Prebles’ Artforms (Ch 1-13)

Prebles’ Artforms (Ch 1-13)

Ch 1
The nature of art
Cathedra
Barnett Newman, 1951, Oil on canvas
art forms
An activity or a piece of artistic work that can be regarded as a medium of artistic expression. Music, dance, theater, literature, and the visual arts.
visual arts
drawing, painting, sculpture, film, architecture and design
work of art
The visual expression of an idea or experience formed with skill through the use of a medium.
medium, media
A particular material along with its accompanying technique; a specific type of artistic technique or means of expression determined by the use of particular materials.
mixed media
art made with a combination of different materials
the arts
music, dance, theater, literature and visual arts
Wheel of Time
Tibetan sand Mandala, 1997
collage
Technique of pasting cut-out or found elements into the space of the canvas.
mandala
“Sacred circle”: Buddhist diagram of the cosmos; sand painting; represents the impermanence of life
The tree of Jesse
west facade, 1150
reasons for art
Day to Day, worship and ritual, personal expression, social causes, visual delight,
art
the expression of application of creative skill and imagination
Romare Bearden
African American artist, used collages to show expression, intrest of jazz and communication
Dwelling
Yong Soon Min, 1994, Mixed Media
Rocket to the Moon
Romare Bearden, 1971, Collage on board
Heartland
Miriam Schapiro, 1985, Fabric and Acrylic
Utilitarian
art that improves quality or surroundings
Rembrandt
painted numerous self portraits
Entertainment
arts function in middle ages
Ch 2
Awareness, Creativity, and Communication
visualize
to use imagination and visual memory to preview events or plans before they occur
Weston
used a time exposure of over two hours for his photograph of Pepper #30
beauty
often based on culturally accepted standards
content & form
what we interpret; what we see
Rodia
Italian tile setter who built the Watts Towers out of cast off materials
Ugliness
Leonardo da Vinci’s variation of beauty as seen in his drawing Man Tricked by Gypsies
Georgia O’Keeffe
American modern artists, know for paintings of flowers influenced by Japanese artists
perception
To become aware through the senses, particularly through sight or hearing.
aesthetics
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty. Within the art context: The philosophy of art focusing on questions regarding what are is, how it is evaluated, the concept of beauty, and the relationship between the idea of beauty and the concept of art.
creativity
Ability to see (or to be aware) and to respond.
subject
Objects depicted in representational art.
form
In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object, event, or situation.
folk art
Art of people who have had no formal, academic training, but whose works are part of an established tradition of style and craftsmanship.
representational
Art in which it is the artist’s intention to present again or represent a particular subject; especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter.
content
Meaning or message contained and communicated by a work of art, including its emotional, intellectual, symbolic, thematic, and narrative connotations.
Tukutuku
Tukutuku panels are a traditional Māori art form. They are decorative wall panels that were once part of the traditional wall construction used inside meeting houses. (nonrepresentational art from New Zealand)
trompe l’oeil
French for “fool the eye.” A two-dimensional representation that is so naturalistic that it looks actual or real (or three-dimensional).
abstract
Art that departs significantly from natural appearances. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees in order to emphasize certain qualities or content. Recognizable references to original appearances may be very slight. The term is also used to describe art that is nonrepresentational.
nonrepresentational
Art without reference to anything outside itself — without representation. Also called nonobjective — without recognizable objects.
visual metaphor
The representation of a person, place, thing, or idea by way of a visual image that suggests a particular association or point of similarity. Elliot Ervitt’s Florida (water pipe is metaphor for the bird with its curved neck and thin legs)
iconography
The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms.
