POST GRADUATE Research Paper Proposal DATE: February 28, 2013 * Names : Eden Marie Lumabas Marinela Balbero Christine Jinette Mariano * Subject of the Paper : POST GRADUATE * Why Writing this paper will be beneficial to me : This will be beneficial to me because writing this proposal is important to us especially to those who want to take a MASTER’S DEGREE. And to get also knowledge about post graduate student. Post Graduate is all about Professionalism. * Thesis : What is Post Graduate? Why this is important? What is the difference between Master’s Degree and Postgraduate?
Types of Post Graduate Qualifications. List of Doctoral Studies. School that has award advance academic degrees. Post Graduate in other country. * Approach : HIGH INCOME – Of or relating to individuals or groups, such as families, that are supported by or earn income considered high in comparison with that of the larger population: high-income taxpayers. PROFESSIONAL – is a person who is engaged in a certain activity, or occupation, for gain or compensation as means of livelihood; such as a permanent career, not as an amateur or pastime.
The danger and skill elements inspire governments not to allow a free-for-all, but to regulate the activity, and licensing is a well-established and convenient method of regulation. Licensing includes such things as pilot and driving licenses, licenses to play professional sports, etc. In the case of certain occupations and professions, licensing is often granted through a professional body or a licensing board composed of advanced practitioners who oversee the applications for licenses. This often involves accredited training and examinations, but varies a great deal for different activities and in different countries.
Practicing without a license may carry civil or criminal penalties. MASTER’S DEGREE – is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. Within the area studied, graduates are posited to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently. They are awarded after graduation from university.
In some languages, a master’s degree is called a magister, and magister or a cognate can also be used for a person who has the degree. There are various degrees of the same level, such as engineer’s degrees, which have different names for historical reasons. There has recently been an increase in programs leading to these degrees in the United States; more than twice as many of such degrees are now awarded as compared to the 1970s. In Europe, there has been a standardization of conditions to deliver the master’s degrees and most countries present degrees in all disciplines.
CODES OF ETHICS – are adopted by organizations to assist members in understanding the difference between ‘right’ and ‘wrong’ and in applying that understanding to their decisions. An ethical code generally implies documents at three levels: codes of business ethics, codes of conduct for employees, and codes of professional practice. * Images : * DOCUMENTATION : What is Post Graduate? Post-graduate education (or graduate education in North America) involves learning and studying for degrees or other qualifications for which a first or Bachelor’s generally is required, and is normally considered to be part of higher education.
In North America, this level is generally referred to as graduate school. The organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, and also in different institutions within countries. This article sets out the basic types of course and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. In some programs in the traditional German system and the traditional Dutch system, there is no legal distinction between “undergraduate” and “postgraduate”. In such programs, all education aims towards the Master’s degree, whether introductory (Bachelor’s level) or advanced (Master’s level).
The aim of the Bologna process is to abolish this system. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Post-graduate. com) A master’s degree is an academic degree granted to individuals who have undergone study demonstrating a mastery or high-order overview of a specific field of study or area of professional practice. Within the area studied, graduates are posited to possess advanced knowledge of a specialized body of theoretical and applied topics; high order skills in analysis, critical evaluation or professional application; and the ability to solve complex problems and think rigorously and independently.
They are awarded after graduation from university. In some languages, a master’s degree is called a magister, and magister or a cognate can also be used for a person who has the degree. There are various degrees of the same level, such as engineer’s degrees, which have different names for historical reasons. There has recently been an increase in programs leading to these degrees in the United States; more than twice as many of such degrees are now awarded as compared to the 1970s. In Europe, there has been a standardization of conditions to deliver the master’s degrees and most countries present degrees in all disciplines. http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Master%27s_degree. com) Importance of Postgraduate. The importance of post graduate Education. Normally, when we talk about what it means to be a professional, we allude to some or all of the following traits. * High income * Prestige and Influence * High Education * Relative Anatomy * Licensure * Commitment of members to the profession * Codes of ethics * Cohesion of the professional community * Monopoly over a task, skill practice * Intensive adult socialization for recruits * A basic body of abstract knowledge
Chiropractors, as one professional group in the health field, derive their respect and power of influence large from their ability to correct or cure physical problems in others, and to do it repeatedly. Average person fix upon an ideal of the healing artist, and tend to ascribe to him/her aura of the shaman or high priest. As a member of the healing arts, chiropractors are no exception. But what makes chiropractors different from shaman in reality is their use of science and scientific tools or methods to maintain their professional credibility.
That is, apart from a professional ideology as a group, chiropractors depend on proven methods and knowledge from research to guide their day-to-day practice skill. It is daily successful application of knowledge and skill which entrenches public confidence and earns these doctors the respect they engender as a result. Knowledge then, is a key aspect of professionalism. Forgotten knowledge (or skill) distract from the professional ideal. The Canadian Memorial Chiropractic College (CCMC) trains and re-trains chiropractors.
