Personality The term personality is derived from the Latin word persona meaning a mask. Personality is a patterned body of habits, traits, attitudes and ideas of an individual as these are organized externally into roles and statuses and as they relate internally to motivation, goals and various aspects of selfhood. According to Robert Park and Earnest Burgess Personality is the sum and organization of those traits which determine the role of the individual in the group. According to Linton, personality embraces the total organized aggregate of psychological processes and status pertaining to the individual.
Parsonality says Maclver is all that an individual is and has experienced so far as this all can be comprehended as unity. According to Lundberg the term personality refers to the habits, attitudes and other social traits that are characteristic of a given individual’s behavior. By personality Ogburn means the integration of the socio-psychological behavior of the human being, represented by habits of action and feeling, attitudes and opinions. Davis regards personality a psychic phenomenon which is neither organic nor social but an emergent from a combination of the two.
According to Young personality is the totality of behavior of an individual with a given tendency system interacting with a sequence of situations. On the basis of these definitions it may be said there are two main approaches to the study of personality: 1. The psychological 2. The sociological The psychological approach considers personality as a certain style peculiar to the individual. This style is determined by the characteristic organization of mental trends, complexes, emotions and sentiments.
The psychological approach enables us to understand the phenomena of personality disorganization and the role of wishes, of mental conflict and of repression and sublimation in the growth of personality. The sociological approach considers personality in terms of the status of the individual in the group, in terms of his conception of his role in the group of which he is a member. What others think of us plays a large part in the formation of our personality. Thus personality is a sum of the ideas, attitudes and values of a person which determine his role in society and form an integral part of his character.
Personality is acquired by the individual as a result of his participation in group life. As a member of the group he learns certain behavior systems and symbolic skills which determine his ideas, attitudes and social values. These ideas, attitudes and values which an individual holds comprise his personality. In brief it can be said: 1. Personality is not related to bodily structure alone. It includes both structure and dynamics. 2. Personality is an indivisible unit. 3. Personality is neither good nor bad. 4. Every personality is unique 5. Personality refers to persistent qualities of the individual.
It expresses consistency and regularity. 6. Personality is acquired. 7. Personality is influenced by social interaction. It is defined in terms of behavior. Determinant Personality is a result of the combination of four factors- physical environment, heredity, culture and particular experiences. Geographical environment sometimes determines cultural variability. Man comes to form ideas and attitudes according to the physical environment he lives in. To the extent that the environment determines cultural development and to the extent that culture in turn determines personality a relationship between personality and environment becomes clear.
Montesque in 18th century claimed that the bravery of those blessed by a cold climate enables them to maintain their liberties. Great heat enervates courage while cold causes certain vigor of body and mind. The people of mountain as well as deserts are usually bold, hard and powerful. However physical conditions are more permissive and limiting factors than causative factors. They set the limits within which personality can develop. Hereditary is another factor determining human personality. Some of the similarities in man’s personality are said to be due to his common heredity.
Every human group inherits the same general set of biological needs and capacities. These common needs and capacities explain some of our similarities in personality. Man tends to resemble his parents in physical appearance and intelligence. However heredity does not mould human personality alone and unaided. We can assume that there are genes for normal personality traits just as there are genes for other aspects of human life and functioning. Heredity only furnishes the materials out of which experience will mould the personality. Experience determines the way these materials will be used.
An individual may be energetic because of his heredity but whether he is active on his own belief or on behalf of others is a matter of his training. There can be little doubt that culture largely determines the types of personality that will predominate in the particular group. According to some sociologists personality is the subjective aspect of culture. They regard personality and culture as two sides of same coin. Spiro had observed the development of personality and the acquisition of culture are not different processes but one and the same learning process.
Personality is an individual aspect of culture while culture is a collective aspect of personality. Each culture produces its special type or types of personality. A given cultural environment sets its participant members off from other human beings operating under different cultural environments. According to Frank culture is a coercive influence dominating the individual and molding his personality by virtue of the ideas, conceptions and beliefs which had brought to bear on him through communal life. The culture provides the raw material of which the individual makes his life.
