Parent-Teacher Communication Exam #2

Parent-Teacher Communication Exam #2

Hierarchical participation
Schools provide selected outlets for parent involvement, such as conferences, because such outlets have survived over the years as an expected element of school activities. Other long-established avenues for parental involvement are groups such
as the PTA and PTO. Formal arrangements for conferences and parent groups are understood by parents and school personnel to be available to every parent.
Individual decision-making
Parents have the potential, in many communities, to select the school that they would like their children to attend. In larger population areas, choice between public, parochial, and various private schools may be available. The school’s
location, programs, and personnel may influence a parent’s choice of school. Once a choice of schools has been made, parents remain responsible for determining their level of involvement with current opportunities for parental input, as well as for deciding whether they will propose, develop, and implement new outlets. The activity level of parents reflects both their own willingness to become involved, and school personnel’s openness and
support of parent initiatives.
Collective parent network
The community around a school may represent a defined geographical area (in the case of the neighborhood school) or a broader territory (in the
case of a magnet school or private school) that serves a specific clientele. The parents represented in the school reflect the diversity of their community and their commitment to school services. Parents view the school’s efforts with interest; after all, the parents are entrusting the care and education of their children to school personnel. Parent perceptions of the success of the school in educating children relate directly to parental perception of a
child’s development. Most parents are satisfied with their local schools, even if they are suspicious of education outside of the community.
Empowerment
An interactive process involving mutual respect and critical reflection through which both people and controlling institutions are changed in ways which provide those people with greater influence over individuals and institutions which are in some way impeding their efforts to achieve equal status in society, for themselves and those they care about.
Reasonable expectations
During a conference, expectations must be clarified, and will be influenced by the amount of time available for the meeting, the skills of the professional in communicating with the partner and structuring the agenda, the receptivity of the parent to the message of the professional, and the complexity of the message.
Establishing the conference objectives
Discussion of what can be accomplished during a conference leads to consideration of the objectives that can reasonably be accomplished during the meeting. The focus of the session is influenced by the priorities of the participating parties and the success that the professional and parent experience in agreeing on how best to meet those priorities.
Preparation for the conference
Requires the professional to plan for contingencies that may not arise. The teacher can suggest to be alerted to questions the parent considers important, so that answers can be sought prior to the meeting.
Opening statements
The professional will work to convey a tone during the encounter that emphasizes the importance of the work to be accomplished while placing a premium on the participants’ emotional and physical comfort. Initial greetings will be brief, honest in their warmth directed at the parent’s attendance, and focused on the task at hand.
Formulating the message
The parent should be able to grasp the essence of what is being discussed. It is important to avoid jargon during conferences unless necessary. The professional should offer information within a context that clarifies how a behavior has come to be viewed as a problem. Avoid labeling behavior and instead offer descriptive information.
Checking back
At several points during the conference, the professional can ask the parent for questions and comments, or request that the parent re-state the key points of the discussion.
Closing the conference
The conference will focus on the need for future encounters over the telephone, mail, or in subsequent conferences. The professional will work to confirm the key points of the discussion, and establish procedures for contacts in the future.
Judging the success of the conference
The professional can gather important information about the parent’s perceptions of the professional’s behavior. Reflections can improve planning for future conference.
Values of the participants
The professional must recognize that personal values and assumptions affect all parties’ perceptions of the problem at hand. By understanding the parent’s perceptions, the professional is better prepared to offer assistance, deal with conflicts of values, and proceed in a manner that invites collaboration and openness. Values are learned, ranked in importance, can compete with each other, and can be modified and changed.
Emotions of the parent
Our displayed emotions may be a characteristic
emotional state, a temporary emotion state, or a reflection of an underlying value system. Previous encounters with schools can influence emotions and actions of the client. The tone of the conference will be influenced by the emotions being experienced that day by the parent and professional. Each meeting will involve ideas and actions that are reflections of values, assumptions, and beliefs.
Problem ownership
Relates to the locus of responsibility for problem solving. A basic element is recognizing and accepting responsibility for what you have done. The concept becomes a concern when either party behaves in a manner that violates the premise that he or she accepts responsibility for or a commitment to the outcome of the encounter.