Its library and research division enhance its effectiveness as an instrument of cure curriculum training and of social change. (Terry L. Hill) The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Types of Postgraduate Qualification There are two main types of qualification studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees. Degrees The term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another (from French degre, from Latin de- + gradus), and first appeared in the 13th century. History
Although systems of higher education go back to ancient Greece, China, the Indian subcontinent and Africa, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, and can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities.  University studies took six years for a Bachelor degree and up to twelve additional years for a master’s degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, which was the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music theory, grammar, logic, and rhetoric.
The main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties — law, medicine, or theology — in which to pursue master’s or doctor’s degrees. Theology was the most prestigious area of study, and considered to be the most difficult. The degrees of master (magister) and doctor were for some time equivalent, “the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, and the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities.
At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law, Medicine, and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, and that of Master for the latter. “ Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master’s.  The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach (“doctor” comes from the Latin “docere”, meaning “teach”; “magister” is Latin for “master”, and often “schoolmaster”, and is also the root of “magistrate”).
Definition In most countries, the hierarchy of post-graduate degrees is as follows: 1. Master’s degrees (Postgraduate) These are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science, then Master of Philosophy, and finally Master of Letters (all formerly known in France as DEA or DESS before 2005, and nowadays Masters too). However, in Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be the research or higher Master’s degree and the Master of Letters the taught or lower Master’s degree.
In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a Master’s is the terminal degree. In the UK, Master’s degrees may be taught or by research: taught Master’s include the MSc and MA degrees which last 1 year and are worth 180 CATScredits (equivalent to 90 ECTS European credits), whereas the Master’s by research degrees include the MRes (Master of Research) which also lasts 1 year and worth’s 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits (the difference compared to the MA/MSc being that the research is much more extensive), and the MPhil (Master of Philosophy) degree which lasts 2 years .
Professional degrees such as the March (Master of Architecture) can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirement to be an architect. 2. Doctorates (Postgraduate) These are often further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a PhD (Philosophi? Doctor), or as a DSc (Scientiae Doctor). The scientiae doctor degree can also be awarded in specific fields, such as a Dr. sc. math (Doctor Scientiarum mathematic arum, Doctor of Mathematics), Dr. sc. agr. (Doctor scientiarum agrariarum, Doctor of Agricultural science), DBA (Doctorate in Business Administration) etc.
In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the PhD or ‘junior doctorate’, and the ‘higher doctorates’ such as the DSc, which is generally awarded to highly distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a PhD and DSc. In the UK, PhD degrees are often equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not officially defined. In the UK and countries whose education systems were founded on the British model, such as the U.
S. , the master’s degree was for a long time the only postgraduate degree normally awarded, while in most European countries apart from the UK, the master’s degree almost disappeared. In the second half of the 19th century, however, U. S. universities began to follow the European model by awarding doctorates, and this practice spread to the UK. Conversely, most European universities now offer master’s degrees paralleling or replacing their regular system, so as to offer their students better chances to compete in an international market dominated by the American model.
Honorary degrees Most universities award honorary degrees, usually at the postgraduate level. These are awarded to a wide variety of people, such as artists, musicians, writers, politicians, businesspeople, etc. , in recognition of their achievements in their various fields. (Recipients of such degrees do not normally use the associated titles or letters, such as “Dr”. ) Non-degree qualifications Postgraduate education can involve studying for qualifications such as postgraduate certificates and postgraduate diplomas.