The traditions, customs, mores, religion, institutions, moral and social standards of a group affect the personality of the group members. From the moment of birth the child is treated in ways which shape his personality. Every culture exerts a series of general influences upon the individuals who grow up under it. It can be summed up that culture greatly moulds personality. The individual ideas and behavior are largely the results of cultural conditioning. However it should not be concluded that culture is a massive die that shapes all that come under it with an identical pattern.
All the people of a given culture are not of same cast. Personality traits differ within any culture. Personality is not totally determined by culture even though no personality escapes its influence. It is only one determinant among others. Personality is also determined by another factor the particular and unique experiences. There are two types of experiences one those that stem from continuous association with one’s group, second those that arise suddenly and are not likely to recur. The type of people who meet the child daily has a major influence on his personality.
The personality of parents does more to affect a child’s personality. The social rituals ranging from table manners to getting along with others are consciously inculcated in the child by his parents. The child picks up the language of his parents. Group influences are relatively greater in early childhood. This is the period when the relationships of the child with the mother, father and siblings affect profoundly the organization of his drives and emotions, the deeper and subconscious aspects of his personality. Group interaction moulds the child’s personality.
It may also be inferred that personality is a matter of social situations. It has been shown by social researchers that a person may show honesty in one situation and not in another. The same is true for other personality traits also. Personality traits tend to be specific responses to particular situations rather than general behavior patterns. It is a dynamic unity with a creative potential. Heredity, physical environment, culture and particular experiences are thus the four factors that explain personality –its formation, development and maintenance.
Beyond the joint influence of these factors however the relative contribution of each factor to personality varies with the characteristic or personality process involved and perhaps with the individual concerned. How to develop 1. ————————————————- 1 ————————————————- Think positive thoughts, both about yourself and others in general. The thoughts that we think soon turn into the words we say and the actions we take. Having good thoughts about yourself gives you self-confidence and self-respect, essential in any good person. . ————————————————- 2 ————————————————- Never lose a chance to prove yourself. In our day to day life we came across several opportunities which could help our self in defining our personality. for example if you are in a conversation with a group or a individual you must talk in a way that you can prove others what you are really…. and it does not matter if you say a line or a speech. the thing which will matter is the words of yous. whether they were able to leave an impact on others or not. 3. ———————————————— 3 ————————————————- Look for famous people whose personality defined them. Athletes, artists, actors and musicians are people who face challenges in their careers everyday. They have to have patience and perseverance in order to succeed. Many of them are humble in spite of their success and fame. These are life skills which is learned culminate in the creation of a good personality. 4. ————————————————- 4 ————————————————-
Look deep inside yourself and think about who you are. Many people find themselves to be better than apparent by reflection. 5. ————————————————- 5 ————————————————- Help wherever and whenever you can. A little sacrifice can go along way in changing another person’s day. 6. ————————————————- 6 ————————————————- Always be yourself. If you are following some famous personality or you are being just you.
Make sure that you never lose yourself. It means that you have to stick to that behavior every time. Feel it in your blood. 7. 7 Learn to love other people. Many bad personalities come about because people do not want to forgive each other and thus become filled with so much inter personal hate that they hate other people. This makes them come off as bad and self centered when all they lack is the insight to forgive and forget whatever may be the root of conflict between them. Types Of Personality 1. Type A ; Type B Personality; 2.
Introvert ; Extrovert Personality Type A Personality Is restless, so that he always moves, walks ; eats rapidly Is impatient with the pace of things Does several things at once Schedules more ; more Does not have time to relax ; enjoy life Type B Personality – More relaxed, sociable ; balanced outlook of life – Hardworking but feel no pressing conflict with people or time Slide 3: By Manjiri Shanbhag 2. Introvert ; Extrovert Personalities Introvert Personality Basically shy, prefer to be alone ; have difficulty in communicating.
Are quite, introspective, well-ordered, emotionally unexpressive ; value oriented Prefers small groups of intimate friends ; plans well ahead Extrovert Personality – are outgoing, objective, aggressive ; relate well with people – sociable, lively, impulsive, seeking novelty ; change, carefree ; emotionally expressive Major contributing factors to Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Major contributing factors to Personality Major contributing factors to Personality :
By Manjiri Shanbhag HEREDITY- Heredity refers to factors that were determined at conception These are the characteristics that are generally considered to be imported completely or substantially from one’s parents. For eg. Physical stature, facial attractiveness, temperament, biological rhythms etc. The role of heredity on personality development is still an unsettled area of understanding. ENVIRONMENT- This is a broad term and includes factors such as culture which influences norms, attitudes and values that are passed along from one generation to the next and creates consistencies over time.
