Sicily _____________ and pay an indemnity to Rome. . 122

18. During the Second Punic War, ____________ Scipio Africanus _______________ expelled the Carthaginians from Spain and later won the decisive Battle of Zama. p. 124

19. The Second Punic War saw Carthage carry a land war to Rome by crossing the _____ Alps ____. p. 123

20. The Roman senator who led the movement for the complete destruction of Carthage was ___ Cato ____. P. 124

21. The result of the _________ Third Punic War ____________ Punic War was the complete destruction and subjugation of Carthage. p. 124

22.It can best be said that __________ Roman _____________ imperial expansion was highly opportunistic, responding to unanticipated military threats and possibilities for glory. p. 124

23. The head of the Roman religious observances was______ the pontifex maximus _______. p. 127

24. In Roman __________ religion ______________, a right relationship with the gods was achieved by accurate performance of rituals and festivals. p. 127

25. Roman religious practices included: a. | a college of priests to carry out rituals correctly. | b. | the adoption of certain Greek gods like Apollo. | p. 27

26. With regards to Roman schooling, education stressed training in __________ Greek _______________ and mastery of rhetoric, or persuasive public speaking. p. 128

27. By the latter Republic, Roman slaves often worked on the Roman _______house hold workers___________. p. 129

28. Roman ________upper________-class women typically had some independent legal rights and property. p. 131

29. In Rome, the male family head, the paterfamilias, couldp. 129 a. | sell his children. | b. | put his children to death. | c. | arrange the marriages of all offspring. | d. | divorce his wife. |

30.The Romans’ most noticeable innovations in art and culture were found in __________ architecture _____________ and ____________ engineering ___________. p. 133

31. The reforms of Gaius and Tiberius ________________ Gracchus _______________resulted in further instability and violence as they polarized various social groups. p. 136

32. The __________ equites ____________were a wealthy and ambitious class of Romans who appeared in the late Republic. p. 135 33. ______________ Sulla ___________’s legacy and importance was that he employed his personal army in political disputes, paving the way toward Roman civil war. . 137

34. Among the dangerous military innovations of _______ Marius _______________threatening the Republic, one finds he recruited destitute volunteers who swore an oath of allegiance only to him. p. 136

35. Cicero: a. | believed in a “concord of the orders. “| b. | was a “new man” of the equestrian order. | c. | was a great orator and capable lawyer. | d. | advocated a balanced government of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy. | p. 138

36. Julius ____________ Caesar ______________led military commands in Spain and especially Gaul that enhanced his popularity. p. 138

37.The First Triumvirate included____ Caesar____, ___ Crassus____, and___ Pompey____. p. 138 Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey.

38. By crossing the___________ Rubicon ____________, Caesar showed that he was willing to disobey the direct orders of the Senate. p. 139

39. The Roman Senate under _____________ Augustus ______________was retained as the chief deliberative body of the Roman state. p. 148

40. The absolute monarchical powers of Augustus as princeps led to a. | the usual victory of his candidates in official elections. | b. | the decline of popular participation in elections. | c. his great popularity, as he followed proper legal forms for his power. | p. 149

41. Augustus held the titles of imperator, ____________imperium____________, tribune, and prineps. p. 148-149

42. The Roman ________ praetorian _______________ guards were elite troops given the task of protecting the emperor. p. 150

43. Under the rule of______________ Augustus _____________, the Roman Empire turned towards an absolute monarchy, with the princeps overshadowing the Senate. p. 148

44. The event that curtailed _____________ Augustus’s ________________’s expansionist policies was the defeat by Varus in the Teutoburg Forest. . 151

45. Romanization in Roman empire occurred quickly in the __________West________. P. 158 west

46. Among Augustus’ most important actions in the area of Roman religion was his creation of an imperial ___________Cult_______________. p. 152