Ch 3
Visual Elements
The elements of art
line, shape, mass, space, time, motion, light, color, texture
additive
Colors that are made from mixtures of light
chiaroscuro
Italian “light-dark”. The gradation of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line.
compliments
Opposites on the color wheel are called
texture
The surface/tactile quality of a work
Pointillism
Painter Georges Seurat developed the painting technique using small dots of color
monochromatic
Works of art that use variations of one hue are referred to as:
purity
The saturation of a color is its
plane
two dimensional picture surface
lines
paths of action
biomorphic shape
shapes based on natural forms
figure/positive shapes
subject or dominant shapes
ground/negative shapes
background areas in picture plane
mass/form
the physical bulk of a solid body of material
Water and Sky
Escher, 1938 figure ground reversal
space
indefinable general receptacle of all things
spatial
organized in space
temporal
organized in time
overlap
most basic way to achieve the effect of depth on a flat surface
perspective
point of view or any means of representing three dimensional objects in space on a two dimensional surface
vantage/viewpoint
single fixed position
atmospheric/aerial perspective
nonlinear means for giving an illusion of depth
isometric perspective
system for suggesting depth where parallel lines remain parallel
Line
paths of action; indicate directions, define boundaries of shapes and spaces, imply volumes or solid masses, and suggest motion or emotion.
Cross-hatching
use of fine parallel lines drawn closely together at right angles, to create the illusion of shade or texture in a drawing
Implied line
A line in a composition that is not actually drawn. It may be a sight line of a figure in a composition, or a line along which two shapes align with each other.
Shape
A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in value and/or color. or within the outer boundaries of a three dimensional object
Geometric shape
precise and regular shape; circles, triangles, squares
Organic shape
An irregular, non-geometric shape. A shape that resembles any living matter. Most organic shapes are not drawn with a ruler or a compass.
Picture plane
The two-dimensional picture surface.
Positive or figure shape
A figure or foreground shape, as opposed to a negative ground or background shape.
Negative or ground shape
A background or ground shape seen in relation to foreground or figure shape(s).
Figure-ground reversal
as the eye shifts across the work, the positive (figure) and negative (background) spaces reverse. The phenomenon when positive and negative space change places – as seen in Escher’s Sky and Water I painting
Mass
Three-dimensional form having physical bulk. Also, the illusion of such a form on a two-dimensional surface.
Value or tone
relative lightness or darkness from white through gray to black. Pure hues vary in value.
Volume
1. Space enclosed or filled by a three-dimensional object or figure. 2. The implied space filled by a painted or drawn object or figure. Synonym: mass.
Closed form
A self-contained or explicitly limited form; having a resolved balance of tensions, a sense of calm completeness implying a totality within itself.
Open form
interacts with the space around it; A form whose contour is irregular or broken, having a sense of growth, change, or unresolved tension; form in a state of becoming.
Diminishing size
decreasing size of objects to imply increases distance. smaller objects appear farther away.
Vertical placement
A method for suggesting the third dimension of depth in a two-dimensional work by placing an object above another in the composition. The object above seems farther away than the one below.
linear perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases.
Vanishing point or viewpoint
With the linear perspective system, an entire picture can be constructed from this single, fixed position. place where land and sky appear to meet
One-point perspective
All major receding “lines” of the subject are parallel, but visually appear to converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon line.
Two-point perspective
Two sets of parallel lines appear to converge at two points on the horizon line.
Atmospheric or aerial perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Also known as aerial perspective.
isometric
perspective parallel lines remain parallel, they do not converge as they recede
value
refers to the relative lightness and darkness of surfaces
local/object color
color that appears to our eyes as that of the object
achromatic
without the property of hue
neutrals
white, black and gray
hue
particular wavelength of spectral color
shade
black added to a hue
tint
white added to hue
intensity/saturation
refers to the purity of a hue or color
subtractive color mixtures
pigment mixtures
pigment primaries
re yellow blue
light primaries
red-orange, green, and blue-violet
subtractive
Colors that are made from mixtures of pigments
intermediate
colors are achieved by mixing a primary color with an adjacent secondary color.