Every culture has its own subcultures, each with its own views about such qualities as moral values and standards, cleanliness, and definition of success. Although culture has significant influences on personality development, a linear relationship cannot be established between personality and the given culture for two reasons: The cultural impacts upon an individual are not uniform, because they are transmitted by certain people-parents and others-who are not at all alike in their values and practices, and The individual has some experiences that are unique.
Each individual reacts in his or her own way to social pressures, the differences in behavior being caused by biological factors. Major contributing factors to Personality Major contributing factors to Personality : By Manjiri Shanbhag Major contributing factors to Personality FAMILY- The family has considerable influence on personality development, particularly in the early stages.
The process can be examined from three different perspectives: Identification can be viewed as the similarity of the behavior (including feelings and attributes) between child and model Identification can be looked as the child’s motive or desire to be like the model Identification can be viewed as the process through which the child actually takes on the attributes of the model The identification process is fundamental to the understanding of personality development SOCIALIZATION- Socialization involves the process by which a person acquires, from the enormously wide range of behavioral potentialities at are open to an individual This process involves the organizations and groups SITUATIONAL- Situations seem to differ substantially in the constraints they impose on behavior. Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Personality Theories :
By Manjiri Shanbhag Psychoanalytic Theory- This theory was developed by Sigmund Freud, in his 40 years of writing and clinical practice He developed The first comprehensive personality theory A method for treating neurotic ills, and An extensive body of clinical observations based on his therapeutic experiences and self-analysis Freud associated the mind as an ice-berg where in only a small portion is visible which represents the conscious experience and the other major mass below water level represents unconscious. This unconscious mind is a storehouse of impulses, passions, and primitive instincts that affect our thoughts and behavior Freud sought to explore this unconscious mind, and he did so by the method of free association. Freud saw personality as being composed of three elements- id, ego and super ego This tripartite division of personality is know an tructural model of mental life He insisted that these structures be considered as hypothetical contrcuts, since the field of neuro-anatomy was not sufficiently advanced to locate them within the central nervous system – The Id- According to Freud, the Id employs to rid the personality of tension: reflex actions and primary process. Personality Theories Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Contd… Psychoanalytic Theory – The Ego – Ego is making you realize the reality. Mental images cannot satisfy your needs, as such the reality and existence must be considered. Ego is developed from the id due to the necessity to deal with reality.
For eg, if you show images of food items to a starving man he will never be satisfied. The tension of hunger will be reduced only by having food. The Super Ego – This is third part of the personality, representing your internal representation of values, beliefs and morals of the society as learned from your parents when you were child. To function constructively in the society, you should acquire system of values, norms, ethics, and attitudes which must be compatible with the society. The super ego judges whether an action is right or wrong as per the standards raised by the society. As such the id seeks pleasure, the ego tests the reality and the super ego strives for perfection.
Freud believed that the conflict between the id impulses-primarily sexual and aggressive instincts-and the restraining influences of the ego and the super ego constituted the motivating sources of personality This study contributed to four areas: Creative Behavior; ii. Dissatisfaction; iii. Group Development; iv. Leadership and influence However, since id, ego, super ego are primarily ‘ black-box’ explanation of human beings, as such the theory fails to reflect the human personality and behavior. This is the criticism which this theory faces. Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Social Learning Theory – The social learning theories of personality consider human behavior as an important behavior.
It focuses on the behavior patterns and cognitive activities in relation to the specific conditions that evoke, maintain or modify them. This behavior is emphasized by the human behavior in a particular situation There are two ways of learning : 1. through reinforcement, direct experience and 2. learning by observing others, which is called Vicarious learning. Some of the personal variables that determine what an individual will do in a particular situation include the following: Competencies- intelligence ability, social skills, other abilities. Cognitive Strategies- Habitual ways of selectively attending to information and organising meaningful units.
