This chapter presents the surveies treatment. It provides an chance to explicate the significance of the findings and topographic point the research within a broader context.
Analysis of the findings provides grounds that the podcasting bundle is a feasible alternate ‘tool ‘ to utilize when back uping kids ‘s literacy development in twelvemonth 2. However the procedure i.e. the activities designed to scaffold the kids to the point of bring forthing a podcast, was the factor that elicited betterments in the kids ‘s speech production and hearing and non the recording of the podcast itself ( the merchandise ) .
However it was of import that the kids saw the concluding podcast as the merchandise ; a mark that the activities would take them towards. Findingss from, and analysis of informations confirmed that the merchandise ( the podcast ) was the incentive for the kids instead than an indispensable portion of their acquisition. It provided the kids with a intent. This concurs with DfES ( 2004 ) findings that more positive motive resulted if engineering was focused around the larning instead than used to back up learning. The kids themselves identified that as a top acting group they had fewer chances to entree engineering than less able kids in their category. Therefore another type of engineering could hold motivated this group to make their end ; it can non be generalised that it was the podcast that offered ‘pull ‘ . Nonetheless, though kids ‘s responses about ‘liking ‘ composing would look to belie it, I personally feel ‘voice ‘ and ‘audience ‘ would necessitate to be characteristics of the engineering chosen as a word processor type application entirely would non actuate in the same manner.
Meaning and importance of the findings
This research began two old ages ago following a successful command to the TDA for support. The TDA regularly financess e-learning undertakings for instructor preparation suppliers as they recognise the importance of ICT skilled practicians in the workplace ( TDA 2005 [ online ] ) . Two old ages is a life-time in a digital universe but particularly in relation to instruction engineerings. Though the engineering used in this survey was found to be motivational, it still played a important portion in the procedure as without it the kids would hold lost focal point. Therefore in reply to the research inquiry, “ can a Podcasting procedure support Literacy in a Year 2 schoolroom? “ ; yes as portion of a procedure it can. Two old ages ago, Web 2.0 engineering was a ‘twinkle in person ‘s digital oculus ‘ . Now it is the pillar of many digital applications ( Godwin Jones 2005 ) . Although MP3 participants were ab initio sole to Apple Macintosh, new coevals nomadic phones now combine MP3 and other communicating engineerings in one orderly bundle. Huge advancement in a short infinite of clip. As Bull ( 2005, p.25 ) states, “ MP3 participants such as the Apple iPod have become the mechanism for distribution of music for today ‘s young person merely as the Cadmium and vinyl records filled this function for old coevalss. Educational utilizations of podcasting physique on the foundation of this cultural phenomenon ” . This presents both challenge and chance.
When podcasts are broadcast to the Internet, through Web 2.0 engineering, the ensuing RSS ( Truly Simple Syndication ) ‘feeds ‘ allow kids to lend to each other ‘s work, wherever in the universe they may be. For case some web sites ask kids to add lines to poems, take portion in quizzes or append chapters to partially written on-line books. As Halsey ( 2007 ) asserts kids can convey the universe into the schoolroom ; and take their larning out into the universe with Web 2.0 engineering. Clearly so the potency for podcasting as an educational tool is phenomenal, but non merely in literacy lessons. Nevertheless the study revealed that current engineerings were characteristics in the sample group ‘s places. Attitudes towards a engineering seem to alter with its age hence attitude towards the currency of the motivational tool should besides be considered.
So how might kids ‘s attitudes towards podcasting and speech production and hearing as a whole affect their public presentation in this type of exercising? It seems from past tendencies that podcasting itself will hold a ‘shelf life ‘ as todays digital indigens become tomorrows digital immigrants and todays techno ‘must rich persons ‘ become tomorrows digital ‘dinosaurs ‘ . Positive attitudes and motive for podcasting engineering, as it is now, will be lost. Newer technologies appear to be communicating based as Web 2.0 capablenesss move toward an even greater interactivity. This of class will assist keep a positive ‘attitude ‘ to talking and listening, in a ‘virtual ‘ environment, through a combination of networking sites and digital hardware such as webcams. The usage of Embodiments[ 1 ]is one illustration of such a combination. Communication and storytelling have stood the trial of clip and I would expect this will go on but how we do it in the hereafter will alter every bit will the size and nature of the audience.
In his proposal to ‘radically ‘ pass the primary course of study, Alexander et Al. ( Primary Cambridge Review, DCSF 2009 [ online ] ) recognises spoken linguistic communication as cardinal to larning, civilization and life, but acknowledges it is much more outstanding in the course of study of many other states ( p24 ) . Possibly this could be the footing for higher accomplishment in other states instead than the ulterior school get downing age frequently identified. Reading and composing, as with other reappraisals ( DfES 2006a ) once more predominate in this reappraisal with speech production and listening one time once more dawdling behind. The authorities ( DfES 2007, DCSF 2009a ) is proclaiming that speech production and hearing are the foundations for all other larning – so why? Why are we still turn toing reading and composing foremost? Writing is simply a method for entering ideas. Ideas can besides be spoken and/or recorded into a podcast. This would be improbably emancipating for those kids who find it hard to compose things down. Podcasting offers equal chances for all ages and abilities ; an inclusive digital tool.
