Parent-Teacher Communication Exam #1

Parent-Teacher Communication Exam #1

Funds of knowledge
Concepts that are taught to children by their parents to help them grow and thrive. These concepts can be passed along from generation to generation, and new ones can be developed as new families are formed.
Family ecological systems theory
The child’s development is related to experiences in the entire environment. There are five levels to this theory: microsystem, mesosystem, ecosystem, microsystem, and chronosystem.
Micosystem
includes face-to-face relations with family and peers, with parents as the major influence on a child’s interactive monological system. Examples include interactions with parents, peers, or teachers.
Mesosystem
Involves face-to-face relationships with more formal organizations. Examples include school, family, peers, health care services, religious institutions, and the playground.
Exosystem
If further removed form personal interaction, still influences children through their parents and the parents’ employment and government actions. Examples include parents’ workplaces, recreational facilities, and social service agencies.
Macrosystem
Includes the attitudes and ideologies of the culture. Examples include environmental events and cultural traditions, laws, and customs.
Chronosystem
Includes the element of time as it relates to changes in a child’s environment. Examples include the child getting older and the aging or death of a parent or family member.
Attachment
A form of behavior that has its own internal motivation distinct from feeding and sex, and of no less importance for survival.
Skeels
Studied the effect of environment on the development of children. Studied children in a mental institution vs. an orphanage. Children who were shown love in mental institutions developed human attachments.
Spitz
Studied a nursery vs a foundling home. The nursery provided a nurturing environment and the foundling home didn’t. Infants at the foundling home could not dress themselves, were not toilet trained, could not talk, had a vocabulary of two words, had a vocabulary of 3-5 words, and 1 could speak in sentences. He attributed this to a lack of mothering.
Bowlby
Reviewed studies of deprivation and its effects on personality development. Found that prolonged deprivation of the young child of maternal care may have grave and far-reaching effects on his character and so the whole of his future life. Also described attachment in a family setting.
Stranger anxiety
develops at age 6-8 months, the infant becomes concerned about being near their caregiver and fearful of those they do not know
Critical period of personality development
first 5 to 6 months while the mother figure and infant are forming an attachment
Second vital phase of personality development
lasts until near the child’s third birthday, during which time the mother needs to be virtually an ever-present companion
third phase of personality development
the child is able to maintain the attachment even though the nurturing parent is absent. deprivation in this phase does not have the same destructive effect on the child as it does in the period from infancy through the third year.
Tizard and Hodges
Studied children raised in an institution to see if the lack of personal attachment had lasting effects. Children who were adopted did form bonds as late as 4-6 years of age, but they exhibited the same attention and social problems in school as those who remained in the institution.
Ainsworth
Wrote that parent-child attachment is necessary for the development of a healthy personality, but that attachment may occur beyond the early “sensitive period”. Described three classifications of attachment: avoidant/insecure, ambivalent/insecure, and securely attached.
Brazelton and Yogman
Described four stages vital to the parent-infant attachment process, which lasts from birth to 4 or 5 months. In the first stage, the infant achieves homeostatic control and is able to control stimuli by shutting out or reaching for stimuli. In the second stage, the infant is able to use and attend to social cues. In the third stage, the reciprocal process between parent and child shows the infant’s ability to take in and respond to the information as well auto withdraw. During the fourth stage, they infant develops a sense of autonomy and initiates and response to cues.
Newborn Behavioral Observation
Family-centered observation set that is designed to be used by clinicians at the Brazelton Institute as they focus on individual infants and observe their individuality and competencies as early as months of infant, from birth until the third month, are important periods in the infants adaptation to his or her environment. Provides information for parents to be better caregivers.
Functional MRI
provides information about changes in the volume, flow, or oxygenation of blood that occur as a person undertakes various tasks, including not only motor activities, such as squeezing a hand, but also cognitive tasks, such as speaking or solving a problem.
Electroencephalogram and Magnetic encephalography
The brain is studied indirectly by giving a child a task and examining which part f the brain is active as well as observing the child’s level of activity in response to different stimuli.
PET scan
Employed when a child is thought to have neurological problems, requires an injection of a tracer chemical, making it an invasive procedure, which researchers generally avoid.
First level of emotional and intellectual health
When a familiar caregiver touches and talks with the infant, the child responds with interest and pleasure. This helps the child develop a feeling of security and organize his or her sense and motor responses.