They are sometimes used as steps on the route to a degree, or as part of training for a specific career, or as a qualification in an area of study too narrow to warrant a full degree course. List of Doctoral Studies. This is a list of the fields of doctoral studies, as used by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago in the United Statesin its annual Survey of Earned Doctorates, conducted for the National Science Foundation, and other federal agencies, in the United States. Agricultural Sciences/Natural Resources 000 Agricultural Economics 005 Agricultural Animal Breeding 10 Animal Nutrition 014 Poultry Science 019 Animal Science, Other 020 Agronomy & Crop Science 025 Agricultural & Horticultural Plant Breeding 030 Plant Pathology/Phytopathology 039 Plant Sciences, Other 043 Food Science 044 Food Science and Food Technology, Other 046 Soil Chemistry/Microbiology 049 Soil Sciences, Other 050 Horticulture Science 055 Fishing and Fisheries Sciences/Fisheries management 066 Forest Sciences and Biology 070 Forest/Resources Management 072 Wood Science & Pulp/Paper Technology 074 Natural resources/Conservation 079 Forestry & Related Science, Other 080 Wildlife/Range Management 81 Environmental Science 098 Agriculture, General 099 Agricultural Science, Other Biological Science/ Biomedical Science 100 Biochemistry (see 539) 103 Biomedical sciences 105 Biophysics (see 565) 107 Biotechnology 110 Bacteriology 115 Plant genetics 120 Plant Pathology/Phytopathology 125 Plant Physiology 129 Botany/Plant Biology 130 Anatomy 133 Biometrics & Biostatistics 136 Cell/Cellular Biology and Histology 139 Ecology 142 Developmental biology/Embryology 145 Endocrinology 148 Entomology 151 Immunology 154 Molecular Biology 157 Microbiology 160 Neuroscience 163 Nutrition science 166 Parasitology 169 Toxicology 70 Genetics, Human & Animal 175 Pathology, Human & Animal 180 Pharmacology, Human & Animal 185 Physiology, Human & Animal 189 Zoology, Other 198 Biology/Biological sciences, General 199 Biology/Biomedical sciences, Other Health Sciences 200 Speech-Language Pathology & Audiology 210 Environmental Health 211 Environmental toxicology 212 Health Systems/Service Administration 215 Public Health 220 Epidemiology 222 Kinesiology/Exercise science 230 Nursing sciences 240 Pharmacy 245 Rehabilitation/Therapeutic Services 246 Physician Assistant 250 Veterinary Medicine 298 Health Sciences, General 99 Health Sciences, Other Engineering 300 Aerospace, Aeronautical & Astronautical Engineering 303 Agricultural engineering 306 Bioengineering & Biomedical engineering 309 Ceramic sciences 312 Chemical engineering 315 Civil engineering 318 Communications engineering 321 Computer engineering 324 Electrical, Electronics and Communications 327 Engineering Mechanics 330 Engineering Physics 333 Engineering Science 336 Environmental Health Engineering 339 Industrial & manufacturing engineering 342 Materials science 345 Mechanical engineering 348 Metallurgical engineering 351 Mining & Mineral 57 Nuclear engineering 360 Ocean engineering 363 Operations Research (See also 465, 930) 366 Petroleum engineering 369 Polymer & Plastics engineering 372 Systems engineering 398 Engineering, General 399 Engineering, Other Computer And Information Services 400 Computer Science 410 Information Science and Information Systems 415 Robotics 419 Computer and Information sciences, Other Mathematics 420 Applied Mathematics 425 Algebra 430 Analysis & Functional Analysis 435 Geometry/Geometric Analysis 440 Mathematical Logic 445 Number Theory 450 Statistics (See also 690) 455 Topology, Foundations 60 Computing Theory & Practice 465 Operations Research (See also 363, 930) 498 Mathematics/Statistics, General 499 Mathematics/Statistics, Other Physical Science Astronomy 500 Astronomy 505 Astrophysics Atmospheric Science & Mateorology 510 Atmospheric chemistry and Climatology 512 Atmospheric physics and Atmospheric dynamics 514 Meteorology 518 Atmospheric science/Meteorology, General 519 Atmospheric science/Meteorology, Other Chemistry 520 Analytical chemistry 522 Inorganic chemistry 526 Organic chemistry 528 Medicinal/Pharmaceutical chemistry 530 Physical chemistry 532 Polymer 534 Theoretical chemistry 38 Chemistry, General 539 Chemistry, Other (See also 100) Geological and Earth Science 540 Geology 542 Geochemistry 544 Geophysics & Seismology 546 Paleontology 548 Mineralogy & Petrology 550 Stratigraphy & Sedimentation 552 Geomorphology & Glacial Geology 558 Geological and Earth Sciences, General 559 Geological and Earth Sciences, Other Physics 560 Acoustics 561 Atomic/Molecular/Chemical physics 564 Particle (Elementary) physics 565 Biophysics (see 105) 568 Nuclear Physics 569 Optics/Photonics 570 Plasma, Fusion 572 Polymer 574 Condensed Matter/Low temperature physics 576 Applied Physics 78 Physics, General 579 Physics, Other Ocean/ Marine Science 585 Hydrology & Water Resources 590 Oceanography, Chemical and Physical 595 Marine Sciences 599 Ocean/Marine Sciences Psychology 600 Clinical psychology 603 Cognitive psychology & Psycholinguistics 606 Comparative psychology 609 Counseling psychology 612 Developmental psychology & Child psychology 613 Human Development & Family Studies 615 Experimental psychology 618 Educational psychology (See also 822) 620 Family Psychology 621 Industrial & Organizational psychology(See also 935) 624 Personality 627 Physiological psychology/Psychobiology 33 Psychometrics and Quantitative Psychology 636 School psychology (See also 825) 639 Social psychology 648 Psychology, General 649 Psychology, Other Social Sciences 650 Anthropology 652 Area studies 658 Criminology 662 Demography/Population studies 666 Economics 668 Econometrics 670 Geography 674 International Relations/Affairs 678 Political Science & Government 682 Public Policy Analysis 686 Sociology 690 Statistics (See also 450) 694 Urban Affairs/Studies 698 Social Sciences, General 699 Social Sciences, Other Humanities History 700 History, American 703 History, Asian 705 History, European 706 History, African 07 History, Latin American 708 Middle/Near East Studies 710 History of science, Philosophy of science. History of technology and Philosophy of technology 718 History, General 719 History, Other Letters 720 Classics 723 Comparative Literature 724 Folklore 729 Linguistics 732 American literature 733 English literature 734 English Language 736 Speech & Rhetorical Studies 738 Letters, General 739 Letters, Other Foreign Languages & Literatures 740 French 743 German 746 Italian 749 Spanish 752 Russian 755 Slavic (other than Russian) 758 Chinese 762 Japanese 768 Arabic 769 Other Languages & Literature