In the late 1980 ‘s the National Oracy Project ( National Curriculum Council ; 1992 ) recommended giving speech production and listening a higher profile and yet more than 20 old ages subsequently we are still doing the same errors. I would wish to see this research will hold significance and add force per unit area to this on-going argument nevertheless unchanging fortunes, yesteryear and nowadays, would propose otherwise.
Findingss in relation to other surveies
Prensky ( 2001, 2008, 2009 ) , Buckingham ( 2004, 2007 ) and Marsh et Al. ( 2006 ) high spot ours is a digital universe and yet many schools still fail to recognize the significance or importance of ‘skilling ‘ kids to get by with an progressively digital and altering landscape. Technology is going more sophisticated and is increasingly being aimed at and designed for younger consumers. Palmer ( 2007 p.3 ) suggests that, ‘culture has evolved faster than our biological science ‘ and this is ‘damaging kids ‘s ability to believe, learn and act ‘ . Prensky ( 2009 ) would differ saying that exposure to engineering is altering kids ‘s encephalon construction and demanding a new manner of larning which relies on wisdom. The little size of the cohort used for this research would symbolize that the findings offer no important support of either Prensky ‘s or Palmer ‘s stance. However the podcasting bundle offered kids a blended acquisition environment comprised of group treatments and engineering usage. This would shrive them from harm to their thought, larning and behaviour that Palmer infers can go on. These three subjects are besides recognized benefits of group working ( Baines et al. 2008 ) .
The relevancy of the findings
Vygotsky ( 1976 ) wrote that speech production and thought are closely linked. The procedure of speech production helps kids to larn through jointing their ideas and therefore developing the constructs needed to understand the universe. Communication and understanding improve with pattern. Therefore, the chance to speak is critical in order to develop apprehension. If nil else, promoting and valuing talk conveys the message that communicating is of import ; both hearing and speech production are the foundations for communicating so raising their profile is a good terminal in itself. However though Vygotsky ‘s theory sing communicating is still pertinent he could non hold comprehended how his theory would still use to our of all time germinating digital universe ; to current patterns and the diverse ways of pass oning that societal networking has brought approximately. If we have come this far since Vygotsky, how far will our kids travel and how will they get by with their journey if practicians do non promote them to develop their accomplishments.
Participant observations were undertaken to back up the kids ‘s interactions with the hardware and package needed for this research. Clearly there was a demand to scaffold them at this point ; though as in Lewis ‘s instance the more knowing other did non necessitate to be me. The ZPD is the zone in which acquisition is made easier through support by important others ( Whitehead 2004 ) . These others may or may non be physically present but possibly shack in a digital universe. In other words traditional theory still applies to digital experiences but sometimes the important other may be anon. i.e. through hunt engines or ‘friends ‘ on ‘social ‘ networking sites. Vygotsky ‘s reading of the word societal would surely be limited in today ‘s ‘techno ‘ society.
The survey ‘s restrictions
( Gautreau 2006 ) notes several grounds why there are barriers to utilizing engineering in schools. Unknowingness of engineering ‘s possible, clip needed to larn ( larning to utilize new package or hardware and how to incorporate them into the course of study ) , deficiency of support or resources and a deficiency of engineering competency, appropriate preparation or assurance in one ‘s ability to learn with engineerings are his chief concerns.
Past instruction experience has indicated that the deficiency of a concluding ‘product ‘ from a ‘lesson ‘ is frequently deemed to be a failure on the portion of the instructor and of the kid. This belief is supported by the coverage and review procedures ; frequently SATs based ( QCDA 2010 [ online ] ) used to measure a schools position through analysis of the kids ‘s consequences. This has lead to the premise that any larning achieved in such lessons should be touchable. There should be something physical to demo. However as this research has shown speech production and hearing are the foundation of other acquisition and the inquiry has to be asked, “ Can we measure this accurately if we are still inquiring kids to compose responses down? ” Again personal experience has shown that understanding is non cultivated entirely through authorship or the creative activity of something. These averments are farther supported by findings from this research, gathered during observations of the kids. Listening to kids ‘s treatments revealed far more about their abilities and thought procedures than any piece of composing perchance could. Therefore appraisals, peculiarly those that are SATs based, bespeaking that larning should be evidenced through production of something physical would belie what current and past experience has shown. Of class in a ‘digital ‘ and ‘virtual ‘ universe, ‘physical ‘ grounds could be presented otherwise.
Time became a important restriction of this research. Time with the kids was limited due to funding hence some aspects from the planning phase were non carried out. The most frustrating was stage was at the terminal as there was non adequate clip left for the kids to be able to reflect on and measure their podcasting journey. Reflection is an of import portion of the acquisition procedure. By looking back at what they have done kids can derive a deeper apprehension of both the content and the acquisition procedure itself.
