Organizations and Behavior Table of Contents Introduction. 4 Learning outcome 1: Understand the relationship between organizational Structure and Culture 4 1. 1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and culture4 1. 2 Explain how the relationship between an organization’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. 1. 3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behavior at work. 6 Learning Outcomes 2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership… 7 2. 1 compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations7 2. 2 explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management7 2. 3 evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations8 Learning Outcomes 3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations….. 9 3. 1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change9 3. Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace9 3. 3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers10 Learning Outcome 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations 11 4. 1 explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations12 4. 2 discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective teamwork in organizations12 4. evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization. 13 Conclusion12 Introduction: The employees of an organization can be motivated by the continuous organizational culture and the structural representation of the company. The assignment involves the comprehension of the relationship between organizational culture and structure, the leadership approaches, the basic concepts about motivation etc.
Organizational structure allows the expressed allocation of responsibilities for different functions and processes to different entities such as the branch, department, workgroup and individual. Organizational culture can be reflected through the systematic procedure of the organizational structure. Learning outcome 1: Understand the relationship between organizational Structure and Culture. 1. 1 Compare and contrast different organizational structures and cultures
According to Schein (1992), culture is the most difficult organizational attribute to change, outlasting organizational products, services, founders and leadership and all other physical attributes of the organization. Culture and structure is working like a backbone in the organization. It creates a new concepts and strategies which can affect any level of planning. When it applies on any hierarchy organization. So then implications of organizational culture and structure will be implemented to the government companies etc. Different form of Organization Cultures: * Power Culture * Person culture * Task Culture Role Culture Power culture is centralized this culture may found in the small kinds a business control is the basic element the decision maker is alone there is no consultancy the organization may react quickly to the danger. Basically this kind of culture is a welfare non profitable, charities and for the social activities. This kind of culture can be in the group or individual aim. It is basically a team work based approach to complete a particular task. This culture is more common the business where the organization will establish a project team to complete the project in the particular time.
Common in most organizations today is a role culture. In a role culture, organizations are split into various functions and each individual within the function is assigned a particular role. Different form of Organization Structures: * Functional structure: * Divisional structure: * Matrix structure: Employees within the functional divisions of an organization tend to perform a specialized set of tasks. This leads to operational efficiencies within that group. As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost.
Also called a “product structure”, the divisional structure groups each organizational function into a division. Each division may have its own sales, engineering and marketing departments. The matrix structure groups employees by both function and product. This structure can combine the best of both separate structures. A matrix organization frequently uses teams of employees to accomplish work, in order to take advantage of the strengths, as well as make up for the weaknesses, of functional and decentralized forms. 1. Explain how the relationship between an organization’s structure and culture can impact on the performance of the business. For an organisation to achieve its goals and objectives there must be harmony between its structure and culture. If the two are not compatible then it will become harder for the organisation to achieve its objectives and in the long run may even threaten the existence of the organization. An organizational structure consists of activities such as task allocation, coordination and supervision, which are directed towards the achievement of organizational aims. (Pugh, D. S. ed. 1990). Organization culture is the set of values, rules, beliefs, attitudes and regulations these factors can help members of the organization to know how we will Work. For example, Shell Company is the biggest multinational company with many product lines. Employees are functional specialists trained according to the product or market distribution. Develop the behavior of employees they develop culture which they need. Culture depends upon the nature of employees it according to that culture. Culture does not remain the same but the unwanted culture will changed according to new environment.
Every organization has their own culture and structure it’s very important for every organization in a culture there are many people belonging to the different groups. Every organization needs good culture, good social norms, valves and ethical behavior. 1. 3 Discuss the factors which influence individual behavior at work. How individuals behave and how organisations can motivate them to give more to the organisation has been the subject of various research and many well known writers have written books on this subject.