Other Humanities 770 American/U. S. Studies 773 Archaeology 776 Art History/Art criticism/Conservation 780 Music 785 Philosophy 790 Religion/Religious studies (See also 984) 795 Drama/Theatre arts 798 Humanities, General 799 Humanities, Other Education Research and Administration 800 Curriculum & Instruction 805 Educational Administration & Supervision 807 Educational Leadership 810 Educational/Instructional Media Design 815 Educational Statistics/Research Methods 820 Educational Assessment/Testing/Measure 822 Educational Psychology (See also 618) 825 School Psychology (See also 636) 30 Social/Philosophical Foundations of Educ. 835 Special Education 840 Counseling Education/Counseling & Guidance 845 Higher Education/Evaluation & Research] Teacher Education 850 Pre-elementary/Early Childhood 852 Elementary 856 Secondary 858 Adult & Continuing Teaching Fields 860 Agricultural Education 861 Art Education 862 Business Education 864 English Education 866 Foreign Languages Education 868 Health Education 870 Family & Consumer Science/Home Economics 874 Mathematics Education 876 Music Education 878 Nursing Education 880 Physical Education & Coaching 882 Reading Education 884 Science Education 85 Social Science Education 887 Trade & Industrial Education 889 Teach Education & Professional Development Other Education 898 Education, General 899 Education, Other Professional Fields Business Management/ Administrative Services 900 Accounting 905 Banking/Financial Support Services 910 Business Administration & Management 915 Business/Managerial Economics 916 International Business/Trade/Commerce 917 Management Information Systems/Business Data 920 Marketing Management & Research 921 Human Resources Development 930 Operations Research (See also 363, 465) 935 Organizational Behavior (See also 621) 38 Business Management/Administration, General 939 Business Management/Administration, Other Communications 940 Communication research 947 Mass Communication/Media Studies 950 Film, Radio, Television, and Digital Communication 957 Communications theory 958 Communications, General 959 Communications, Other Other Professional Fields 960 Architecture/ Environmental Design 964 Family/Consumer Science/Human Science, General 968 Law 972 Library Science 974 Parks/Sports/Recreation/Leisure/Fitness 976 Public Administration 980 Social Work 984 Theology/Religious Education (See also 790) 989 Professional Fields, Other http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/List_of_fields_of_doctoral_studies) School that awards advance academic degrees. A graduate school is a school that awards advanced academic degrees (i. e. master’s and doctoral degrees) with the general requirement that students must have earned a previous undergraduate (bachelor’s) degree.  A distinction is typically made between graduate schools (where courses of study do not provide training for a particular profession) and professional schools, which offer specialized advanced degrees in professional fields such as medicine,business, engineering, ministry or law.
Many universities award graduate degrees; a graduate school is not necessarily a separate institution. While the term “graduate school” is typical in the United States and often used elsewhere (e. g. , the UK and Canada), “postgraduate education” is also used in some English-speaking countries (Australia, Canada, Ireland, India, New Zealand, Pakistan and the UK) to refer to the spectrum of education beyond a bachelor’s degree. Those attending graduate schools are called “graduate students” (in both American and British English), or often in British English as “postgraduate students” and, olloquially, “postgraduates” and “postgrads”. Degrees awarded to graduate students include master’s degrees, doctoral degrees, and other postgraduate qualifications such as graduate certificates and professional degrees. Producing original research is often a significant component of graduate studies, including the writing and defense of a thesis or dissertation. The term “graduate school” is primarily North American. Additionally, in North America, the term does not usually refer to medical school (whose students are called “medical students”), and only occasionally refers to law school or business school. The latter types of programs are often collectively termed professional schools). Although graduate school programs are distinct experiences from undergraduate degree programs, graduate instruction (in Australia, the United States, and other countries) is often offered by some of the same senior academic staff and departments that teach undergraduate courses. Unlike in undergraduate programs, however, it is rare for graduate students to take coursework outside their specific field of study at graduate or graduate entry level. At the Ph. D. evel, though, it is quite common to take courses from a wider range of study, for which some fixed portion of coursework, sometimes known as a residency, is typically required to be taken from outside the department and college of the degree-seeking candidate, to broaden the research abilities of the student. Some institutions designate separate graduate versus undergraduate staff and denote other divisions (often called School of X, e. g. , diplomacy. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Graduate_school) Post Graduate in other country. Argentina Admission
In Argentina, the admission to a Postgraduate program at an Argentine University requires the full completion of a Licenciado or Ingeniero degree. Non-Argentine Bachelor’s titles are generally accepted into a Master’s and Ph. D. programs when the degree comes from a recognized university. Funding While a significant portion of postgraduate students finance their tuition and living costs with teaching or research work at private and state-run institutions, international institutions, such as the Fullbright Program and the Organization of American States (OAS), have been known to grant full scholarships for tuition with apportions for housing.