47. The city on the Tiber that was Rome’s chief port was________ Ostia _______________. p. 158

48. Livy was best known in the Augustan Age for his __________ History of Rome ___________ in 142 books. p. 153

49. Ovid’s ___________ The Art of Love _________________ caused great displeasure to Augustus and led to Ovid’s eventual exile. p. 52-153

50. The “golden age” historian ___________ Livy ______________is well known for his perceiving history in terms of sharp moral lessons. p. 153

51. The successor to Augustus and first of the Julio-Claudian rulers was_________ Tiberius ____________. p. 154

52. The Julio-Claudian emperors varied in ability and effectiveness. p. 154

53. During the reigns of the _____________ Julio-Claudian ____________ emperors, Emperors took more and more actual ruling power away from the old Senate. p. 154

54. The first of the Flavian emperors was___________ Vespasian _______________. . 154

55. The correct order of the five “good emperors” is _______ Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pious, Marcus Aurelius _____. p. 155

56. All of the following occurred during the reigns of the five “good emperors” a. | being a period of peace for 100 years. | b. | the establishment of educational programs for the poor. | c. | extensive building programs. | d. | being an era of prosperity. | p. 155

57. Trade and commerce in the Early Empire stimulated manufacturing, concentrated some industries in certain areas, was secondary in importance to ____ agriculture ___. . 160

58. The “good emperor” Marcus Aurelius was regarded as a philosopher king deeply influenced by the principles of _______ Stoicism _____________. p. 155

59. The largest area of Roman innovation in architecture was the use of ___________ concrete ____________on a massive scale. p. 162

60. Imperial Rome’s _______ gladiatorial ________shows were government-backed spectacles used to content the masses. p. 164

61. The two Roman cities that destroyed by the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 A. D. were Pompeii and _______ Herculaneum _________. p. 166

62.Among the upper classes of the Early Empire ______ women _____ had considerable freedom and independence. p. 167

63. The early values of___________ Christianity ____________, as exemplified in Jesus’ “sermon on the mount,” emphasized devotion to the values of humility, charity, and true brotherly love. p. 171

64. Early ___ Christianity ______ was molded into a broader religious movement by Paul of Tarsus. p. 171

65. The emperor who said, “Live in harmony, make the soldiers rich, and don’t give a damn for anything else” was____ Septimius Severus ________. p. 169

66.The late third century emperor who reconquered and reestablished order in the east and along the Danube and who was known as the “restorer of the world” was_____ Aurelian ______. p. 169

67. The two Roman emperors who notably persecuted the Christian minority were ____ Decius _______ and ____ Diocletian ______. p. 176 NOTE:The correct answers are provided for numbers 3, 14, 25, 29, 35, 40, 52, and 56.

Chapters 7, 8 and 9 Study Guide

1. The Edict of _________ Milan ________ was Constantine’s document officially tolerating the existence of Christianity.P182

2. The Council of ________ Nicaea ____________ in 325 defined Christ as being “of the same substance” as God. P183

3. The heresy of Arianism questioned the divinity of ______ Jesus _______. P183

4. In the late fourth century, the Visigoths and other Germanic tribes, were pushed into the Balkans region of the Eastern Roman Empire because of pressure from the _______ Huns ______. P184

5. ________ Theodoric ________, the Ostrogothic king who took control of Italy, was determined to maintain Roman customs and practices in Italy. P188

6.After the death of _______ theodoric ________, the Ostrogothic kingdom was defeated by the Byzantines, reducing Rome as a center of Mediterranean culture. P188

7. The Frankish palace official, Charles Martel, successfully defended the civilization of the new western European kingdoms in 732 by defeating Muslim armies in 732 and driving them back to Spain. P189

8. Guilt under Germanic customary law was determined by compurgation and ordeal. P190

9. Frankish marriage customs placed strong sanctions (sometimes death) on adulterous _________ women _________. P191

10. The pope who supposedly caused Attila and the Huns to turn away from Rome was ___Leo 1_______. P194

11. The Petrine Doctrine was the belief that the bishops of Rome held a preeminent position in the church. P193

12. Augustine did all of the following:P192-193 a. | write Confessions. | b. | use pagan culture in the service of Christianity. | c. | advocate marriage for the procreation of children as a good alternative for Christians incapable of upholding the ideal of celibacy as a means to holiness. | d. | author The City of God. |

