Periods 1 & 2 AP World History

Periods 1 & 2 AP World History

Agricultural Rev./Transition or Neolithic Rev.
hunting and gathering to farming, occurred worldwide between 10,000 BC and 2000 BC
Aristocracy
a government in which power is in the hands of a hereditary ruling class or nobility
Barbarian
a person belonging to a tribe or group that is considered uncivilized; a savage brutal or cruel person
Cities (vs. Villages)
a community of people smaller than a town and bigger than a village
Brahmins
a socially or culturally superior person, a member of the upper classes from New England
Civilizations/Advances Societies
a society in an advance state of social development (e.g., with complex legal and political and religious organizations)
Complex institutions
a structure used to govern the people around it the specialization of trade
Currency
a type of money; a country’s currency
Deity
a god or goddess; a divine being
Democracy
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Dharma
principle or cosmic order, teaching or religion of Buddha; you must accept what caste you are born into and do your duties in order to move on in your next life
Diffusion
the spreading something more widely
Diversified Food Supply
large selection of foods
Domesticated Animals
tamed animals; can live with humans without harming them
Dynastic Cycle
important political theory in China, every dynasty goes through a certain cycle
Egalitarian
belief that all people are created equal and deserve equal rights
Ethical Legal Codes
a system of principles about morality and acceptable conduct
Frontier
border separating 2 countries
Hunters and Gatherers/Foraging/Nomadic
a person who hunts or kills for food
Ice Age
global episode during a past geological period; when everything froze (the ice age)
Intensive Cultivation
agricultural production system characterized by high inputs or labor
Irrigation Systems
artificial application of water to the soil; used to assist the growing of agricultural crops
Karma
sum of a person’s actions in all their states of existence, viewed as their deciding fate (what they will be judged on)
Mandate of Heaven
traditional Chinese philosophical concept concerning the legitimacy of rules
Monogamy
practice or state of being married to one person
Pagan
person holding religious beliefs other than those of the main world religions
Pastoral/Pastoralism
branch of agriculture concerned with the raising of livestock
Patriarchy/Patriarchal Systems
system of government in which the father or the eldest male is head of the family
Polygamy
practice of having more than one wife or husband
Record Keeping
act of keeping detailed notes about activities and events
Secular
denoting attitudes, activites, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis
Sericulture
production of raw silk
Settled Populations
population of people who stayed in their location; in their location (in one location)
Slavery
state of being a slave
Specialization of Labor
the learned skill of a specific job
Surplus
amount of something left over when the requirements of what you need have already been met
Syncretism
the amalgamation or attempted amalgamation of different religions, cultures, or schools of thought
Textiles
branch of industry involved in the making of cloth
Theocracy
system of government in which priests rule in the name of god or a god
Bureaucracy
system of governing in which most important decisions are made by state officials rather than by elected officials
Ancestor Veneration
Veneration of the dead is based on the belief that the deceased, often family members, have a continued existence and/or possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living
Animism
the belief in a supernatural power that organizes and animates the material universe
Bodhisattva
Buddhism; a deity or being who has attained enlightenment worthy of nirvana but who remains in the human world to help others
Caste System
a social structure in which classes (social classes) are determined by heredity (the family you are born with)
City-State
urban center and agricultural around it under its control; loosely connected with others by cultural characteristics, but was independent and competed
Classical
in the style of ancient Greece or Rome, especially in architecture; relating or belonging to the ancient Greeks or Romans or their cultures
Codification
to arrange things, especially laws, rules, or principles, into an organized system or code
Dao/Tao
the ultimate principle of the universe, the “way” in Chinese Daoism philosophy
Diaspora/Diasporic Communities
scattered communities around the middle east; communities of a given ethnic group living outside their homeland
Enlightenment
use reason and experience rather than religion or tradition to understand the world and help it progress
Filial Piety
the virtue and reverence for family (CONFUCIANISM)
Hellenistic
culture derived from Greek civilization that flourished between 800 and 400 B.C.E. ; Greek culture spread throughout the Mediterranean world
Manifestations
an act of showing or demonstrating something; the condition of being shown or being perceptible
Merchants
somebody who buys and sells goods, especially as a whole saler or internationally
Missionaries
somebody sent to another country by a church to spread its faith or to do social and medical work
Monarchy
a political system in which a state is ruled by a monarch (a monarch and his or her family)
Monastery/Monastic Life/Monasticism
a building or buildings with grounds in which a group of people observing religious vows, especially monks, live together
Monsoon Winds
a period of heavy rainfall, especially during the summer over South and Southeast Asia
Rajas
a chief of a group of nomadic Aryans. They later became kings of small villages in India; title given to an Indian prince or king
Reincarnation
body in which someone is reborn; a person or animal in whose body somebody’s soul is born again after he, she, or it has died
Rents
exchanged labor
Republic
a political system or form of government in which people elect representatives to exercise power for them
Rituals
the observance of actions or procedures in a set, ordered, and ceremonial way
Sanskrit Scriptures
sacred language by the Vedas in India, mainly for religion
Scriptures
sacred writings of the bible; a passage from the bible
Shamanism
a religion of northern Asia, in which shamans are believed to be able to intercede
Sinicization
to acquire a Chinese idiom, form, or cultural trait, or give somebody or something a Chinese idiom, form, or cultural trait
Social Harmony
relating to human society and how it is organized; peace for all
Universal Truths (dealing with belief systems)
an organized collection of beliefs; what is believed in throughout every religion