Degree requirements Upon completion of at least two years’ research and course work as a postgraduate student, a candidate must demonstrate truthful and original contributions to his or her specific field of knowledge within a frame of academic excellence.  The Master and Doctoral candidate’s work should be presented in a dissertation or thesis prepared under the supervision of a tutor or director, and reviewed by a postgraduate Committee. This Committee should be composed of examiners external to the program, and at least one of them should also be external to the institution.
Australia Admission Generally, the Australian higher education system follows that of its British counterpart (with a few notable exceptions). Programmes are divided into coursework-based and research-based degrees, and entrance is decided by merit (entrance to coursework-based programmes is usually not as strict); most universities usually require a “Credit” average (equivalent to the British B-) as entry to their taught programmes in a field related to their previous undergraduate. On average, however, a strong “Credit” or “Distinction” average is the norm for accepted students. Ph. D. ntrance requirements in the higher ranked schools typically require a student to have postgraduate research honours or a master’s degree by research, or a master’s with a significant research component. Entry requirements depend on the subject studied and the individual university. The minimum duration of a Ph. D. programme is two years, but completing within this time span is unusual, with Ph. D. s usually taking an average of three to four years to be completed. Most of the confusion with Australian postgraduate programmes occurs with the research-based programmes, particularly scientific programmes.
Research degrees generally require candidates to have a minimum of a second-class four-year honours undergraduate degree to be considered for admission to a Ph. D. programme (M. Phil are an uncommon route). In science, a British first class honours (3 years) is not equivalent to an Australian first class honours (1 year research postgraduate programme that requires a completed an undergraduate (pass) degree with a high grade-point average).  In scientific research, it is commonly accepted that an Australian postgraduate honours is equivalent to a British Master’s degree (in research).
There has been some debate over the acceptance of a three-year honours degree (as in the case of graduates from British universities) as equivalent entry requirement to graduate research programmes (M. Phil. , Ph. D. ) in Australian universities. The letters of Honours programmes also added to the confusion. For example: B. Sc. (Hons) are the letters gained for postgraduate research honours at the University of Queensland. B. Sc (Hons) does not indicate that this honours is postgraduate qualification.
Difficultly also arises between different universities in Australia – some universities have followed the UK system. Professional programs There are many professional programs such as medical and dental school require a previous bachelors for admission and are considered graduate orGraduate Entry programs even though they culminate in a bachelors degree. Example, the Bachelor of Medicine (MBBS) or Bachelor of Dentistry (BDent). There has also been some confusion over the conversion of the different marking schemes between British, U. S. and Australian systems for the purpose of assessment for entry to graduate programmes. The Australian grades are divided into four categories: High Distinction, Distinction, Credit, and Pass (though many institutions have idiosyncratic grading systems). Assessment and evaluation based on the Australian system is not equivalent to British or U. S. schemes because of the “low-marking” scheme used by Australian universities. For example, a British student who achieves 70+ will receive an A grade, whereas an Australian student with 70+ will receive a Distinction which is not the highest grade in the marking scheme.
Hence, there have been many instances where Australian university admission officers have incorrectly assessed foreign grade marks as equivalent to their own.  Funding The Australian government usually offer full funding (fees and a monthly stipend) to its citizens and permanent residents who are pursuing research-based higher degrees. There are also highly competitive scholarships for international candidates who intend to pursue research-based programmes. Taught-degree scholarships (certain masters’ degrees, Grad. Dip. , Grad. Cert. , D. Eng. , D.
B. A. ) are almost non-existent for international students, so they are usually required to be self-funded. Degree requirements Requirements for the successful completion of a taught master’s programme are that the student pass all the required modules. Some universities require eight taught modules for a one-year programme, twelve modules for a one-and-a-half-year programme, and twelve taught modules plus a thesis or dissertation for a two-year programme. The academic year for an Australian postgraduate programme is typically two semesters (eight months of study).