13. Augustine’s Confessions was written as an account of his own miraculous personal conversion. P192

14. Saint Jerome, is known for all of the following:P193 a. | his mastery of Latin prose. | b. | his skills as a linguist. | c. | his translations of the Old and New Testaments from Hebrew and Greek into Latin. | d. | becoming one of the Latin Fathers of the Church. |

15. The father of hermit monasticism was ______ St. Anthony ____________. P195

16. The basic rule for western monastic living was developed by ___ benedict __________. P195

17. Benedictine monasticism is characterized by:P196 a. | an ideal of moderation. | b. | the communal life. | c. isolated, self-sustaining communities. | d. | vows and rules. |

18. The “Apostle to the Germans” and the most famous churchman in Europe in the eighth century was ______ Boniface __________. P198

19. In 597, Pope Gregory the Great sent the monk, Augustine, to England to convert the Anglo-Saxons. P197

20. Pope Gregory the Great was responsible for all of the following:P194 a. | creating the Papal States. | b. | recognizing the Byzantine emperor as the rightful ruler of Italy. | c. | supporting the work of Christian missionaries in England. | d. | becoming Bishop of Rome. |

21.The primary instrument of Pope Gregory for converting the Germanic peoples of Europe was____ monastic movement ________. P195

22. The greatest difference between Irish Christianity and Roman Christianity was in Irish church organization, giving Irish abbots more power than bishops. P197

23. One of the greatest nuns of the seventh monastery, and founder of the Whitby monastery was ___ St. Hilda _________. P198

24. The great Christian scholar of late antiquity, ________ Cassiodorus ______________, divided the seven liberal arts into the trivium and quadrivium. According to Cassiodorus, the trivium includes grammar, hetoric, and dialectic or logic. P200

25. Justinian’s military conquests under the general, Belisarius, were __ Vandal Kingdom in North Africa _and Italian peninsula occupying sicily________________________. P201

26. Justinian’s most important contribution to Western civilization was his_____ codification of the law ______. P202

27. The Corpus Iuris Civilis (Body of Civil Law) compiled under Justinian was the last Byzantine contribution to the west to be written in Latin. P202

28. The woman whose support put down the Nika Revolt against Justinian’s rule in 532 was_________ Theodora _____. P203

29.The following are great buildings in the city of Constantinople:P204 a. | Hagia Sophia| b. | Hippodrome| c. | Royal Palace| d. | b and d|

30. During the period of the Roman Empire, the Arabian Peninsula was dominated by the ____ bedouin nomads ______. P206

31. The cardinal principle of the Islamic faith is that there is only God and his prophet is ________ Muhammad ___________. P207

32. Muhammad’s flight from Mecca to Medina in 622 is known as the _______ Hegira ______. P207

33. The following are similarities between Christianity and Islam:P207 a. | Each of the faiths had a holy book. | b. | Both religions were monotheistic. c. | Both religions had as part of their scriptures divine revelation. | d. | Both religions envisioned heaven or paradise for believers.

34. The successors to Muhammad’s leadership of the Muslims were known as______ caliphs ______. P208

35. Muslim societies abide by a strict code of law, much of it derived from the holy book Qur’an, and regulating all aspects of Muslim life. This law code is called ______ Shari’a. ____. P207-208

36. The Muslim dynasty that assumed power after the assassination of Muhammad’s son-in-law, Ali, and moved the capital to Damascus was the ______ Umayyad __________.