War on Poverty
legislation introduced by President Johnson to support his belief in increasing social welfare programs, including education and health care.
Head Start
Enriched early education program and parents are an integral part of the program as aides, advisory council members or paraprofessional members of the team. Comprehensive program of health, nutrition, and education as well as a career ladder for economically disadvantaged families.
Migrant Head Start
A program for children of migrant workers has the first center-based infant-toddler program
Title I (of Elementary and Secondary Education ACT)
Assisted school districts in improving the education of educationally deprived children.
Title IV-C (of Elementary and Secondary Education ACT)
Promoted innovated programs that enrich educational opportunities. Many of these projects included home visitation programs for preschool children, identification of chidren with developmental delays before school entry, and working with parents for the benefit of their children.
Follow Through program
Part of the 1967 Economic Opportunity Act designed to carry the benefits of Head Start and similar preschool programs into the public school system, parent participation is a major component and parent advisory councils are mandated.
Civil Rights Act (of 1965)
Great influence on the role of minorities and women which affected family. Requires minorities and women to be treated equally in housing, education, and employment.
Consortium for Longitudinal Studies
set out to determine the effect of experimental early intervention programs. Found that a good preschool program pays off: benefits children’s development and financial savings as a result of less special-education.
Berrueta-Clement et al
Found that former Perry Preschool students grew up with more school success, placed a higher value on school, had higher aspirations for college, had fewer absences, and spent fewer of their school years in special ed.
Family and Medical Leave Act
Provides 12 weeks of unpaid leave for employees with such family concerns as childbirth, adoption, or a serious illness of a child, spouse, or parent.
Temporary Assistance for Needy Families
provides block grants to states who run their own programs within federal guidelines. Requires mothers to join the workforce if they received assistance for more than two years. Places a 5-year lifetime limit on eligibility for assistance.
Spirit
This reflects the administrator’s role as morale builder. Supportive guidance, with freedom to develop plans based on individual school or center needs, allows the principle or director to function with productive autonomy. Builds staff morale by enable staff members to feel positive, enthusiastic, and secure.
Program designer
Involves implementing the educational program.
Principal-parent relationship
administrator’s third role which determines whether the school ecology makes parents feel welcome. Responsible for maintaining and open door policy, scheduling open houses, providing and equipping resource areas for parents, arranging parent education meetings, developing parent workshops and in-service meetings, and supporting the PTA, PTO, or family organization.
Program coordinator
administrator’s fourth role. the achievement of continuity requires the principal’s knowledge and coordination of parent involvement programs.
Leadership
administrator role in developing site-based management and leading advisory councils and decision-making committees. Must have the ability to encourage and enable teachers, staff, and parents to work together and develop an educational program specific to their community’s needs.
Roles for parents
parents as teachers of their own children, parents as spectators, parents as policy makers, parents as employed resources, parents as volunteer resources, and parents as temporary volunteers.
Open-Door policy
an attitude of the school in which parents are welcome at any time in schools.
Parent-Advisory councils
a district wide council or a local council for each school in which they give input on the planning, implementation, and evaluation of programs.
Involvement
A strategy for supporting and involving culturally and linguistically diverse families in which actions at home provide support for children’s education.
Engagement
A strategy for supporting and involving culturally and linguistically diverse families in which teachers and parents work collaboratively to meet school board goals.
Empowerment
A strategy for supporting and involving culturally and linguistically diverse families in which parents, teachers, and school administrators participate in all aspects of decision making working as partners.
Communication
entails the active participation of the sender to convey a message or thought to the receiver who, in turn, may or may not reciprocate the action by acknowledging that information.
messages
has 3 components, the words or verbal stimuli (what a persons says; the body language or physical stimuli (the gestures); the vocal characteristics or vocal stimuli (the pitch, loudness or softness, and speed)
One-way communication
Communication that only goes from teacher to parent and includes a newsletter may be sent by the school as a message from the principal, or it may be sent home by each teacher. Includes simple newsletters, district newsletters, notes and letters (such as upslips), newspapers, media, suggestion boxes, handbooks, specialized handbooks, and summer handbook or note.
Two way communication
Communication between the teacher and the parent that goes back and forth and includes homework hot line, computer information line, e-mail, chats, background material and assignment explanations, telephone calls, home visits, visits to the classroom, participation visits, visits by invitation, student-parent exchange day, and breakfasts.