Requirements for research-based programmes vary among universities. Generally, however, a student is not required to take taught modules as part of their candidacy. It is now common that first-year Ph. D. candidates are not regarded as permanent Ph. D. students for fear that they may not be sufficiently prepared to undertake independent research. In such cases, an alternative degree will be awarded for their previous work, usually an M. Phil. or M. Sc. by research. Brazil Admission In Brazil, a Bachelor’s, Licenciate or Technologist degree is required in order to enter a graduate program, called pos-graduacao.
Funding The competition for public universities is very large, as they are the most prestigious and respected universities in Brazil. Public universities do not charge fees for any level/course. Funding, similar to wages, is available but is usually granted by public agencies linked to the University in question (i. e. FAPESP,CAPES, CNPq, etc. ). Degree requirements There are two types of postgraduate; lato sensu (latin for “in broad sense”), which generally means an specialization course in one area of study, mostly addressed to profesional practice, and stricto sensu (latin or “in narrow sense”), which means a Master of Science or Doctorate, encompassing broader and profound activities of scientific research. Canada Admission Admission to a master’s program generally requires a bachelor’s degree in a related field, with sufficiently high grades usually ranging from B+ and higher (note that different schools have different letter grade conventions, and this requirement may be significantly higher in some faculties), and recommendations from professors. Some schools require samples of the student’s writing as well as a research proposal.
At English-speaking universities, applicants from countries where English is not the primary language are required to submit scores from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). Nevertheless, some French speaking universities, like HEC Montreal, also requires candidates to submit TOEFL score or to pass their own English test. Admission to a doctoral program typically requires a master’s degree in a related field, sufficiently high grades, recommendations, samples of writing, a research proposal, and typically an interview with a prospective supervisor.
Requirements are often set higher than those for a master’s program. In exceptional cases, a student holding an honours BA with sufficiently high grades and proven writing and research abilities may be admitted directly to a Ph. D. program without the requirement to first complete a master’s. Many Canadian graduate programs allow students who start in a master’s to “reclassify” into a Ph. D. program after satisfactory performance in the first year, bypassing the master’s degree.
Graduate students must usually declare their research goal or submit a research proposal upon entering grad school; in the case of master’s degrees, there will be some flexibility (that is, one is not held to one’s research proposal, although major changes, for example from premodern to modern history, are discouraged). In the case of Ph. D. s, the research direction is usually known as it will typically follow the direction of the master’s research. Master’s degrees can possibly be completed in one year but normally take at least two; they typically do not exceed five years. Doctoral degrees require a minimum of two years but requently take much longer, not usually exceeding six years. Funding Graduate students may take out student loans, but instead they often work as teaching or research assistants. Students often agree, as a condition of acceptance to a programme, not to devote more than twelve hours per week to work or outside interests. Funding is available to first-year masters students whose transcripts reflect exceptionally high grades; this funding is normally given in the second year. Funding for Ph. D. students comes from a variety of sources, and many universities waive tuition fees for doctoral candidates. citation needed] Funding is available in the form of scholarships, bursaries and other awards, both private and public. Degree requirements Both master’s and doctoral programs may be done by coursework or research or a combination of the two, depending on the subject and faculty. Most faculties require both, with the emphasis on research, and with coursework being directly related to the field of research. Master’s candidates undertaking research are typically required to complete a thesis comprising some original research and ranging from seventy to two-hundred pages.
Some fields may require candidates to study at least one foreign language if they have not already earned sufficient foreign-language credits. Some faculties require candidates to defend their thesis, but many do not. Those that do not often have a requirement of taking two additional courses, minimum, in lieu of preparing a thesis. Ph. D. candidates undertaking research must typically complete a thesis, or dissertation, consisting of original research representing a significant contribution to their field, and ranging from two-hundred to five-hundred pages. Most Ph. D. andidates will be required to sit comprehensive examinations—examinations testing general knowledge in their field of specialization—in their second or third year as a prerequisite to continuing their studies, and must defend their thesis as a final requirement. Some faculties require candidates to earn sufficient credits in a third or fourth foreign language; for example, most candidates in modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, and Mandarin, while candidates in pre-modern Japanese topics must demonstrate ability in English, Japanese, Classical Chinese, and Classical Japanese.
At English-speaking Canadian universities, both master’s and Ph. D. theses may be presented in English or in the language of the subject (German forGerman literature, for example), but if this is the case an extensive abstract must be also presented in English. In exceptional circumstances, a thesis may be presented in French. The exception to this rule is McGill University, where all work can be submitted in either English or French, unless the purpose of the course of study is acquisition of a language.  French-speaking universities have varying sets of rules; some (e. . HEC Montreal) will accept students with little knowledge of French if they can communicate with their supervisors (usually in English). France Admission There are 87 public universities in France, and they are based upon the European education ladder including bachelors, Masters, and PhDs. You gain each degree though the successful completion of a predetermined number of years in education. You use these years to gain credits via the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). There are over 300 doctoral programs, which collaborate with 1200 research laboratories and centers.