Ch 4
Principles of Design
Principles of Design
Unity/Variety; Balance; Emphasis/Subordination; Directional Forces; Contrast; Repetition/Rhythm; Scale/Proportion
repetition
gives a composition unity, continuity, flow and emphasis
balance
is achievement of equilibrium, in which acting influences are held in check by opposing forces
radial balance
often in natures, centered around central axis
composition
The combining of parts or elements to form a whole; the structure, organization, or total form of a work of art.
design
The process of organizing visual elements and the product of that process.
unity
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form.
variety
Opposite of unity, counters unity; provides diversity.
symmetrical balance
A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis.
asymmetrical balance
Balance provided by various elements according to their size and meaning; balance is around a felt or implied center of gravity.
emphasis
used to draw attention to an area or areas; position, contrast, color intensity, and size can be used to create emphasis.
focal point
the area or areas of emphasis.
subordination
neutral areas of lesser interest that keep the viewer from being distracted from the area or areas of emphasis.
contrast
the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements: dark against light; large against small; bright colors against dull; geometric against organic; hard (sharp) edges against soft (blurred).
rhythm
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design.
scale
The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment or format. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size.
proportion
The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another.
format
The shape or proportions of a picture plane.
hierarchical scale
the use of unnatural proportions to show relative importance of figures.
Henri Matisse
French artist in late 1800’s associated with fauve movement
Ch 5
Evaluating Art
subjective
Evaluation of art is always subjective
Chinese
judged art to be good if it successfully communicated the inner spirit.
personal value
orientations lead us to make judgments about the works of art we encounter.
formal theories
focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works.
inspiration
The word museum comes from the Greek mouseion, “place of the muses.” Inferring the power of
Tyler Green
“Museum ethics have become a joke.”
“good art”
changes with mature, develop critical skills, develop an aesthetic awareness
Art Criticism
The process of using formal analysis, description, and interpretation to evaluate or explain the quality and meanings of art. Refers to making discriminating judgments both favorable and unfavorable
Museum
A place dedicated to collecting, caring for, studying, and displaying objects of lasting value and interest.
Formal Theories
Theories which focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works.
Sociocultural Theories
Theories based on environmental influences such as the economic system, cultural values, and the politics of the time.
Expressive Theories
Theories which focus on the artist’s attempt to express a personality or worldview.
Ch 6
Drawing
drawing
the act of pushing or pulling a tool to make a mark or line
receptive drawing
attempt to capture the physical appearance
projective drawing
drawings that come from memory, imagination or visions
blind contour
A contour exercise in which the artist never looks at the paper
cartoon
Full-scale preparatory drawing for a fresco or mural.
graphic novel
A novel whose narrative is related through a combination of text and art, often in comic-strip form Example: Persepolis
pencil (graphite)
a thin cylindrical pointed writing implement
hatching
shading consisting of multiple crossing lines
cross hatching
cross directional lines that create depth of form
ink
black and colors, a liquid used for printing or writing or drawing
conte crayon
organic drawing material, made from earth-clays, difficult to erase, likes to be blended and smudged
cross-hatching
a technique used in drawing and linear forms of printmaking, in which one set of hatchings are drawn over another in a different direction so that the lines cross.
tooth
the surface grain of paper.
fixative
A thin varnish sprayed over a completed charcoal drawing to help bind the charcoal to the paper.
wash
transparent layer of paint or ink; ink and waters to create dark to light values
sketch
a simply, preliminary drawing
Observation Drawing
drawing by direct observation of the object; very detailed
Purpose of Drawing
1. to make a notation, sketch or record; 2. to make a study for larger, more complex works; 3. to make a complete work of art
Dry Media
Graphite / Pencil; Metal Point; Crayon, Pastel, Chalk
Liquid Media
(also called wet media); Pen & Ink; Brush & Ink
Calligraphic or Gestural Line
Line that varies from thick to thin
Ch 7
Painting
pigment
dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)
medium
a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter
glaze
coating for fabrics, ceramics, metal, etc.
impasto
the technique of applying paint so thickly that brush or knife strokes can be seen; has visible texture
tempera
egg yolk binder, vehicle water, quick dry, colors change very fine lines/details, fabrics
oil
slow dry, vegetable oil binder, on canvas or linen; Pigment; Binder (linseed Oil); Vehicle (turpentine)
acrylic
modern synthetic, water is vehicle and binder; Tough, flexible; fast drying; can mimic any other paints
dry fresco or fresco secco
repainted true fresco or dry
Watercolor
paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the result of painting. Free flowing; loose; challenging: unforgiving, dries fast; Pigment (no white: white is paper); Binder (gum Arabic); Vehicle (water)
Gouache
An opaque, water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added.
