Pre-AP World History – Chapter 8 Vocabulary List #1

Chan (Zen)
a sect of Buddhism that developed in Eastern Asia that emphasized meditation
Bakufu
a military government run by a shogun where the emperor has no political power. a “tent-government” ( in Japan )
shogun
supreme military ruler in Japan
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“The Three Kingdoms”
3 political organizations in Korea
seppuku
ritual suicide performed by a samurai warrior who broke the code of bushido
Heian Era
a time period in Japan led by the Fujiwara family. Japan was greatly influenced by Chinese culture in this time period
bushido code
code of conduct followed by Samurai warriors in Japan
Minyak
nomads who set up the Xi Xia Empire in the Western frontier of China during the Song Dynasty
Neo-Confucianism
new interpretation of Confucianism based on Buddhism; developed in China; worshipped Menicus
celadon
a green blazed porcelain art form that started in Korea
Silla Dynasty
1st politically unified Korean Dynasty
Koryo Dynasty
2nd politically unified Korean Dynasty
Nara and Kyoto
earliest capitals of Japan during a high-end period
Menicus
Confucian scholar; a philosopher who studied Confucianism during the Middle Ages; developed Neo-Confucianism
The Tale of Gengi
a novel written about the Fujiwara family (Prince Gengi); written in Japanese
Wu Zhao
an early Tang emperor, the only woman in Chinese history to rule in her own name
foot-binding
female subordination; tightly wrapping a young girls foot to make sure it doesn’t grow (more attractive to have small feet in China); they broke the arch of the girl’s foot
Li Qingzhao
a female Chinese poet during the Song Dynasty
Shintoism
a Japanese animistic religion that emphasizes nature and spirits (kami) that inhabit objects in nature
kami
spirits that inhabit objects in nature
Fujiwara family
a noble family who controlled Japanese government for 300 years
Minamoto family
2nd Japanese family who established the Bakufu military government
samurai
the warrior class of Japan; part of the feudal military aristocracy
Warring States Period
a 200 year period in China with violence and a lack of centralized government between the Zhou and the Qin Dynasties
Jurchen
northen peoples who destroyed Laio capital in Mongolia and made their own empire (The Jin); they took tribute from the Song and forced the Song to flee south
viets
early agricultural settlers in the Red River delta in modern-say Vietnam
Todaji Temple
enormous Buddhist temple located near Nara
Kaifeng
original capital of the Song empire; given up when the Jurchens invaded
Era of Division
a time period after the fall of the Han Dynasty; China fragmented into regional kingdoms that were chaotic and constantly at war with each other
Sui Dynasty
the short dynasty between the Han and the Tang; built the Grand Canal, strengthened the government; introduced Buddhism to China; repaired the Great Wall
Li Yuan
1st emperor of the Tang Dynasty; took over the empire following the assassination of Yangdi (he took on the imperial name of Gaozu)
Tang Dynasty
golden age dynasty much like that of the Han; used Confucianism, and equal field system, a merit system, and an education system, unified China and parts of Central Asia; an imperial dynasty
Chang’an
capital of the Tang Dynasty; larger than any other city in the world at this time
Tang Taizong
2nd emperor of the Tang Dynasty; known for peace and prosperity; started achievements of the Tang Dynasty and reconquered the Northern and Western lands China lost during the Han Dynasty
scholar-gentry
the educated upper class in China
civil service examination
Confucian exam that the people of China had to pass in order to become a government official
tributary system
a system from the time of the Han Dynasty where small countries/states were not politically under China’s control, but were forced to pay tribute in order to recognize China’s superiority
kowtow
a Chinese custom; the tributary states had to send delegations to China to present the tribute to the emperor, and kneel in front of him and praise him and bow down to him
equal-field system
agricultural reform in China under the Tang Dynasty favoring peasants; 1/5 of the land went to the peasants’ descendants and the rest went to the government
Grand Canal
a canal built by the Sui that linked the Yellow and Yangzi Rivers and served as a key component to internal trade within the Chinese Empire
Li Bo
one of Chinas most admired poets during the Tang Era; known for freedom of spirit and love for nature (Daoist)
Du Fu
one of China’s most admired poets during the Tang Era; more formal poetry which concerned social injustice and the suffering of ordinary people
Uighurs
nomadic Turkish peoples who sacked Chang’an and Luoyang
Song Dynasty
known for advances in technology, medicine, math, and science; started by Tai Zu; foot binding; magnetic compass; navy; paper money; gun power
Khitan
nomadic peoples of Manchuria; challengers to the Song Dynasty from Siberia to Inner Asia

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