The behavior of people and other organisms or even mechanisms falls within a range with some behavior being common, some unusual, some acceptable, and some outside acceptable limits. Human behavior is experienced throughout an individual’s entire lifetime. The factors and the emerging points that influence the individual behavior at work are referred below: * Ability to perform a job * Attitude to the organization * Motivational factors * Organizational Culture and faith * Present Condition of the Individual Learning Outcomes 2: Understand different approaches to management and leadership 2. compare the effectiveness of different leadership styles in different organizations Different form of leadership styles of leadership are refereeing below: * Authoritarian: The authoritarian leadership style is when the leader spends most of his time giving out instructions. This type of leader tells their followers what to do, how to do it and when to do it. * Autocratic leadership: This style is used when leaders tell their employees what they want done and how they want it accomplished, without getting the advice of their followers. * Delegative Leadership: In this style, the leader allows the employees to make the decisions.
However, the leader is still responsible for the decisions that are made. This is used when employees are able to analyze the situation and determine what needs to be done and how to do it. * Democratic / Participative: The democratic leader on the other hand, encourages follower to participate and give ideas. This type of leader allows the others to get involved in the decision making process. * Democratic leadership: This style involves the leader including one or more employees in the decision making process (determining what to do and how to do it).
However, the leader maintains the final decision making authority. 2. 2 explain how organizational theory underpins the practice of management. Taylor (1911) observed that some workers were more talented than others, and that even smart ones were often unmotivated. He observed that most workers who are forced to perform repetitive tasks tend to work at the slowest rate that goes unpunished. Taylor used the term “soldiering” and observed that, when paid the same amount, workers will tend to do the amount of work that the slowest among them does.
Many people strive to adhere to the theory to help them become better at their jobs or more successful in life, although this may lead to them having to sacrifice some of their personal principles in order to succeed. One example of following organizational theory in the financial sector would be an employee or manager who wants to know how to achieve goals by having a set structure to follow. In addition, someone in a Human Resources sector will have to make decisions throughout their working day that will undoubtedly change the structure and practice of a working day for all other employees in the company.
If an individual gets so wrapped up in trying to fit the mould of what they interpret their role should be in terms of organizational theory, they may start to neglect other areas of business. In the same way, management theory may also underpin the personal values of some individuals. 2. 3 evaluate the different approaches to management used by different organizations One of the reasons why managers are having such difficulty in applying management methods to government problems is this: there are many different schools of thought on management approaches, and each of these schools has its own proponents.
Generally, an original proponent makes his or her name in that particular concept, and becomes an ‘expert’ and a ‘guru’ of it. There is little incentive to integrate this one approach with others. ————————————————- Management flexibility ————————————————- A manager who only has experience in one approach, such as project management, may have difficulty in adapting to changing demands. A manager can be much more effective if he or she is able to select a management approach that is most appropriate to the desired need or goal.
This adaptability or ‘eclectic’ flexibility may prove very useful in the changing government management environment. The Toyota Way is a set of principles and behaviors that underlie the Toyota Motor Corporation’s managerial approach and production system. Toyota first summed up its philosophy, values and manufacturing ideals in 2001, calling it “The Toyota Way 2001. ” It consists of principles in two key areas: continuous improvement, and respect for people. Liker (2004), calls the Toyota Way, “a system designed to provide the tools for people to continually improve their work. The system can be summarized in 14 principles. ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- ————————————————- Learning Outcomes 3 Understand ways of using motivational theories in organizations 3. 1 Discuss the impact that different leadership styles may have on motivation in organizations in periods of change Motivation can be considered in two major modes, intrinsic and extrinsic. Intrinsic motivation is that which comes from within the individual, team, group, or organization.
Its execution brings about production and self-actualization. Extrinsic motivation is that which originates outside of the individual or organization under scrutiny. The fulfillment of external motivation results in what Lawler (1973) calls social rewards. Dyer, (1972) defines three areas affected by motivation. A Change in amount, quality, or direction of performance. Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior – especially human behavior. These reasons may include a drive, a need, a desire to achieve a goal, a state of being, or an ideal.
In human beings, motivation involves both conscious and subconscious drives. Developing leadership culture all starts with you and all your colleagues in senior leadership . Three statements can be pointed that would not find in the treatment of change . First, in this new world order, your new work as a leader is about developing culture and talents not about assigning it to someone else that all culture development & change starts with you. Second, the key to successful transformation is doing the work in the senior leadership culture first before taking the change to middle of the organization…
Third ,transformation is serious it work for serious people, it is about getting bigger minds to deal with attachments bigger and complex issues that will continue to confront you, your leadership and your organization 3. 2 Compare the application of different motivational theories within the workplace Motivation is a word used to refer to the reason or reasons for engaging in a particular behavior – especially human behavior. These reasons may include a drive, a need, a desire to achieve a goal, a state of being, or an ideal. In human beings, motivation involves both conscious and subconscious drives.