My own and My child guardian role
When parents put up a shield against perceived criticism because they believe that their child is an extension of themselves. Effective communication, with positive suggestions for encouraging the child can help the parent become a partner with the school.
I don’t belong role
many parents do not feel comfortable talking with school personnel. They avoid going to events that take place at schools because they don’t feel that they fit in. These parents can benefit from encouragement.
Avoidance Role
Includes self-assured parents who do not respect the school or the way it treats parents and students. also includes parents who had a difficult time in school when they were growing up. Schools must reach out to these parents by caring and offering activities and services that the parents need and desire.
Indifferent parent role
some parents shift their parental responsibilities to others
don’t make waves role
parents are unwilling to be honest in their concerns because they do not want school personnel to take it out on their child because they believe that the teacher might be negative toward their children if they make suggestions or express concerns
club waving advocate role
when parents get carried away with their devotion to their children and exhibit this through a power play. these parents express concern with confrontation.
authority figure role
school personnel who act as chief executive officers. Claim to be the authorities. Neglect to set the stage for the parent to be a partner in discussion.
sympathizing counselor role
school personnel who focus on the inadequacy of the child in a vain attempt to console the parent who just wants to solve their concerns through constructive remediation or support.
pass the buck role
when school personnel refer the concerns of the parent to another department.
Protect the empire role
a united, invincible staff cause parents to think no one cares about their needs.
busy teacher role
when school personnel are harried and don’t have time to communicate with students and their parents
open response
encourages communication to continue and can vary from positive body language to a verbal response in which you indicate your interest
closed response
a response that ends conversation and doesn’t allow for communication and problem solving.
reflective listening
the ability to reflect the speaker’s feelings by identifying the basic feelings being expressed and repeating the essence of those feelings back to the speaker.
I messages
using words that describe how you feel. ex: WHEN __ does not finish his homework, I FEEL worried BECAUSE i am afraid he will fall behind.
you messages
places the responsibilikty on the person receiving the message, and is often a negative message.
rephrasing
restating the intent of the message in a condensed version.
Reframing
taking the sting out of the negative description of a child.
Parent involvement
fulfilling basic parental obligations for a child’s education and social development; taking an active role in home learning activities, being an audience for school events; being a participant and supporter of school events; being a learner; volunteering or being paid to be a classroom aide; being an advocate for the school and school programs in the community; being an advisor or decision-maker
Benefits of parent involvement
student experience improvements in achievement, motivation and attitudes, behavior, attendance, self-concept, suspension rates for disciplinary reasons, communication with teachers and parents/ families
Recruitment strategies
send fliers home, publicizes through school and local newsletters and neighborhood newspapers; use local popular radio and television programs, use publicly respected figures to invite participation, identify other appropriate public forums in the community, identify local private businesses and industries that employ many of the parents you reach, schedule a community-wide event, schedule events and meeting at times appropriate for the community
Retention strategies
get to know parents as individuals, share positives about child, offer activities based on what parents want, be sensitive to customs, ask for an accept feedback, build sense of ownership in program, take pictures, show appreciation for participation with ribbons etc.
Tenets of assertive philosophy
1. By standing up for our rights we show we respect ourselves and achieve respect from other people.
2. By trying to govern our lives so as to never hurt anyone, we end up hurting ourselves and other people.
3. Sacrificing our rights usually results in destroying relationships or preventing ones from forming.
4. Not letting others know how we feel and what we think is a form of selfishness.
5. Sacrificing our rights usually results in training other people to mistreat us.
6. If we don’t tell other people how their behavior negatively effect us, we are denying them an
opportunity to change their behavior.
7. We can decide what’s important for us; we do not have to suffer from the “tyranny of the
should and should not.”
8. When we do what we think is right for us, we feel better about ourselves and have more
authentic and satisfying relationships with others.
9. We all have a natural right to courtesy and respect.
10. We all have a right to express ourselves as long as we don’t violate the rights of others. 11. There is more to be gained from life by being free and able to stand up for ourselves and
from honoring the same rights of other people.
12. When we are assertive everyone involved usually benefits.
Assertive Body language
1. Maintain direct eye contact.
2. Maintain an erect body posture.
3. Speak clearly, audibly, and firmly.
4. Don’t whine or have an apologetic tone to your voice.
5. Make use of gestures and facial expression for emphasis.
I want statements
I want you to do this” or “I would like you to do this” when referring to a specific behavior. Also: “I’d like you to do this,” “Would you do this?” “How about doing this,” or “I’d appreciate it if you’d do this.”The statements help you to clarify (for yourself and the other person) what you really want. It gives the other person information, not a non-negotiable demand.