Each degree has a certain set of national diplomas that are all of equal value, irrespective of where they were issued. There are also other diplomas that are exclusive to France and are very hard to attain. Possibilities for different specialties France is a good place to study if you are interested in technological innovation or scientific courses. They teach very good courses in electronics, aerospace, transportation, chemistry, telecommunication, health and biotechnology. France also has 240 engineering schools, which have similar characteristics relating to teaching quality, all of which is closely regulated.
They have advanced degree qualifications in engineering, with national diplomas that allow admission into doctoral programs. The masters degrees for business and management that are earned in certain French universities are the envy of the world. Many revolve around international exchanges and internships. As you may imagine there are a few universities that are very apt for those wanting to study art. They have 20 schools dedicated to architecture, which allow students to take advanced architecture degrees.
Two of the art schools are very prestigious and offer 3-5 year courses that may lead onto national diplomas at the bachelor or masters level. United Kingdom Admission Admission to undertake a research degree in the UK typically requires a good bachelor’s degree, or Scottish M. A. , (at least lower second, but usually an upper second or first class). Students may or may not already have a Master’s degree. In some institutions, Doctoral candidates are initially admitted to a Masters in Research Philosophy (M. Phil. or MRes), then later transfer to a Ph. D. if they can show satisfactory progress in their first 8–12 months of study.
Funding Funding for postgraduate study in the UK is awarded competitively, and usually is disseminated by institution (in the form of a certain allocation of studentships for a given year) rather than directly to individuals. There are a number of scholarships for Master’s courses, but these are relatively rare and dependent on the course and class of undergraduate degree obtained (usually requiring at least a lower second). Most Master’s students are self-funded. Funding is available for some Ph. D. courses. As at the Master’s level, there is more funding available to those in the sciences than in other disciplines.
Such funding generally comes from Research Councils such as the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), Arts and Humanities Research Council (AHRC), Medical Research Council (MRC) and others. For overseas students, most major funding applications are due as early as twelve months or more before the intended graduate course will begin. This funding is also often highly competitive. The most widely available, and thus important, award for overseas students is the Overseas Research Student (ORS) Award, which pays the difference in university fees between an overseas student and a British or EU resident.
However, a student can only for one university apply for the OSR Award, often before he or she knows whether they have been accepted. As of the 2009/2010 academic year, the HEFCE has cancelled the Overseas Research Student Award scheme for English and Welsh universities.  The state of the scheme for Scottish and Northern Irish universities is currently unclear. Students studying part-time for a Master’s degree can apply for income-based Jobseeker’s Allowance provided their timetabled hours are fewer than 16 hours per week. This also entitles the student to housing benefit provided by their local council. citation needed] Full-time students (of any type) are not normally eligible for state benefits, including during vacation time. United States Degree requirements Graduate students often declare their intended degree (master’s or doctorate) in their applications. In some cases, master’s programs allow successful students to continue toward the doctorate degree. Students may also, at many universities, use Directed Individual Studies classes from their undergraduate work to satisfy some course requirements for a master’s degree.
Additionally, doctoral students who have advanced to candidacy but not filed a dissertation (“ABD,” for “all but dissertation”) often receive master’s degrees and an additional master’s called a Master of Philosophy, or MPhil, or C. Phil. “Candidate in Philosophy” degree. The master’s component of a doctorate program often requires one or two years, and some students, because doctoral programs are better-funded, apply for doctoral programs while only intending to attain a master’s degree. citation needed] This is generally not accepted and, if a student’s advisor learns of the student’s plans, can result in early termination. Many graduate programs require students to pass one or several examinations in order to demonstrate their competence as scholars.  In some departments, a comprehensive examination is often required in the first year of doctoral study, and is designed to test a student’s background undergraduate-level knowledge. Examinations of this type are more common in the sciences and some social sciences, and relatively unknown in most humanities disciplines.
Most graduate students perform teaching duties, often serving as graders and tutors. In some departments, they can be promoted to Lecturer status, a position that comes with more responsibility. Doctoral students generally spend roughly their first two to three years taking coursework, and begin research by their second year if not before. Many master’s and all specialist students will perform research culminating in a paper, presentation, and defense of their research.
This is called the master’s thesis (or, for Educational Specialist students, the specialist paper). However, many US master’s degree programs do not require a master’s thesis, focusing instead primarily on course work or on “practicals” or “workshops”. Such “real-world” experience may typically require a candidate work on a project alone or in a team as a consultant, or consultants, for an outside entity approved or selected by the academic institution, and under faculty supervision.