Motivation Theories – Cognitive Dissonance Theory Cognition is any element of knowledge – an attitude, emotion, belief, value, behavior, etc. When two cognitions are in direct conflict with one another a state of anxiety is produced – dissonance is the term for the anxiety. Compatible cognitions are consonant – i. e. they are in harmony. A classic example of Cognitive Dissonance is holding the belief that “smoking is bad for you” while continuing the behavior of smoking. These two cognitions are in direct conflict with each other.
The belief that smoking is bad is part of one neural network – perhaps associated with health and fitness – while the behavior of smoking is part of another network having to do with tension management, how to hang with friends, or the like. So, these cognitions exist in different locations in the brain. Both are trying to accomplish something important for the self – tension management and hanging with friends is important. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs The American psychologist Abraham Maslow devised a six-level hierarchy of needs that motivate or drive human behavior.
I believe that each of these needs must be met in order for one to achieve happiness. Maslow progressively ranks human needs as follows: •Physiological – food, shelter, clothing •Security and safety •Love and feelings of belonging •Competence, prestige, and esteem •Curiosity and the need to know •Self-Actualization 3. 3 Evaluate the usefulness of a motivation theory for managers Motivation is a very important for an organization because of the following benefits it provides:- * Builds friendly relationship Improves level of efficiency of employees * Leads to achievement of organizational goals * Leads to stability of work force * Puts human resources into action Douglas McGregor, an American social psychologist, proposed his famous X-Y theory in his 1960 book ‘The Human Side Of Enterprise’. McGregor’s XY Theory remains central to organizational development, and to improving organizational culture. McGregor’s ideas suggest that there are two fundamental approaches to managing people. Many managers tend towards theory x, and generally get poor results.
Enlightened managers use theory y, which produces better performance and results, and allows people to grow and develop. Learning Outcome 4: Understand mechanisms for developing effective teamwork in organizations 4. 1 explain the nature of groups and group behavior within organizations Groups may be classified into two different types: * Informal groups * Formal groups Formal Groups: Formal groups are created to achieve set goals and have specific responsibilities within an organization. Formal groups within organizations are known as work teams or simply teams.
Examples of work teams include, call centre teams and project teams. Informal Groups: Informal groups consist of alliances that have no formal structure. Informal or social clubs. For instance, unless the HRD function communicates the policies clearly and cogently, the employees would not participate and comply with them wholeheartedly. Hence, molding group behavior is important for organizations. However, this cannot be construed to mean that all employees must think and act alike. On the contrary, innovation cannot happen when group behavior is the same across all levels. 4. discuss factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective Teamwork in organizations. Creating and sustaining effective teamwork requires persistent renewal and discovery of good practice. Organisations which try to create positive relationships between employees and makes each employee feel as part of the community, will have a greater chance of achieving effective teamwork across the organisation. An effective team requires cohesion that is held together by several factors. In order to understand how to assemble an efficient team, first need to know the factors affecting effective teamwork.
The factors that may promote or inhibit the development of effective Teamwork in organizations are: * Communication skills and process * Inter-team co-operation. * Leadership Technique * Task effectiveness * Team dynamism * Team innovation * Team member’s well-being * Team viability * Team working environment, process or tools 4. 3 evaluate the impact of technology on team functioning within a given organization. New technology has been injected into the workplace at an exponentially increasing rate Many companies see new technology as the means to increase profit margins and to remain competitive in a rapidly evolving marketplace.
The introduction of technology, especially information technology has changed composition of existing team models and has introduced new team models such as virtual teams. Powell, Piccoli and Ives (2004), define virtual teams in their literature review article “as groups of geographically, organizationally and/or time dispersed workers brought together by information and telecommunication technologies to accomplish one or more organizational tasks. Conclusion An organization can do better through the practice of Team work and proper utilization of technologies and resources. In the report we have overlooked different management approaches, styles and the motivational approaches which can reflect through the organization structures and culture. So consequently the organization must review the tasks that have been performing according to the management plan and identify the best way to act