Paleolithic Society and Neolithic Revolution

Paleolithic Era (When)
2.5 million – 10,000 BC
What was a Pale0lithic Society like?
– Mobile
– Small sized
– Relative gender equalty
– Relative social equality
– Awareness of Natural environment
Neolithic Era (When)
10,000 BC – 6,000 BC
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What did the Neolithic Era do?
The Neolithic Era was the first time humans transitioned from hunter gatherer societies to settled down agrarian societies
What was Neolithic Society like?
– Grow crops
– Raise domesticated animals
– Villages formed around 8000 BC
What were the results of the Agricultural Revolution (Paleolithic -> Neolithic)
– Permanent settlements
– Food surplus
-> population growth
-> specialised labor (pottery, textiles, metallurgy)
-> trade
– Gender INequality
– Social classes
– Religious (deities associated with helping weather and crops growth)
Migration of Homo Sapiens
60,000 years ago -> ice ages cooled the earth’s temperature which lowered the worlds sea levels exposing straits and bridges of land connecting to inhabited areas of the world
– New Guinea
– Indonesia
Paleolithic Society (Social/Gender)
– No social distinctions on wealth
– They lived on egalitarial lifestyles
– Paleolithic society didn’t encourage one sex to be more dominant
Paleolithic Society (Hunt Style)
Hunters were technical/didn’t search aimlessly for food
– They fashioned tools to attack large mammals
Paleolithic Settlements
Some abandoned nomadic lifestyle and established permanent settlements
– Natufian Society (collected wild wheat/had herds) -> ISRAEL
– Jomon Society (harvested buckwheat) -> JAPAN
– Chinook Society (wild berries, acorns)
Neanderthal Peoples
– First type of people to show spiritual rituals
– Lived closely with homo sapiens
200,000 years ago
Stone Blades
140,000 years ago
Diet with shellfish
110,000 years ago
Catching fish from deep waters
50-40,ooo years ago
10,000 years ago
Bow and Arrow
Cave Paintings
Represented conscious and purposeful activity of a higher order
Neolithic Society (Gender Relations)
Women most likely began systematic care of plants (nurture instead of just collecting)

Men captured animals instead of killing (domestication)

Neolithic Society (Independent Inventions of Agriculture) 1 – DATE
9000 BCE – Southwest Asia
– wheat barley sheeps and goats
Neolithic Society (Independent Inventions of Agriculture) 2 – DATE
9000-7000 BCE – Africa
– sheeps, goats, sorghum
Neolithic Society (Independent Inventions of Agriculture) 3 – DATE
8000-6000 BCE – Sub Saharan
– Yams, okra, black eyed peas
Neolithic Society (Independent Inventions of Agriculture) 4 – DATE
6500 BCE
– Rice
Neolithic Society (Independent Inventions of Agriculture) 5 – DATE
4000 BCE – Mesoamerica
– Beans, peppers, squashes, tomatoes
Neolithic Society – Specialization of Labor
Catal Hüyük
– pots, baskets, textiles, leather, stone, beads, jewelry, metal tools, wood carvings
Neolithic Society – Social Distinctions
– Specialization of labor triggered accumulation of wealth
Neolithic Religion
– Paleolithic worshipped Venus figurines in hopes of fertility
-> NEOLITHIC: Venus + Deities of Life, Death, Regeneration, etc
Emergence of Cities – (What are the differences between a Neolithic village and city?)
1. Larger – more complex
Catal Hüyük -> specialized crafts, administrators, professionals, tax collectors

2. Cities specifically influenced the political, economical and cultural life of large regions

What were some of the problems with the Agricultural Lifestyle?
1 Malnutrition
2 Starvation
3 Disease
4 Social Inequality
5 Gender Inequality

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