Types of conferences
Conferences are used to convey information, discuss possibilities for action, and negotiate priorities. There are group conferences, reporting conferences, information-getting conferences, and problem-solving conferences.
Group conferences
Mainly used for open houses. Provide an opportunity to discuss important issues with large numbers of parents with the added bonus of featuring children and their work. They are implemented to achieve the following outcomes: parents become acquainted with the child’s teacher and school staff; parents view the classroom, see and handle curricular materials, and hear a presentation on classroom expectations; Parents hear ways that they can help their children meet class objectives; parents learn how they will be informed about academic/behavioral progress; parents raise concerns of general interest.
Reporting conferences
The format most commonly seen in schools and other service agencies. Information is reported to the parent in a private conference. Give-and-take in communication remains a priority during the conference. Teachers must convey information that is a valid reflection of the student. The teacher should convey information in words that are clear and understandable. The teacher should negotiate in advance with the parent as to the emphasis during the conference. Performance and educational process are likely to be provided to the parent during a conference.
Performance
Goals that can be defined in areas such as academic performance, social development, emotional development, physical development, and classroom behavior.
Educational process
The methods that teachers used to educate and interact with students, including discipline style and actions of the teacher.
Information-getting conferences
A type of conference used when a teacher believes that information can be provided by the parent to help the teacher develop better school programs. The teacher should explain why such information is needed and how the parent’s input will be used.
Problem-solving conferences
A type of conference that can be used by the teacher to involve the parent in collaborative problem solving. The conference involves a triadic relationship. Important avenue to intervene in academic and behavioral problems. The teacher should describe the child’s school performance/behavior, provide samples of the child’s work that will assist the parent in understanding how the child is performing, and document what the teacher has done to help the child and what have been the outcomes of previous intervention efforts.
Triadic relationship
The teacher (service provider) works with the parent (service consumer) to benefit a third party (the child or client).
Communication
The active participation of the sender to convey a message or thought to the receiver who, in turn, may or may not reciprocate the action by acknowledging that information.
Listening
The active process of interpreting, understanding, and evaluating the spoken and nonverbal speech as a meaningful message.
Open response
Encourages communication to continue; can vary from positive body language to a verbal response in which you indicate your interest.
Closed response
Does not encourage communication to continue.
Reflective listening
The ability to reflect the speaker’s feelings; the listener’s response identifies the basic feelings being expressed and reflects the essence of those feelings back to the speaker.
I messages
Messages that place the responsibility on yourself.
You messages
Messages that place the responsibility on the person receiving the message, and it is often a negative message.
Rephrasing
Restating the intent of the message in a condensed version.
Reframing
Involves taking the sting out of a the negative description of a child. Instead of focusing on the negative aspects of an individual, start with positive comments, then reframe the child’s troublesome quality into an acceptable or even positive trait.
Parent Effectiveness Training
Parent education that discusses many topics, including active listening, “I messages,” changing behavior by changing the environment, parent-child conflicts, parental power, and “no-lose” methods for resolving conflicts.
Child owns the problem
The child has a problem because he or she is thwarted in satisfying a need. It is not a problem for the parent because the child’s behavior in no tangible way interferes with the parent’s satisfying his or her own needs.
No problem in relationship
The child is satisfying his or her own needs (he or she is not thwarted), and his or her behavior is not interfering with the parent’s own needs.
Parent owns the problem
The child is satisfying his or her own needs (he or she is not thwarted), but his or her behavior is a problem to the parent because it is interfering in some tangible way with the parent’s satisfying a need of his or her own.
Systematic Training for Effective Parenting
Parent education that offers a variety of training programs; furnish videos, a parent’s manual, and a leadership and resource guide used to facilitate parent meetings; the child’s goals in behavior, which include attention, power, revenge, and displays of inadequacy, are examined; parents learn to understand their child and themselves through engaging in topics that include listening, encouraging, learning to cooperate, and understanding emotions and beliefs.
Active Parenting
Parent education with goals of misbehavior, logical consequences, active communication, exploring alternatives, and family council meetings are described; a handbook and workbook supplement the group meetings, and a leader’s handbook gives detailed instruction on how the class should be conducted; each session has a corresponding portion of a video that illustrates the child and family issues under discussion; online delivery of the course is also available.