P 209

37. In the Early Middle Ages, the cultivation of new land was hard because the forests of Europe were so thick and crude tools of the era made land clearing arduous. P214

38. In the early Middle Ages, Germanic tribes newly converted to Christianity still held pagan beliefs such as trees were sacred beings and could not be cut down. P214

39. The first Frankish king to be anointed in holy ceremony by an agent of the pope was _____ Pepin _______. P214

40. Charlemagne’s most disappointing military campaign came against the _______ Basques __________. P215

41.The coronation of ___________ Charlemagne _____________ in 800 as emperor of the Romans symbolized the fusion of Roman, Germanic, and Christian cultures. P218

42. Regarding sexuality, the Catholic Church in the Early Middle Ages could not enforce clerical celibacy. P220

43. Socially and culturally, the church’s advocacy of indissoluble marriage resulted in the development of the nuclear family at the expense of the extended family. P220

44. Medicine in the Early Middle Ages and medicine in earlier pagan times used __medicines and natural practices with appeals for other-worldly help, magical rites and influences were used_______.P223

45. Carolingian society was marked by all of the following:P222 a. | the use of bleeding to cure illness. | b. | different patterns of consumption of foodstuffs among rich and poor. | c. | the vices of gluttony and drunkenness. | d. | considerable violence. |

46. What was the name of the treaty that divided the Carolingian Empire in 843? P224_______________ treaty of Verdun___________

47. The division of Europe into three kingdoms after the death of Louis the Pious led to an incessant struggle between Louis the German, Charles the Bald, and their heirs over disputed territories. P224

48.The following statements are true of the Vikings:P226-227 a. | Their iron weapons and superior shipbuilding were largely responsible for their successful raids. | b. | Their raids and settlements aided the growth of fief-holding. | c. | Christianity assimilated them into European civilization. | d. | They came from Scandinavia. |

49. One of the most famous Vikings, who discovered Greenland, was ___ Erik the Red. ____. P228

50. In Western Europe, the chief political repercussion of frequent Viking raids was an increase in the power of local aristocrats to whom threatened populations turned for effective protection.P228

51. Feudalism of medieval Europe was primarily a complex system of vassalage by which the weak sought protection and sustenance from powerful local nobles. P228

52. The “hierarchical” fief-holding system in which vassals in turn had vassals owing them services was known as _____ subinfeudation ______. P229

53. The major obligation of the lord to the _____ vassal ____ was economic support and protection either militarily or through grants of land. P229

54. Under _____ feudalism _______of the Early Middle Ages the major obligation of a vassal to his lord was to provide military service. P229

55. The ____ Slavs _________ were originally a single people in central Europe. P236

56. The Swedish Vikings-the Varangians-became known or assimilated with which of the following groups: ________ Russians ___________. P237

57. The ruthless Russian leader responsible for tying Russian political and religious ideals to the Byzantine Empire was _______ Vladimir 1 _______. P237

58. The Islamic city in Spain that served as the Umayyad capital was _______ Cordoba ____. P239

59. The capital city of the Umayyad Caliphate and center of an Islamic empire was ____ Damascus ______. P237

60. The major socio-political change associated with the _______ Abbasid _____ Caliphate is promotion of judges, merchants, and government officials over warriors as ideal citizens. P238

61. The Abbasids broke down the distinctions between Arab and non-Arab Muslims. P237

62. One consequence of the new agriculture of the Early Middle Ages was the destruction of the ______farmland__________. P244

63. The “agricultural revolution” of the High Middle Ages was in part brought about by a change from the two-field to the three-field system. P246

64. New technological developments in agriculture improving productivity of foodstuffs included all of the following: a. | iron hoes. | b. | the use of horse shoes. | c. | the heavy-wheeled, iron-tipped plow (carruca). | d. | watermills and windmills. P245-246|

65. List sources of power by medieval farmers? ____ horses, water, windmills and oxen _____________________________________________________________. P245-246

66. The peasant’s life during the Middle Ages was largely determined by ________ the seasons. _______. P246

67. The basic staple of the peasant diet was ____ bread _________. P246

68. The village church was led by local priests who were often barely literate. P247

69. The high number of fights and accidents described in medieval court records may plausibly be attributed to the high consumption of ________Alcohol____________. P247

