Personality Study Guide

An individual’s characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting in his or her
personality
The concept of personality most clearly embodies the notion of
behavioral consistency
By professional training, Freud was a
physician
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Freud became interested in unconscious personality dynamics when he noticed that certain patients’ symptoms
made to no neurological sense
Freud believed that certain troubling symptoms could be traced to painful unconscious memories. This led him to suspect that these symptoms resulted from
psychological processes
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and stated aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd. The therapist is using a technique known as
free association
According to Freud, the unconscious is
the thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories, of which we are largely unaware
Freud believed that ____________ are the “royal to the unconscious”
dreams
According to psychoanalytic theory, the part of the personality that strives for immediate gratification of basic drives is the
id
Freud emphasized that the id operates on the ______________ principle
pleasure
According to Freud, the part of personality that mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality is the
According to Freud, the part of personality that represents our sense of right and wrong and our ideal standards is the
superego
No matter how long and hard Lerae studies, she always feel she hasn’t studied as much as she should have. A Freudian psychologists would suggest that Lerae shows sings of
strong superego
Freud suggested that the id’s pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct pleasure-sensitive areas of the body known as
erogenous zones
Which theory would most likely predict that boys raised without a father figure will have difficulty developing a strongly masculine gender identity
Freud’s psychoanalytic theory
Freud referred to a lingering focus of pleasure-seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage as
fixation
According to Freud, defense mechanisms are used by the
ego to prevent threatening impulses from being consciously recognized
When she was 8 years old, Inge was sexually abused by her uncle. At 14, Inge felt uncomfortable whenever she saw this uncle but was unable to understand why she felt this way. A psychoanalyst would be most likely to suggest that Unge is using the defense mechanism of
Repression
Freud suggested that slips of the tongue illustrates an incomplete
repression
Repression refers to the defense mechanism by which people
banish anxiety-arousing thoughts from consciousness
Four year old Timmy had not wet his bed for over a year. However, he started bed-wetting again soon after his sister was born. Timmy’s behavior best illustrates
regression
Parents who disguise hostility toward their children by becoming overly protective of them are very likely using the defense mechanism of
reaction formation
The defense mechanism by which people disguise their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others is called
projection
A refusal to believe direct and highly credible evidence that your spouse is suffering a terminal illness best illustrates
denial
Alfred Adler was a neo-Freudian who coined the term
inferiority complex
Karen Horney a prominent neo-Freudian, disputed Freud’s assumption that women
have weak superegos
Carl Jung referred to a shared reservoir of memory traces from our species history as the
collective unconscious
A test in which people are asked describe or tell a story about a series of ambiguous stimuli is called a
projective test
The famous test introduced by Hermann Rorschach asks test-takers to respond to
meaningless inkblots
The major reason for criticism of the Rorschach test is that
only a few of the many Rorschach-derived scores have demonstrated validity
Survivors’ vivid memories of Nazi death camp experiences most clearly challenge Freud’s concept of
repression
Research participants came to anticipate the movements of a character on a computer screen even though they were unable to identify the rule governing its movements. This best illustrates
unconscious implicit learning
People who break speed limits tend to think that many others do the same. This best illustrates
the false consensus effect
Freud’s concept of projection is most similar to what today’s researchers call the
false consensus effeect
Freud’s theory of personality has been criticized because it
offers few testable hypotheses that allow one to determine its validity
The humanistic perspective emphasized the importance of
self-determination
Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for
self-acualization
Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly
conforming
Which theorist emphasized that an individual’s personal growth is promoted by interactions with others who are genuine, accepting, and empathetic?
Rogers
According to Carl Rogers, people who are self-disclosing and open with their own feelings are demonstrating
Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as
unconditional positive regard
Carl Rogers suggest that he _________________ is a central feature of personality
self- concept
Maslow’s description of self-actualized individuals was said to reflect his own personal values because he
selectively studied people with qualities he admired
Trait theorists are more concerned with ____________ personality than with __________________ it
describing; explaining
Factor analysis has been used to identify the most basie
personality traits
Psychologists assess a wide range of emotional and behavioral traits by means of
personality inventories
The MMPI is an example of a
personality inventory
The tendency to accept favorable descriptions of one’s personality that could really be applied to almost anyone is known as
the Barnum effect
Assessing an individual’s standing on the Big Five today has the advantage of providing a _______________ personality description
comprehensive
A person who is careless and disorganized most clearly ranks low on the Big Five trait dimension of
conscientiousness
Emotional instability is most clearly related to the Big Five dimension of
neuroticism
Being highly imaginative is most clearly related to the Big Five trait dimension of
openness
People are especially likely to demonstrate an increase in __________ during their twenties
conscientiousness
The person-situation controversy involves a debate regarding the influence of _____________ and _____________ on behavior
environments; traits
Arguments as to whether people’s behavior is more strongly influenced by temporary external influences or by enduring inner influences best characterize the
person-situation controversy
Unlike country, pop, and religious music lovers, those who prefer classical, jazz, blues, and folk music tend to score high on the Big Five trait dimension known as
openess
The social-cognitive perspective emphasizes the interactive influences of our traits and our
situations
The perception that your fate is determined by luck reflects
an external locus of control
Emma believes that she will succeed in business if she works hard and carefully manages her time. Her belief most clearly illustrates
an internal locus of control
Compared with those who perceive and external locus of control, people who perceive an internal locus of control are more likely to
effectively delay gratification of their impulses
Resisting the temptation to eat chocolate chip cookies led research participants to subsequently give up sooner than normal on efforts to complete a tedious task. This illustrated that self-control weakens following
an exertion of energy
In the long run, people who practice self-regulation through physical exercise and time-managed programs experience an increase in
self-control
Learned helplessness is MOST likely to be associated with
an external locus of control
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
learned helplessness
Learned helplessness is most likely to promote
pessimism
Martin Seligman’s positive psychology differs from the humanistic perspective in that it
emphasizes the use of scientific methods
Unrealistic optimism could best be described as an
self serving bias
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate’s performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual’s
past performance
Individuals with high self-esteem are more likely than those with low self-esteem to
work persistently at difficult tasks
Athletes often attribute their losses to bad officiating. This best illustrates
self-serving bias
Research on self- perception indicates that most people
view themselves very favorably in comparison to most others
Psychologist Jean Twenge refers to today’s new generation as Generation Me because it expresses more
narcissism
Narcissism is associated with
more gambling and more cheating

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