Role
The behavior characteristic of a person occupying a particular position in the social system, influences the actions of the person and the expectations of others toward that person.
Maintenance roles
Help the group develop and maintain existence and quality of the group.
Dysfunctional roles
Roles that interfere with achievement of the goals of the group.
Roundtable
A true open discussion, the mainstay of group interaction; used to complement most meetings, such as panels, symposiums, role-playing sessions, or buzz sessions; used for decision-making meetings and parent councils; appropriate topics include: learning activities that work, behavior and misbehavior influence of internet, video games, and television on children, rivalry between siblings, problem solving, bullying, coping with terrorism.
Concentric-circle arrangement
A variation of the open discussion or roundtable meeting – instead of one circle, there are two – one inside the other – with everyone facing the center; the smaller circle within the larger circle contains the communicators at first; after a designated time of 5 to 10 minutes the discussion is opened to the entire group; appropriate topics include: how to build self-esteem in children, what to expect of 2 – 5 year olds, problem solving, living with change, positive uses of the internet, video games and television, courses and workshops to be offered at school, and issues and concerns of children.
Buzz sessions
A means of eliciting participation from all members of the group; up to 24 people, 2 – 8 in each group discuss ideas; discuss for specific period of time; topic introduced for discussion and people are encouraged to participate much as they would in any other small-group discussion; report back to total audience; appropriate topics include: home management tips, feelings about child rearing, discipline, moral values, vacation ideas on a budget, solving problems around home, issues concerning school, decisions about education.
Brainstorming
A unique method of active interaction by all members of the group; promotes interchange, encourages lateral thinking, and facilitates expansion of thought; quantity of ideas is the object; later the ideas may be analyzed, judged as to quality, and reduced to selected items; appropriate topics include: ideas to solve problems, how to get our child to…, creative activities, exploring the environment, nutrition, ways to improve relations at school, and summer offerings for families.
Workshops
A group type useful for demonstrating programs and curricula, and can also be used as an effective means of explaining procedures, illustrating the learning process, and developing understanding; take place in separate rooms or one large room with designated areas; participants choose a workshop or center and attend; appropriate topics include: learning activities, art activities, bookmaking, games and toys, math activities to do at home, science activities to do at home, rainy-day activities, leadership training session, writers’ workshop, learning to read, guidance, outdoor play, traditional children’s games, music and songs for young children, the environment.
Centers
Different from workshops in that they do not require participants to be actively involved in the project; allow subgroups of the membership to gather simultaneously in various areas of the room, where they might see a demonstration, hear and explanation of an issue or program, or watch a media presentation.
Observations and fieldtrips
A meeting type that encourages participants to actively view and observe activities; appropriate topics: how children learn, play, interpersonal relations, aggression, fine and gross-motor control, hand-eye coordination, stages and ages, children’s museums, art museums, parks, special schools, newspapers, hospitals, businesses, farms, state legislature.
Dyad or Triad interaction and feedback
One member shares an aspect or concern, the second member answers with a reflective listening response, the third critiques the response; appropriate topics include: communication, behavior and misbehavior, determination of problem ownership, reflective and active listening, natural and logical consequences.
Role playing
The dramatization of a situation where group members put themselves into designated roles; appropriate topics include: parent-teacher conferences, behavioral problems, building self-esteem, reflective listening, roles within groups.
Dramatizations (short plays)
A meeting type in which skits are composed by members of the group; encourages group participants to become actively involved in the process and the material that is presented; appropriate topics include: family violence, handling the stubborn child, rivalry between children, family rivalry, family conferences, communication among family members.
Panel
An informal presentation by four to six presenters who discuss an issue or idea; discuss subject among themselves; appropriate topics include: child development, new methods of classroom teaching, bias-free education, exceptional children, influence of drugs and alcohol, discipline, emotions in children, managing a home with both parents working, nutrition.
Colloquy
A panel discussion by an informed or expert panel where members of the audience are encouraged by the chairperson to interject questions or comments during the presentation; allows information pertinent to the audience’s interests to be discussed during the main part of the presentation instead of waiting for a question-and-answer period after the presentation; may include two sets of panels, an expert panel and a lay panel; appropriate topics include: dealing with your child’s fears, handling stress, drug addiction and alcoholism, helping exceptional children, nutrition.