Encaustic
waxy substance used to protect areas of paper from watercolor; removed later to leave white area.
Fresco buon and secco
Painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. The pigments dry to become part of the plaster wall or surface. Sometimes called true fresco or buon fresco to distinguish it from painting over dry plaster (fresco secco).
Binder
The material used in paint that causes pigment particles to adhere to one another and to the support, for example, linseed oil or acrylic polymer.
Vehicle
Liquid emulsion used as a carrier or spreading agent in paints
Airbrush
small paint sprayer that produces a fine, controlled mist of paint. produces even application without brush strokes.
Direct painting and impasto
executing a painting in one sitting, applying wet over wet colors.
Paint
Combination of: Pigment (color); Binder (holds pigment particles together); Vehicle (spreads the paint; hold pigment and binder)
Fresco
Wet: Pigment; Binder (wet plaster); Vehicle (water)
Ch 8
Printmaking
edition
all of the identical copies of something offered to the public at the same time
two ways printmaking differs from other art forms
artist creates the surface that makes the art work, multiples of the art work are created
silkscreen
ink forced through stencils on silk stretched across a frame
Prints vs. Mass Production
1. Limited quantity; 2. Artist oversees each print; 3. Prints numbered & signed (pencil); artist copies marked “ap”
Artist’s proof
prints made for the artist’s record or personal use (“ap”)
Relief
In a relief process, the printmaker cuts away all parts of the printing surface not meant to carry ink, leaving the design “in relief” at the level of the surface.
Original print
a print done by an artist or under his or her direct supervision. NOT a reproduction.
Etching
an intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is first coated with acid-resistant wax, then scratched to expose the metal to the bite of nitric acid where lines are desired. Also, the resulting print.
Woodcut
a type of relief print made from an image that is left raised on a block of wood.
Linocut
A relief process in printmaking, in which an artist cuts away negative spaces from a block of linoleum, leaving raised areas to take ink for printing.
Limited edition
Only a small number of prints are made, after which the plate is destroyed
Engraving
an intaglio process in which grooves are cut into a metal or wood surface with a sharp cutting tool called a burin or graver. Also, the resulting print.
Drypoint
an intaglio printmaking process in which lines are scratched directly into a metal plate with a steel needle. Also the resulting print.
Lithography
a planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used.
Screenprinting
a printmaking technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surface beneath. Easiest; stencil applied with fabric stretched over frame; Not a reverse image
Intaglio
any printmaking technique in which lines and areas to be linked and transferred to paper are recessed below the surface on the printing plate. Etching, engraving, drypoint, and aquatint are all intaglio processes.
Ch 9
Camera Arts and Digital Imaging
photography
Literally “light writing”; “light drawing”. The process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces.
camera obscura
A dark Room (or box) with a small hole in one side, through wich an inverted image of the view outside is projected onto the opposite wall, screen or mirror. The image is then traced.
negative
photographic process resulting in a reverse (negative) image from which a positive photograph can be made.
photo essay
a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewer.
photojournalism
journalism that presents a story primarily through the use of pictures
photomontage
The process of combining parts of various photographs in one photograph.
film
photographic material consisting of a base of celluloid covered with a photographic emulsion; used to make negatives or transparencies
color photography
Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors which are produced chemically during the photographic processing phase. It is contrasted with black-and-white photography, which uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.
daguerreotype
An early photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
persistence of vision
An optical illusion that makes cinema possible. The eye and mind tend to hold seen images for a fraction of a second after they disappear from view. Quick projection of slightly differing images creates the illusion of movement.