In the second and third years of study, doctoral programs often require students to pass more examinations.  Programs often require a Qualifying Examination (“Quals”), a PhD Candidacy Examination (“Candidacy”), or a General Examination (“Generals”), designed to students’ grasp of a broad sample of their discipline, and/or one or several Special Field Examinations (“Specials”), which test students in their narrower selected areas of specialty within the discipline.
If these examinations are held orally, they may be known colloquially as “orals”. For some social science and many humanities disciplines, where graduate students may or may not have studied the discipline at the undergraduate level, these exams will be the first set, and be based either on graduate coursework or specific preparatory reading (sometimes up to a year’s work in reading). In all cases, comprehensive exams are normally both stressful and time consuming, and must be passed to be allowed to proceed on to the thesis.
Passing such examinations allows the student to stay, begin doctoral research, and rise to the status of a doctoral candidate, while failing usually results in the student leaving the program or re-taking the test after some time has passed (usually a semester or a year). Some schools have an intermediate category, passing at the master’s level, which allows the student to leave with a master’s without having completed a master’s thesis. For the next several years the doctoral candidate primarily performs his or her research.
Usually this lasts three to eight years, though a few finish more quickly and some take substantially longer. In total, the typical doctoral degree takes between 4 and 8 years from entering the program to completion, though this time varies depending upon the department, thesis topic, and many other factors. For example, astronomy degrees take five to six years on average, but observational astronomy degrees take six to seven due to limiting factors of weather, while theoretical astronomy degrees take five.
Though there is substantial variation among universities, departments, and individuals, humanities and social science doctorates on average take somewhat longer to complete than natural science doctorates. These differences are due to the differing nature of research between the humanities and some social sciences and the natural sciences, and to the differing expectations of the discipline in coursework, languages and length of thesis. However, time required to complete a doctorate also varies according to the candidate’s abilities and choice of research.
Some students may also choose to remain in a program if they fail to win an academic position, particularly in disciplines with a tight job market; by remaining a student, they can retain access to libraries and university facilities, while also retaining an academic affiliation, which can be essential for conferences and job-searches. Traditionally, doctoral programs were only intended to last three to four years and, in some disciplines (primarily the natural sciences), with a helpful advisor, and a light teaching load, it is possible for the degree to be completed in that amount of time.
However, increasingly many disciplines, including most humanities, set their requirements for coursework, languages and the expected extent of thesis research by the assumption that students will take five years minimum or six to seven years on average; competition for jobs within these fields also raises expectations on the length and quality of theses considerably. In some disciplines, doctoral programs can average seven to ten years. Archaeology, which requires long periods of research, tends towards the longer end of this spectrum.
The increase in length of degree is a matter of great concern for both students and universities, though there is much disagreement on potential solutions to this problem. Funding Many departments, especially those in which students have research or teaching responsibilities, offer tuition-forgiveness and a stipend that pays for most expenses. At some elite universities, there may be a minimum stipend established for all Ph. D. students, as well as a tuition waiver.
The terms of these stipends vary greatly, and may consist of a scholarship or fellowship, followed by teaching responsibilities. At many elite universities, these stipends have been increasing, in response both to student pressure and especially to competition among the elite universities for graduate students. In some fields, research positions are more coveted than teaching positions because student researchers are typically paid to work on the dissertation they are required to complete anyway, while teaching is generally considered a distraction from one’s work.
Research positions are more typical of science disciplines; they are relatively uncommon in humanities disciplines, and where they exist, rarely allow the student to work on their own research. Departments often have funds for limited discretionary funding to supplement minor expenses such as research trips and travel to conferences. A few students can attain outside fellowships such as the National Science Foundation (NSF) and National Physical Science Consortium (NPSC).
Funding differs greatly by departments and universities; some universities give five years of full funding to all Ph. D. students, though often with a teaching requirement attached; other universities do not. Foreign students are typically funded the same way as domestic (US) students, although Federally subsidized student and parent loans and work-study assistance are generally limited to U. S. citizens and nationals, permanent residents, and approved refugees. 16] Moreover, some funding sources (such as many NSF fellowships) may only be awarded to domestic students. International students often have worse financial difficulties than domestic students because higher cost of tuition and fees, higher cost of living, limitation required by law to work on campus only, and possible race or ethnic discrimination. Reasons include high costs to visit their families back home, support of a family not allowed to work due to immigration laws, tuition that is steep by world standards, and large fees: visa fees by U. S.
Citizenship and Immigration Services, surveillance fees (such as Student and Exchange Visitor Information Systems, or SEVIS) by the United States Congress and the United States Department of Homeland Security. (http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/Post_graduate) * KINDS OF SOURCE USED AND WHY : Books The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic We use this book because it has a article about our topic which is POST GRADUATE. Online Article Wikipedia We get lots if information in this site. Google We also get lots of information in this website about our topic. * TENTATIVE LIST OF REFERENCES : 1 All Online Article