Debate
An effective means of presenting both sides of a discussion; presents opposing views of a controversial issue; appropriate topics include: sex education, behavior modification versus logical consequences, open education vs. traditional education, encouragement toward achievement versus “don’t push my child”, back to basics vs. inquiry and/or literacy-based education.
Book reviews
A format of meeting that brings out stimulating new ideas or acknowledges expertise; may be given by one presenter or several members; an open discussion by the entire group follows; appropriate topics include: values, decision making, building self-concept, communication, divorce, role identification, single parents.
Audiovisual presentations
Visual stimuli, programmed material, and film presentations can be catalysts for a good open discussion; directed toward two senses – hearing and sight; after presentation, open discussion and question-and-answer period follow; appropriate topics include: foundations of reading and writing, emotional growth, dealing with fears, exceptional children, autism spectrum disorder, adhd, drugs and alcohol, drop-out problems, teenage pregnancy.
Symposium
A formal presentation by several speakers on various aspects of a topic; each presenter develops talk of 5 to 10 minutes; share expert information; appropriate topics include: nonsexist education, single parenthood, gender-role identification, multicultural understanding, consumer education, death and dying, safety in the home, special education services, drugs and alcohol, suicide, restructuring schools.
Lecture
A talk prepared by an expert or lay presenter; no interruptions or questions are allowed during presentation; may include period for questions and answers; excellent vehicle for dissemination of specific information; appropriate topics include: money management, specialists in different areas of child development, how to manage stress, dealing with illness and death, preventive health measures, childhood diseases and disorders, school finances, preventing violence.
Counseling
a therapeutic and growth process through which individuals are helped to define goals, make decisions, and solve problems related to personal-social, educational, and career concerns. If it is specialized it provides assistance with concerns related to physical and social rehabilitation, employment, mental health, substance abuse, marital and family problems, human sexuality, religious and value choices, career development, and other concerns.
Affectiveness
The counselor and client explore subjective feelings and perceptions more
often than cognitive issues (although the theoretical orientation of the counselor will determine the direction of exploration). Content tends to be highly personal, eliciting a mixture of relief and anxiety.
Intensity
The counseling relationship ideally is open, direct, and honest, and as a
consequence is perceived as intense by the client. A premium is placed on openness in the
expression of thoughts and feelings.
Growth and change
The counseling relationship is often characterized as dynamic,
undergoing change throughout the client’s involvement. As the client changes perceptions
and skills, so does the nature of the relationship with the counselor.
Privacy
Confidentiality is essential between the counselor and client. In most locations,
there are very specific limitations to what can remain confidential (e.g., mandatory
reporting laws require notification when the counselor is informed of certain events or
circumstances). The client, once insured of confidentiality, is encouraged to use the
situation to self-disclose feelings and thoughts.
Support
The counselor structures meetings so that the client is provided a stable
relationship for taking risks and changing behavior. The actions of the counselor may
extend outside of the formal session to include brief contacts over the telephone.
Honesty
counselors strive to establish credibility and trust, so that all communication is
honest and genuine.
Confrontive coping
“I stood my ground and fought for what I wanted.”
Distancing
“I went on as if nothing had happened.”
Self-control
“I tried to keep my feeling to myself.”
Seeking social support
“I talked to someone who could do something concrete about the
problem.”
Accepting responsibility
“I criticized or lectured myself.”
Escape-avoidance
“I wished that the situation would go away or somehow be over with.”
Planful problem solving
“I knew what had to be done, so I doubled my efforts to make
things work.”
Positive reappraisal
“I changed or grew as a person in a good way.”
active coping
(Personal correlates: optimism, confidence, self-esteem, low anxiety): “I take
additional action to try to get rid of the problem.” “I concentrate my efforts on doing something
about it.” “I do what has to be done, one step at a time.”
Planning
(Personal correlates: optimism, confidence, self-esteem): “I try to come up with a
strategy about what to do.” “I make a plan of action.” “I think hard about what steps to take.”