I-feel statements
The statements take the form, “When you did that thing, I felt this way,” “I liked it when you did that,” or “I didn’t like it when you did that.” That thing is a behavior that the other person did, and this way is your specific feeling. The statements help you express your feelings without attacking the self-esteem of the other person. The statements clarify your feelings and prevent you from being misunderstood.
Mixed-feelings statements
These statements take the form of naming more than one feeling and explaining where each originates.When people have mixed feelings, sometimes they say nothing. When you communicate positive and negative feelings in response to the same situation, your ability to communicate is improved.
Empathic Assertion
Statements consist of two parts: first you recognize one or more of the following—person’s situation (e.g., pressures, difficulties, lack of awareness), feelings (e.g., sad, glad, scared), wants (e.g., to discuss a topic), or beliefs (e.g., have been unfairly treated). Second, you describe your own situation, feelings, wants, and beliefs. The statements are useful when you want to reduce the chances that the other person will be hurt or become defensive. People may be more likely to hear your assertive message given in this form.
Confrontive Assertion
Statement is appropriate when there are discrepancies between, for example, a person’s words and deeds or a conflict between a job description and what you are asked to do.
The Confrontive Assertion has three parts:
1. Objectively describing what the other person said would be done 2. Describing what the other person actually did do
3. Expressing what you want.
When discrepancies are confronted simply by describing them, it is much easier to deal with conflicts. Confrontive Assertion is a good follow-up assertion to use when the other person has previously agreed to change behavior.
I-language Assertion
use:1. Objectively describe the other person’s behavior or the situation that interferes with you. 2. Describe how the other person’s behavior or the situation concretely affects your life, for
example, in terms of additional time, money, or effort.
3. Describe your own feelings.
4. Describe what you want the other person to do, for example, provide an explanation, change behavior, apologize, offer suggestions for solving the problem, and give a reaction to what you have said. When you are able to specify concrete or tangible effects that another’s behavior has upon you, your assertive statement is likely to be more effective in making a positive impact on others, since most people do not knowingly want to have their behavior result in tangible negative effects on others.
Laughing it off
nctual!) Use the Content to Process Shift (Humor is getting us off the point.) and the Broken Record (Yes, but…)
Accusing Gambit
You are blamed for the problem. (You’re always so late cooking dinner, I’m too tired to do the dishes afterward.) Use Clouding (That may be so, but you are still breaking your commitment.) or simply disagree (8:00 is not too late for the dishes)
The Beat-Up
Your assertion is responded to with a personal attack, such as, “Who are you to worry about being interrupted, your the biggest loudmouth around here”. The best strategies to use are Assertive Irony (Thank you) in conjunction with the Broken Record or Defusing (I can see you’re angry right now, let’s talk about it after the meeting.)
Delaying Gambit
You’re assertion is met with, “Not now, I’m too tired” or “Another time, maybe.” Why Gambit. Every assertive statement is blocked with a series of “why” questions, such as, “Why do you feel that way…I still don’t know why you don’t want to go…why did you change your mind?”
The best response is to use the Content-to-Process Shift. (Why isn’t the point. The issue is that I’m not willing to go tonight.) or the Broken Record.
Self Pity Gambit
Your assertion is met with tears and the covert message that you are being sadistic. Try to keep going through your script using Assertive Agreement. (I know this is causing you pain, but I need to get this resolved.)
Quibbling.
The other person wants to debate with you about the legitimacy of what you feel, or the magnitude of the problem, etc. Use the Content-to-Process Shift (We’re quibbling now, and have gotten off the main concern.) with the assertion of your right to feel the way you do.
Threats
You are threatened with statements like, “If you keep harping at me like this, you’re going to need another boyfriend.” Use the Circuit Breaker (Perhaps) and Assertive Inquiry (What is it about my requests that bother you?) as well as Content-to-Process Shift (This seems to be a threat.) or Defusing.
Denial
You are told, “I didn’t do that” or “You’ve really misinterpreted me.” Assert what you have observed and experienced, and use Clouding. (It may seem that way to you, but I’ve observed…)
Broken Record
Calmly repeating your point without getting sidetracked by irrelevant issues (Yes, but…Yes, I know, but my point is…I agree, but…Yes, but I was saying…Right, but I’m still not interested.)