Donaldson ( 1986 ) was brave plenty to oppugn Piaget ‘s experiments and his attendant appraisals of kids ‘s ages, phases and strategies. She alluded to the impression of kids necessitating a ‘familiar context ‘ to be able to execute optimally and build significance from what they were making. But what is a familiar context for kids today? As grownups, are we back uping kids in a context which is ‘comfortable ‘ for us instead than familiar to them? Even more significantly are assessment bureaus besides outside their comfort zone? Should they be inquiring for grounds in different formats? Could Podcasting be one of these? ‘Digital ‘ grounds of accomplishment is more suitable to a ‘hi-tech ‘ universe. Sing the distribution and impact of engineerings in the ‘business ‘ universe ( Phelps, Graham & A ; Kerr, 2004 ) ; force per unit area from authorities organic structures ( DCSF 2007a ) and the duty of schools to educate kids for the hereafter ( DCSF 2008 ) , the deficiency of use of digital grounds to inform appraisals in schools is perplexing.
Ellis ( 1997, 2004 ) refers to “ emotional auto-ethnography ” which may hold the unintended effect of overshadowing what auto-ethnography can be and of befoging the manner in which it may suit into societal enquiry. I would oppugn the usage of ’emotional ‘ here as it implies ‘blackmail ‘ or in research footings bias. I continue to adopt Donaldson ‘s ( 1986 ) ‘familiar context ‘ , which would of class include a research worker ‘s relationship with the kids involved. For me relationship suggests ‘knowing each other ‘ ; a comfy tantrum which leaves emotions ‘outside ‘ research. Emotions would hold skewed the analysis of observation and interview informations whereas the relationship between the kids and myself strengthened it.
There are more practical deductions for anyone reproducing this research, or implementing the podcasting bundle. Podium package is expensive and merely necessary if broadcast medium to the World Wide Web. The sample kids were non concerned by the impression of a ‘wider audience ‘ they merely wanted their households and ‘immediate ‘ equals to hear their narrative. The narrative could hold been shared by Cadmium Rom, brassy thrust or the schools intranet entirely. This would hold been more cost effectual ; would hold saved some of the TDA support and therefore allowed excess clip to work with the kids.
Evaluations of the kids ‘s speech production and listening abilities followed observations, during the activities, and attendant written texts of the kids ‘s treatments, were assessed against a recognized model. These findings clearly indicated that the podcasting bundle is feasible in footings of raising speech production and hearing degrees.
Prensky ( 2005 ) reminded us that life for today ‘s kids may be a batch of things but it ‘s surely non unengaging ; except in school. Children ‘s place experiences with engineering enable instructors to construct on what kids know and can make provided that those peculiar engineerings are besides available in schools. By making so, non merely are we alining pattern to Donaldson ( 1986 ) but besides reflecting Fisher ‘s ( 2007 ) ‘starting from the kid ‘ rule. However in some respects this is where, we as practicians, travel incorrect. Money is to a great extent invested into the latest engineering to give kids the best ‘opportunities ‘ or environments for larning. Synergistic whiteboards ( IWBs ) and visualizers are two such engineerings. The little study revealed that at place kids are utilizing computing machines, nomadic phones, DS Lites and Wii ‘s. Though clearly there are benefits to holding IWBs and visualizers to project and portion images, it seems that the ‘familiar ‘ engineerings, those used daily at place are non utilized within a school environment. Again a instance of ‘teacher comfort ‘ opposed to ‘children ‘s world ‘ . If we are trusting on kids ‘s personal lifes or digital histories as this ‘starting point ‘ for resourcing and be aftering in scenes, puting in ‘unfamiliar ‘ engineerings would look to belie what we should endeavor to make.
What does the instructor have to make? Nothing more than utilize a accomplishment that hopefully they are already good at: hearing. Teachers should listen to the podcasts with the kids, and assist the kids decide on the standards for appraisal. Children may hold more sophisticated cognition of new engineerings than their instructors, coercing a pedagogical displacement in the teacher function from expert to facilitator. Therefore go oning professional development has to be an of import characteristic of instructor patterns in a invariably germinating digital environment.
In decision integration and using engineerings into a course of study is a complicated issue. Making known the benefits associated with engineering usage whilst besides turn toing the barriers that exist seems cragged. Traditional signifiers of literacy instruction are frequently non adequate for kids today, they need to be adapted to both entreaty and motivate and be relevant to contemporary scholars ( Buckingham 2003 ) . Thus grownups should be fixing kids for their digital hereafter instead than protecting them against it. Leu and Kinzer ( 2000 p117 ) say “ envisionments take topographic point when instructors, kids, and others imagine new possibilities for literacy and acquisition, transform bing engineerings to build this vision, and so portion their work with others. ” Envisionment has resulted from the new attack taken with younger kids and the podcasting bundle ; the subsequent bringing of the bundle to ITE pupils who in bend will circulate it to instructors in schools.
As a research worker I would happen it interesting to test the bundle with even younger kids or in a scene whose ‘digital ‘ position was low in order to see ( i ) how younger kids react ( two ) if the engineering became a job instead than a scaffold.