first photograph of a person
louis Dauerre, Le Boulevard duTemple
documented social issues
Lewis Hine, Coal breakers, Pennsylvania
Ch 10
Graphic Design
storyboard
graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity.
graphic design
The process of working with words and pictures to create solutions to problems of visual communication.
logo
Short for “logotype”. Sign, name or trademark of an institution, a firm or a publication, consisting of letter forms, borne on one printing plate or piece of type.
symbol
A graphic design (identifying mark) based on pictoral (rather than typographic) sources. A form or image implying or representing something beyond its obvious and immediate meaning.
typography
The art and technique of composing printed materials from type.
typeface
a typeface is a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed with stylistic unity, each comprising a coordinated set of glyphs.
font
The name given to a style of type.
illustration
An illustration is a visualization such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. Used with symbols, type, and color to produce a visual composition to attract, inform, and persuade a given audience.
letter form
The shape of an individual letter; The design and development of such shapes.
Ch 11
Sculpture
in-the-round aka freestanding sculpture
Sculpture which is meant to be seen from all sides.
low-relief aka bas-relief
Sculpture in which three-dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. The degree of projection from the surrounding surface is slight.
high-relief
Sculpture in which more than half of the natural circumference of the modeled forms project from the flat background of which they are a part.
modeling
A manipulative and often additive process. Working pliable material such as clay or wax into 3-D forms.
manipulative/additive
modeling that uses pliable materials such as clay, wax or plaster
armature
n. something that supports a sculpture
additive
Sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from core or armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel are additive processes.
casting mold
A substitution or replacement process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. When the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a form in the shape of the mold is left. Mold is also called a pattern.
carving
A subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools.
assembling
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting. Assemblage: Sculpture using preexisting, sometimes “found” objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
constructions sculpture
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting.
kinetic sculpture
A type of sculpture that incorporates actual movement as part of the design.
Alexander Calder
first to explore kinetic sculpture
mobile sculpture
A type of sculpture in which parts move, often activated by air currents.
installation
A type of art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks in a room, thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated. Also called environments.
site-specific
Site-specific art is created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork.
Ch 12
Clay, Glass, Metal, Wood, Fiber
potter
a craftsman who shapes pottery on a potter’s wheel and bakes them it a kiln
ceramics
clay hardened into a relatively permanent material by firing.
ceramist
a craftsman who shapes pottery on a potter’s wheel and bakes them it a kiln
firing
the process of increasing the temperature in a kiln until desired temperature is reached, effecting a chemical change in the clay body
kiln
a large oven for firing or burning or drying such things as porcelain or bricks
glaze
a vitreous or glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces. Glaze may be colored, transparent, or opaque.
earthenware
ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat (1100-1150C)
stoneware
ceramic ware that is fired in high heat and vitrified and nonporous (1200-1300C)
porcelain
ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic (1350-1500C)
throwing
forming objects on the potter’s wheel using a clay body with plastic qualities.
slip
potter’s clay that is thinned and used for coating or decorating ceramics
glass
brittle transparent solid that’s nearly 4000 years old
warp
yarn arranged lengthways on a loom and crossed by the woof
weft
the yarn woven horizontally across the warp yarn in weaving (aka Woof)
Loom
A device for producing cloth by interweaving fibers at right angles
Ch 13
Architecture
key concepts of architecture
function, form, structure
purposes of architecture
practical, aesthetics, symbolic
round arch
the first true arch in Western architecture, it displaces most of the weight, or downward thrust of the masonry above it to its curving sides
barrel vault
the simplest form of vault consisting of an unbroken series of arches; it forms a tunnel like shape
gothic arch
Pointed arch that started to be used in Middle Age churches
flying buttress
A free-standing support attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transept wall) by an arch or half-arch which transmits the thrust of the vault to the support attached to the outer wall of the aisle. Consists of a strut or segment of an arch carrying the thrust of the vault to a vertical pier positioned away from the main portion of the building. An important element in Gothic cathedrals.