Assertive Agreement
Responding to criticism by admitting an error when you have made a mistake, but separating that mistake from you as a bad person. (Yes, I did forget our lunch date. I’m usually more responsible.)
Assertive Inquiry
Prompting criticism in order to gather additional information for your side of the argument. (I understand you don’t like the way I acted at the meeting last night. What is it about it that bothered you? What is it about me that you feel is pushy? What is it about my speaking out that bothers you?)
Content-to-process shift
Shifting the focus of the discussion from the topic to an analysis of what is going on between the two of you. (We’re getting off the point now. We’ve been derailed into talking about old issues. You appear angry at me.)
Clouding
Appearing to give ground without actually doing so. Agree with the person’s argument, but don’t agree to change. (You may be right, I probably could be more generous. Perhaps I shouldn’t be so confrontive, but…)
Defusing
Ignoring the content of someone’s anger, and putting off further discussion until he has calmed down. (I can see that you’re very upset and angry right now, let’s discuss it later this afternoon.)
Circuit Breaker
Responding to provocative criticism with one word, or very clipped statements. (Yes…no…perhaps)
Assertive Irony
Responding to hostile criticism positively. (Answer You’re a real loudmouth with Thank you.)
Assertive delay
Putting off a response to a challenging statement until you are calm, and able to deal with it appropriately. (Yes…very interesting point…I’ll have to reserve judgment on that…I don’t want to talk about that right now.)
Positive Feelings
I really like the way you did that.
You look attractive tonight.
I wanted you to know how much I enjoyed your speech.
You played very well tonight.
I love you.
Self-Initiation
I need your comfort and understanding right now.
Will you help me with my math?
I’d like to know you better.
Let’s split the check.
I would like to talk to you about something that’s been bothering me.
Limit Setting
I’d rather not answer that.
I was in line first.
I’d like to pay my own way.
I don’t want to hear critical things about other people. I would like to be alone tonight.
I don’t doubt your concern, but I want to make my own decision. That’s not my responsibility. Please find someone else to take care of it. Thanks, but I don’t need any help.
I would appreciate your not smoking.
Negative Feelings
I resent your not being here on time.
I don’t agree with you.
I want you to stop that. I don’t like what you’re doing.
I feel put down by comments like that.
I am disappointed that we had a change in plans.
I am not satisfied with the work done on my car.
I am unhappy that you told her what I said.
I am furious that you didn’t call me.
Battle
We can submit immutable demands to parents, forcing them to choose between capitulation or debate/argument. Although there may be some issues on which we will elect to hold firm in an expectation or position, in general we seek to avoid this with parents.
Sale or Purchase
In this option, the teacher can elect to provide a service to the student or parent at a price. While not an exchange of cash, the transaction might involve the parent promising to work with the teacher in some fashion if the terms of the purchase are acceptable. The teacher and parent can negotiate on how each will offer services, or the parent can refuse to cooperate. Give-and-take is a feature of many forms of parent-teacher collaboration. Within the sale or purchase option, one party initiates the transaction, in contrast to option #3, in which both parties enter as equals.
Negotiation
As specified in the following sections, the parent and teacher engage in a discussion of interests, options, and preferred outcomes that accommodates the needs and preferences of the two parties. Negotiation allows for an extended exchange of information, deliberation, and compromise.
Charitable offer
As specified in the following sections, the parent and teacher engage in a discussion of interests, options, and preferred outcomes that accommodates the needs and preferences of the two parties. Negotiation allows for an extended exchange of information, deliberation, and compromise.
Win-lose negotiation
Make quite clear your absolute commitment to what you must have.
• State what the consequences will be if you don’t get it.
• Try to prevent your opponents from specifying their commitments. If they do,
• Provide some form of face-saving exit for them—perhaps by offering a mollifying concession which costs you little.
Defend other parties tactics by:
win-lose encounter, you can defend against the other parties’ tactics by
• Taking up an equally strong position. Dig in early and present clear, but unemotional, opposition.
• Seeking an exchange of information to clarify each party’s position.
• Establishing why each party holds its respective position.
• Stressing the consequences to the other party of a failure to resolve the issue
Win-Win negotiation
Collaboration between parties committed to non-combative sharing and mutual understanding can lead to cooperative negotiation.
dentify problems, initially, rather than solutions.