70. Male ___ nobles _ of the High Middle Ages were almost solely preoccupied with warfare. P247

71. In medieval thought, women were considered by nature subservient and lesser beings than __ men ___. P249

72. The main part of the medieval castle was called the _____ moat ________. P248

73.The knightly code of ethics known as chivalry included all of the following requirements:P250 a. | knights were to fight to defend the church. | b. | knights were to protect the weak and defenseless. | c. | winning glory should be the knight’s highest aim and motivating force. | d. | knights should fight for their overlords. |

74. Combative tournaments involving knights were considered excellent and necessary training for warfare. P250

75. Marriages among the aristocracy of the High Middle Ages were expected to establish political alliances between families and increase their wealth. P250

76.By the twelfth century, _______ divorce _________ among nobles was not possible except through official recognition that a marriage had never been valid. P251

77. The term “burg” or “borough” referred to a ______fortress_________. P254

78. To protect their interests against nobles, townspeople often formed _______Commune________. P255

79. A major motive contributing to the revolutionary political behavior of European townspeople was their great need for unfettered mobility to conduct trade efficiently. P255

80. On the whole, medieval cities tended to be relatively undemocratic; the wealthy usually ruled and voted in civic elections. P255

81. Medieval cities had skylines dominated by the towers of churches, castles, and town halls. P255-257

82. A major cause of pollution in medieval cities was the smell and waste of animals and humans. P257-258

83. The guild system of medieval European cities did all of the following:P259 a. | enforce standards and methods of production for various articles. | b. | fix prices at which finished goods could be sold. | c. | set the numbers of people who could enter key trades and the procedures by which they could do so. | d. | maintain monopolies of production and sales. |

84.Drinking water in the cities of the Middle Ages usually came from ____ wells ___. P259

85. The first university to be founded in Europe appeared in ___ Bologna ________. P260

86. The first university in northern Europe was ______ University of Paris_____________________. P260

87. Due to its many cathedral schools, the intellectual center of Europe by the twelfth century was _ France __. P260

88. Students in medieval universities often engaged in quarrels with one another and in confrontations with townspeople. P261-262

89. Concerning the curriculum of the medieval university students studied the trivium and quadrivium. P260-261

90. The renaissance of the twelfth century was primarily caused by circulation in the west in Latin translation of many ancient philosophical and scientific works previously saved by ____ Muslim ____ scholars. P262-263

91. The renaissance of the twelfth century saw all of the following:P262-263 a. | Muslim scientific discoveries made available to the west. | b. | scholarly receptiveness to the works of Jewish thinkers. | c. | a great influx of Aristotle’s writings previously available only to Arab scholars. | d. | Islamic Spain being a conduit of scholarly works from ancient Greece and from the Muslim world. |

92. The primary preoccupation of ___ Scholasticism ______ was the reconciliation of faith with reason. P263

93. The medieval theological debate between the scholastic realists and nominalists centered around the problem of universals and the nature of reality. P263

94. The Summa Theologica of Thomas ___ Aquinas _______ raised questions concerning theology and solved them by the dialectical method. P264-265

95. The Song of __Roland______ is one of the finest examples of the medieval chanson de geste. P265

96. The dominant style of the church architecture in the eleventh and twelfth centuries was ___ romanesque ______. P266

97. The following are characteristics of Romanesque architecture:P266-267 a. | churches in this style were built in rectangular shape| b. | massive pillars and walls were required for support| c. | heavy barrel vaults with rounded stone roofs replaced flat wooden roofs| d. | few windows. |

98. Gothic cathedrals seem to soar upward as light and airy constructions due to all of the following innovations: a. | ribbed vaults. | b. | flying buttresses. | c. | thin walls pierced by huge stained glass windows. | d. | pointed arches. P267|

99. The Gothic style of architecture emerged and was perfected in ___ France _____. P268

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