Louise Sullivan
first great modern architect known for the skyscraper
Frank Lloyd Wright
radical innovator open planning to the outdoors
post-and-beam
a structural system that uses two or more uprights or posts to support a horizontal beam (lintel) that spans the space between them.
vault
A masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the principle of the arch. A tunnel or barrel vault is a semicircular arch extended in depth; a continuous series of arches, one behind the other. A groin vault is formed when two barrel vaults intersect. A ribbed vault is a vault reinforced by masonry ribs.
colonnade
A row of columns usually spanned or connected by beams (lintels)
arcade
A series of arches supported by columns or piers. Also, a covered passageway between two series of arches or between a series of arches and a wall.
arch
A curved structure designed to span an opening, usually made of stone or other masonry. Roman arches are semicircular; Islamic and Gothic arches come to a point at the top.
beam
The horizontal stone or timber placed across an architectural space to take the weight of the roof or wall above; also called a lintel.
buttress
a support, usually exterior, for a wall, arch, or vault that opposes the lateral forces of these structures.
truss
a structural framework or metal based on a triangular system used to span, reinforce, or support walls, ceilings, piers, or beams.
curtain wall
a non-load-bearing wall
cantilever
a beam or slab projecting a substantial distance beyond its supporting post or wall; a projection supported only at one end
lintel
The horizontal stone or timber placed across and architectural space to take the weight of the roof or wall above; also called a beam.
dressed stone
stone used for building that is cut to fit into a masonry wall
elevation
a scale drawing of any vertical side of a given structure
setback
the legal distance that a building must be from property lines.
Ch 1
The nature of art
Cathedra
Barnett Newman, 1951, Oil on canvas
art forms
An activity or a piece of artistic work that can be regarded as a medium of artistic expression. Music, dance, theater, literature, and the visual arts.
visual arts
drawing, painting, sculpture, film, architecture and design
work of art
The visual expression of an idea or experience formed with skill through the use of a medium.
medium, media
A particular material along with its accompanying technique; a specific type of artistic technique or means of expression determined by the use of particular materials.
mixed media
art made with a combination of different materials
the arts
music, dance, theater, literature and visual arts
Wheel of Time
Tibetan sand Mandala, 1997
collage
Technique of pasting cut-out or found elements into the space of the canvas.
mandala
“Sacred circle”: Buddhist diagram of the cosmos; sand painting; represents the impermanence of life
The tree of Jesse
west facade, 1150
reasons for art
Day to Day, worship and ritual, personal expression, social causes, visual delight,
art
the expression of application of creative skill and imagination
Romare Bearden
African American artist, used collages to show expression, intrest of jazz and communication
Dwelling
Yong Soon Min, 1994, Mixed Media
Rocket to the Moon
Romare Bearden, 1971, Collage on board
Heartland
Miriam Schapiro, 1985, Fabric and Acrylic
Utilitarian
art that improves quality or surroundings
Rembrandt
painted numerous self portraits
Entertainment
arts function in middle ages
Ch 2
Awareness, Creativity, and Communication
visualize
to use imagination and visual memory to preview events or plans before they occur
Weston
used a time exposure of over two hours for his photograph of Pepper #30
beauty
often based on culturally accepted standards
content & form
what we interpret; what we see
Rodia
Italian tile setter who built the Watts Towers out of cast off materials
Ugliness
Leonardo da Vinci’s variation of beauty as seen in his drawing Man Tricked by Gypsies
Georgia O’Keeffe
American modern artists, know for paintings of flowers influenced by Japanese artists
perception
To become aware through the senses, particularly through sight or hearing.
aesthetics
The study and philosophy of the quality and nature of sensory responses related to, but not limited by, the concept of beauty. Within the art context: The philosophy of art focusing on questions regarding what are is, how it is evaluated, the concept of beauty, and the relationship between the idea of beauty and the concept of art.
creativity
Ability to see (or to be aware) and to respond.
subject
Objects depicted in representational art.
form
In the broadest sense, the total physical characteristics of an object, event, or situation.
folk art
Art of people who have had no formal, academic training, but whose works are part of an established tradition of style and craftsmanship.
representational
Art in which it is the artist’s intention to present again or represent a particular subject; especially pertaining to realistic portrayal of subject matter.
content
Meaning or message contained and communicated by a work of art, including its emotional, intellectual, symbolic, thematic, and narrative connotations.