• Establish an atmosphere of mutual respect and trust. This may often best be achieved if you:
o Tackle those problems with the greatest potential for a win-win outcome first, especially if they are difficult, so that a good head of steam can be generated towards resolving subsequent issues the same way.
o Share information, in equal measures, step by step. Even if this sharing is not reciprocated initially, it should be continued, cautiously, for a short while.
Continuing Education – GIS The University of Iowa
o Avoid a defensive posture. Be amenable as long as the climate is favorable. o Avoid a ‘legalistic’ or contractual approach, if possible.
Interests
Parties in a negotiation must be able to rank order their concerns and be able to recognize the concerns of other parties to the negotiation. Ury places a high premium on the ability to “put yourself in the other side’s shoes.”
Options
Ury suggests that the purpose of uncovering the other party’s interest is so that you can suggest options that satisfy the party and are acceptable to you. “Inventing options for mutual gain” is how Ury describes the mission of a creative negotiator. A potential mistake in negotiating for either party is to focus on a single solution, usually the original position for you or the parent. The effective negotiator will consider any option that will satisfy all parties.
Standards
Seeking a fair and mutually satisfactory solution will be the mission of both sides in a win-win negotiation. Defining what are fair or acceptable guidelines, and adhering to such guidelines for the remainder of discussions, will be the next priority. In parent-teacher negotiations, one standard might be that the outcome of discussions will be in the best interest of the child. What qualifies as being in the child’s best interest can be a focal point for consideration.
Alternatives
Alternatives. The purpose of negotiation is to “explore whether you can satisfy your interests better through an agreement than you could by pursuing your Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA).” (Ury 1993) Using Ury’s acronym, the BATNA is your fallback position, what you would do in the absence of a negotiated agreement. Clearly, the BATNA is a less preferred outcome to one that is negotiated, but will be satisfactory if discussions produce no compromise.
Proposals
Once acceptable standards and alternatives have been identified, both parties can zero in on an outcome that both would like to see realized. Together, the parties can develop a proposal that will produce agreement. Ury writes that “what distinguishes a proposal from a simple option is commitment: A proposal is a possible agreement on which you are ready to say yes.”
Rehearse
A compromise or negotiated agreement between two parties can absorb large amounts of time and energy. Teachers will become more skillful over time as they become familiar with the
requirements of effective negotiation. The parent, however, is often less familiar with the
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PSQF:4134:0EXZ (07P:134:EXZ) Parent-Teacher Communication
parameters of win-win negotiation (though often very familiar with win-lose scenarios!). The teacher will be an important resource to the parent if s/he alerts that parent of the negotiation strategy being attempted. At times, the parent will need support to engage in the elements of negotiation, as well as to implement the options derived through discussion.
Rules of good argument
Make only a few points at a time, build up a case logically and carefully before drawing the inevitable conclusion that you disagree with the other side, listen carefully, seek clarification, demand justification, check out priorities, be positive.
Sitting side by side
The thoughts (self-talk, beliefs, opinions, judgments) and emotions of both parties from potential barriers to productive collaboration. We must begin, of course, by recognizing our assumptions, biases, and emotions that affect our perceptions of the negotiation process and the other party. Under optimal conditions, both parties are public in expressing thoughts or emotional reactions that would influence the achievement of a satisfactory outcome. Given that we live in a world that does not always reward honesty, the next best response is to seek information on the perceptions and reactions of the other party and to offer similar information on ourselves.
Ury suggests “going to the balcony” when we are engaged in discussions with others. His intention is that we must be able to distance ourselves from the details of the negotiations to check on both our and the other party’s reactions. Empathy is skill needed here, and a willingness to “step to their side” and understand the reasoning or emotions that are influencing our collaborate in joint problem solving.
Facing differences
As negotiations proceed, you must remain aware of any shifts in the positions assumed by the other party. By definition, their position is the barrier that
Parent-Teacher Communication
motivated you to engage in negotiation, so as discussions proceed, modifications in language and tone may signal important changes. One way to clarify the intentions and the language of the other party is to use reframing.
Negotiation reframing
involves redirecting the other side’s attention away from positions and toward the task of identifying interests, inventing creative options, and discussing fair standards for selecting an option. The focus of the conversation shifts from positions to interests.
Reframing treats messages as subject to interpretation. A reframe can highlight the positive aspects of the other side’s position. Because parties will be concentrating on the outcome of the negotiation, they may not be aware that you have influenced the process of discussion.