Outcome expectations- Expectations about the consequences of different behaviors and the meaning of certain stimuli Subjective value outcome- Different individuals behaving differently in the same situations Self regulatory systems and plans- Individual differences in self-imposed goals, rules guiding behavior, self-imposed rewards for success or punishment for failure, and ability to plan and execute steps leading to a goal will lead to differences in behavior. All these variables interact with the conditions of a particular situation to determine what an individual will do in that situation The social learning theorist have been criticized for over-emphasizing the importance of situational factors in behavior to the neglect of individual differences. An individual is regarded as flexible, malleable, and passive victim of external stimuli-the permanent pawn of environmental fate. Environmental conditions are held to be superior to human nature. Personality Theories
Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Theories Self Concept Theory – Carl Rogers and Abrham Maslow are credited with the humanistic theory of personality. Rogers Self Concept theory – This approach to personality is described as phenomenological, which is the study of the individual’s subjective experience, feeling, and private concepts as well as his views of the world and self. The behavior is dependent on how we perceive the world, that is the behavior is a result of immediate events as they are actually perceived and interpreted by the individual. Such an approach to personality emphasizes the self and its characteristics.
This is often referred to as self theory personality because the best vantage point for understanding behavior is from the internal frame of reference of the individual himself. Basic to Rogers’ personality theory are two concept theory: self and self-actualization. The self consist of all the ideas, perceptions and values that characterize ‘I’ or ‘Me’; it includes the awareness ‘What I am’ and ‘What I can do’. Self-concept denotes the individual’s conception of the person he is. It is one’s image of oneself. This perceived (self-concept) influences both the person’s perception of the world and his own behavior. Self-actualization is the basic motivating force representing the inherent tendency of the organism to develop all its capabilities in ways which serve to maintain or enhance the person.
Central to the humanistic approach are the following concepts: An individual is an integrated whole, Animal research is irrelevant to human behavior, Human nature is essentially good, Man has creative potential, and Psychological health of man is most important Personality Theories : By Manjiri Shanbhag Trait Theory – A personality trait is understood as being an enduring attribute of a person that apprears consistently in a variety of situations. A trait differentiates one from another in a relatively permanent or consistent way. This is abstract from an individual’s behavior and serves as an useful ‘ unit of analysis’ to understand personality.
There are two ways of analyzing personality traits: (i) the person describes himself by answering questions about this attitudes, feelings, and behaviors; (ii) someone else evaluates the person’s traits either from what he knows about the individual or from direct observations of behavior. With the first method, a personality inventory is most often used, whereas the second usually involves using a rating scale. This is essentially a questionnaire in which the person reports reactions or feelings in certain situations. A personality inventory asks the same questions of each person, and the answers are usually given in a form that can be easily rated. This inventory is to measure a single dimension of personality or several personality traits simultaneously.
A rating scale is a device for recording judgment about a trait. The rating scale is filled up by someone else by what he or she knows about the individual or by studying his or her behavior in certain situations. – A major objection to trait theories is that they are very descriptive rather than analytical and are a long way from being comprehensive theories of personality. Behavior cannot be explained by trait theory. Personality Theories Personality Dimensions : By Manjiri Shanbhag Personality Dimensions Authoritarianism – Is a concept developed by psychologist Adorno during World War II to measure susceptibility to autocratic, fascist, or anti-democratic appeals.
Since then the concept has been extended to the authoritarian personality, a generic term used to describe an individual who has strong belief in the legitimacy of established mechanisms of formal authority, views obedience to authority as necessary, exhibits a negative philosophy of people, adheres to conventional and traditional value systems, is intellectually rigid and opposes the use of subjective feelings. Machiavellianism- This is a term derived from the writings of Nicoli Machiavelli, which refers to individual’s propensity to manipulate people. Machiavellians would be prone to participate in organizational politics. They are also adept at interpersonal game-playing, power tactics, and identifying influence systems in organizations. Locus of Control- Refers to an individual’s belief that events are either within one’s control (internal locus of control) or are determined by forces beyond one’s control (external locus of control). These traits are manifested in different behaviors which are significant to managers.