Suppression of competing activities
(personal correlates: none): “I put aside other activities in order to concentrate on this.” “I focus on dealing with this problem and if necessary let other things
slide a little.” “I keep myself from getting distracted by other thoughts or activities.”
Restraint coping
(Personal correlates: optimism, low anxiety): “I force myself to wait for the right
time to do something.” “I hold off doing something about it until the situation permits.” “I make sure
not to make matters worse by acting too soon.”
Seeking social support for emotional reasons
(Personal correlates: none): “I talk to someone
about how I feel.” “I try to get emotional support from friends or relatives.” “I discuss my feelings
with someone.”
Seeking social support for instrumental reasons
(Personal correlates: optimism): “I ask people
who have had similar experiences what they did.” “I try to get advice from somewhat about what to
do.” “I talk to someone to find out more about the situation.”
Positive reinterpretation and growth
(Personal correlates: optimism, confidence, self-esteem,
low anxiety): “I look for something good in what is happening.” “I try to see it in a different light, to
make it seem more positive.” “I learn something from the experience.”
Acceptance
(Personal correlate: optimism): “I learn to live with it.” “I accept that this has happened and that it can’t be changed.” “I get used to the idea that it happened.”
Turning to religion
(Personal correlate: optimism): “I seek God’s help.” “I put my trust in God.” “I try to find comfort in my religion.”
Focus on and venting of emotion
(Personal correlates: low confidence, anxiety): “I get upset and let my emotions out.” “I let my feelings out.” “I feel a lot of emotional distress and I find myself
expressing those feelings a lot.”
Denial
(Personal correlates: pessimism, low confidence, low self-esteem, anxiety): “I refuse to
believe that it has happened.” “I pretend that it hasn’t really happened.” “I act as though it hasn’t
happened.”
Behavioral disengagement
(Personal correlates: pessimism, low confidence, low self-esteem,
anxiety): “I give up the attempt to get what I want.” “I just give up trying to reach my goal.” “I admit
to myself that I can’t deal with it and quit trying.”
Mental disengagement
(Personal correlates: pessimism, low confidence, anxiety): “I turn to work
or other substitute activities to take my mind off things.” “I go to movies or watch TV, to think about
it less.” “I daydream about things other than this.”
Alcohol or drug use
(Personal correlate: pessimism): “I use alcohol or drugs to make myself to
feel better.” “I try to lose myself for a while by drinking alcohol or taking drugs.” “I use drugs or
alcohol to help me get through it.”
Emotional support
this kind of support is useful when we need someone to confide in; when we
seek reassurance that we are loved and cared about; when we want someone to lean on.
Tangible support
This kind of support is useful when we need assistance with a job or a chore; when we require aid, a gift, or a loan; when there is a problem we can’t handle on our own.
Informational support
This kind of support is useful when we need information or advice; when
some feedback will help us with a problem or challenge.
Self-efficacy and coping
Refers to our expectations and confidence that the
responses we make to life challenges can have a meaningful effect. People with strong feelings of
this face life challenges with energy and persistence. They keep trying new alternatives until
they succeed or at least survive. It comes from life experiences and from people who serve as significant models. It is built by responding to life challenges with action, flexibility, and persistence.
Process observer
Values owned by consultant, but focus is on helping consultee identify key process variables.
Process collaborator
Values owned by consultant and consultee.
Focus on process variables. Emphasis on joint
problem identification and problem resolution.
Content collaborator
Values owned by consultant and consultee.
Focus on content or technology. Emphasis upon
joint problem identification and problem
resolution.
Content/process collaborator.
Values owned by consultant and consultee. Both
process and content viewed as potentially
important. Focus on joint problem identification
and resolution.
Process expert
Values of consultant dominant. Emphasis upon
diagnosing and resolving process problems by
consultant.
Content expert
Values of consultant dominant. Emphasis upon
diagnosing and resolving the technical problems
by the consultant.
