Period 1: Technological and Environmental Transformations, c. 8000 BCE to c. 600 BCE

Key Concept 1.1 Big Geopgraphy and the Peopling of the Earth
1.1 What is the evidence that explains the earliest history of humans on the planet? How is this evidence interpreted?
-Cave paintings
-burial sites
-These artifacts paint a picture of past life.
1.1.I) Where did humans first appear on Earth, and what were their society, technology, and culture?
-Hunting gathering societies
– Crude hand shaped stone and wood tools
-Rituals to lessen fear of death
-Cave paintings expressed nature’s beauty
-Rich language and symbols
-Greatest acheivment- spread of human species accrost planet
-Woman and men equal due to woman supplying most food while men hunted with little success.
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1.1.I.A) Describe earliest humans’ technology and tools.
-Crudely shaped stone and wooden implements
1.1.I.B) How did the earliest humans’ society help them procure enough supplies to survive winter?
-They all worked together
-Population growth was slow
Key Concept 1.2 The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural
1.2) What were the long-term demographic, social, political, and ecomomic effects of the Neolithic revolution? How did pastoral societies resemble or differ from early agricultural societies?
-Agriculture spawned population increase, from 6-8 million to 100 million in about 3000 years.
-People had more food and more time
-Herding societies moved from place to place, and did not settle.
1.2.I) How did the Neolithic Revolution affect human societies economically and socially?
-Larger populations
-better food supplies
-greater wealth
-more settled existence
-specialization; new technologies
-Baskets, pottery wheel
1.2.I.A.) Why did the Neolithic Revolution Start (at all)? Where did the Neolithic Revolution first transform human populations?(plural answer)
-The invention of agriculture took place slowly over thousands of years
– Supported more people per square mile than hunting
-Began in the MIddle East with barley and wild wheat, and independantly in Asia and China with rice farming.
– Began independently in America with corn
1.2.I.B) Where did pastoralism persist even after the Neolithic revolution?
-Africa; Isolation
-Australia; Isolation
-Islands of southeast Asia; Isolation
-Northern Japan: Isolation
-North America; resistance
-Central Asia; resistance
1.2.I.C) What various crops & animals were developed or domesticated during the Neolithic Revolution?
-Grains such as barley and wild wheat, beans; Middle East
-Rice, bananas; Asia
-Local grains, roots crops(yams); Africa
-Corn, beans; America
1.2.1.D) What labor adjustments did humans make in order to facilitate the Neolithic Revolution?
-Worked Longer hours
-Tools & Technology
1.2.I.E) WHat were the environmental effects of the Neolithic Revolution?
-Relatively little impact on environment
1.2.II) What were the effects of pastoralism and agriculture on humans?
-Populations increased
-Development of metal tools
1.2.II.A) What effects did pastoralism and agriculture have on food supply?
-Increase of food supply
-More reliable food supply
1.2.II.B) What were the social effects of the increased food supply caused by increase of agriculture?
-People could afford to build houses and villages
-Specialization, not everyone had to provide food
-New technologies, basket-making and pottery to store surplus food
-Science, knowledge of weather and flooding
1.2.II.C) What technological innovations are associated with the growth of Agriculture?
-Pottery, potters wheel
-Metal tools, Copper and bronze, hoes
-Writing, Cuneiform
-Political Structures
Key Concept 1.3 The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral, and Urban Societies
1.3) What is a ‘civilization,’ and what are the defining characteristics of a civilization?
-Reliant on sedentary agriculture
-Ability to produce food surplus
-Existence of nonfarming elites
-Merchant and nonfarming groups
1.3.I) Where did the earliest civilizations develop, and why did they develop in those locations?
-Middle East, Egypt, Northwestern India, Northern China
-Most densly populated areas
-Key rriver valleys
-Written language allowed messages and records
1.3.II) What is a “State?” Who ruled the early states, and which segments of society usually supported the ruler?
-Claimed divine authority
-Higher ranks of society support ruler
1.3.II.B) WHy were some early states able to expand and conquer neighboring states?
-More organized political structures
-Greater supply and wealth
-More support from within
1.3.II.C) GIve four examples of early empires in the Nile & Tigris/Euphrates River Valleys.
1.3.II.D) What role did pastoral civilizations play vis a vis empires?
-Domestication of animals
-Technological improvements in riding equipment and weaponry
-World trade
-developing contacts with settled societies
1.3.III) How did culture play a role in unifying populations?
-Spiritual beleifs bring populations together
1.3.III.A) What architectural forms did early civilizations produce?
-Sumerians created Ziggurats, massive towers for temples
Indus Valley Civilizations
-City walls made of standardized kiln-dried briks
-Organized construction
1.3.III.B) Which social strata encouraged the development of art in ancient civilizations?
1.3.III.C) What forms of writing developed in ancient civilizations?
-Cuneiform; sumarians
-Egyptian Alphabet
-Chinese derilicts
-Phoenician Alphabet
1.3.III.D) WHat was the relationship between literature and culture?
-Civilizations with more developed writing had more unifiedcultures.
-Literature reflected the culture of civilizations
1.3.III.E) What pre-600 BCE religions strongly influenced later eras?
-Sumerian beleifs of god and nature
1.3.III.F) How “big” were the pre-600 BCE trading regions?
-Most trade was centered on small regions
-Some trade went great distances
-Phoenicians traded with Britain for metals
-Chinese silk reached Egypt
1.3.III.G0 How did social and gender identities develop pre-600 BCE?
-Man became higher than woman

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