Content/process expert
Values of consultant dominant. Emphasis on
diagnosing and resolving processes and content
problems by the consultant
Social learning theory (Bandura)
Most behavior is acquired as a result of imitation of esteemed models. Since in most families parents are esteemed models, the origin of much childhood behavior is imitation of the parent or, in the case of the younger children, older siblings. When parents are either absent or not held in high esteem as models, other individuals will be imitated.Cognition mediates the process of behavior acquisition. Cognitions regarding one’s confidence that one can perform a task (self-efficacy), the importance attached to a task (appraisal), the outcomes associated with performing a task (expectations), and the
standards one has developed with regard to performing a task are of major importance. Effective parents are confident, see child rearing as important, believe that they can make a
difference, and want to do an outstanding job.Self-efficacy can best be heightened by performance accomplishments. Vicarious modeling and verbal persuasion are also effective means of improving self-efficacy. Whenever anxiety
is a barrier to performance, reducing that anxiety can improve self-efficacy by engaging parents in proximal goal setting and involvement in activities that are deemed important
(appraisal) and achievable (expectation), self-efficacy regarding parenting can be improved.Standards of functioning as a parent are probably acquired as a result of direct observation
of one’s own parents and observation of others. In consultation, vicarious modeling, verbal
persuasion, and parental standards of functioning (e.g., how well they want to parent) are the mechanisms available for changing the standards of parents.
Mental health consultation (Caplan)
Consultee problems can be classified as lack of knowledge, lack of skill, lack of confidence, and lack of objectivity. In this context, lack of objectivity refers to biases that are acquired
either as a result of learning prior to the birth of a child (e.g., retarded children are to be shunned) or as a result of anxiety-laden experiences after the child is born (e.g., serious illness where child nearly dies). The problems of knowledge, skill, self-confidence, and objectivity are often interrelated.
Systems Theory (Bateson, Capra)
The nuclear family is a part of a broader suprasystem called the extended family. Many of the values of the nuclear family are based upon those of the suprasystem. These values,
whether they are positive or negative, guide the parenting process. The family interacts as a system. Healthy families are interdependent, but differentiated to
the degree that individuals can have distinct identities; develop subsystems (e.g., parents and children); develop distinct mechanisms for regulating the behavior of their members based upon principles of supportive, open communication; and have their own values and
goals. Cause-and-effect is virtually impossible to ascertain in the family system. Therefore,
blaming should be avoided.
School planning and management team
Plans and coordinates school endeavors, including curriculum, assessment, and instruction.
Student and Staff Support team
Work to prevent concerns from becoming problems and responds to the issues and needs of individual students.
Parent team
Involves parents at all levels of the school and integrates the school with the community.
Field theory
Everything an individual knows, feels, and perceives is done in a subjective reality. This subjective reality is known as a person’s psychological field or life space; only those things present in the life space influence behavior.
Human ecological systems theory
Behavior is an interaction of human beings with the physical, social, and psychological environments, making behavior adaptive. The theory’s four principles are: the community is the client, reduce those community services that maintain the status quo, strengthen community resources, plan for change.
Comer’s theoretical framework of child development
a child’s behavior is determined by his or her interaction with the physical, social, and psychological environments. Children need positive interactions with adults in order to develop adequately. Child-centered planning and collaboration among adults facilitate positive interaction. All planning for child development should be a collaborative effort between professionals and community members.
Population adjustment model
Identify populations at risk for developing mental illness. Intervene through modifying the environment to promote mental health.
Social action model
Program planning should be a collaborative effort between professionals and community members. Professionals should have an integral knowledge of the community in which they are working.
Project Approach
Involves the child as a constructor of knowledge and research.
Title I Section 101
Improving the academic achievement of the disadvantaged, reflects the need to ensure high-quality education for all children to have adequate and excellent education.
Title IV
The purpose is to promote parental choice and to increase the amount of flexible funds available to states and school districts for innovative education programs”.
Family literacy services
Services that are of sufficient intensity in terms of hours and of sufficient duration, to make sustainable changes in a family and that integrate all of the following activities: interactive literacy activities between parents and their children, training for parents regarding how to be the primary teacher for their children and full partners in the education of their children, parent literacy training that leads to economic self-sufficiency, an age-appropriate education to prepare children for success in school and life experiences.
Homeschooling
Instruction and learning, at least some of which is through planned activity, taking place primarily at home in a family setting with a parent acting as teacher or supervisor of the activity.