Tukutuku
Tukutuku panels are a traditional Māori art form. They are decorative wall panels that were once part of the traditional wall construction used inside meeting houses. (nonrepresentational art from New Zealand)
trompe l’oeil
French for “fool the eye.” A two-dimensional representation that is so naturalistic that it looks actual or real (or three-dimensional).
abstract
Art that departs significantly from natural appearances. Forms are modified or changed to varying degrees in order to emphasize certain qualities or content. Recognizable references to original appearances may be very slight. The term is also used to describe art that is nonrepresentational.
nonrepresentational
Art without reference to anything outside itself — without representation. Also called nonobjective — without recognizable objects.
visual metaphor
The representation of a person, place, thing, or idea by way of a visual image that suggests a particular association or point of similarity. Elliot Ervitt’s Florida (water pipe is metaphor for the bird with its curved neck and thin legs)
iconography
The symbolic meanings of subjects and signs used to convey ideas important to particular cultures or religions, and the conventions governing the use of such forms.
Ch 3
Visual Elements
The elements of art
line, shape, mass, space, time, motion, light, color, texture
additive
Colors that are made from mixtures of light
chiaroscuro
Italian “light-dark”. The gradation of light and dark values in two-dimensional imagery; especially the illusion of rounded, three-dimensional form created through gradations of light and shade rather than line.
compliments
Opposites on the color wheel are called
texture
The surface/tactile quality of a work
Pointillism
Painter Georges Seurat developed the painting technique using small dots of color
monochromatic
Works of art that use variations of one hue are referred to as:
purity
The saturation of a color is its
plane
two dimensional picture surface
lines
paths of action
biomorphic shape
shapes based on natural forms
figure/positive shapes
subject or dominant shapes
ground/negative shapes
background areas in picture plane
mass/form
the physical bulk of a solid body of material
Water and Sky
Escher, 1938 figure ground reversal
space
indefinable general receptacle of all things
spatial
organized in space
temporal
organized in time
overlap
most basic way to achieve the effect of depth on a flat surface
perspective
point of view or any means of representing three dimensional objects in space on a two dimensional surface
vantage/viewpoint
single fixed position
atmospheric/aerial perspective
nonlinear means for giving an illusion of depth
isometric perspective
system for suggesting depth where parallel lines remain parallel
Line
paths of action; indicate directions, define boundaries of shapes and spaces, imply volumes or solid masses, and suggest motion or emotion.
Cross-hatching
use of fine parallel lines drawn closely together at right angles, to create the illusion of shade or texture in a drawing
Implied line
A line in a composition that is not actually drawn. It may be a sight line of a figure in a composition, or a line along which two shapes align with each other.
Shape
A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in value and/or color. or within the outer boundaries of a three dimensional object
Geometric shape
precise and regular shape; circles, triangles, squares
Organic shape
An irregular, non-geometric shape. A shape that resembles any living matter. Most organic shapes are not drawn with a ruler or a compass.
Picture plane
The two-dimensional picture surface.
Positive or figure shape
A figure or foreground shape, as opposed to a negative ground or background shape.
Negative or ground shape
A background or ground shape seen in relation to foreground or figure shape(s).
Figure-ground reversal
as the eye shifts across the work, the positive (figure) and negative (background) spaces reverse. The phenomenon when positive and negative space change places – as seen in Escher’s Sky and Water I painting
Mass
Three-dimensional form having physical bulk. Also, the illusion of such a form on a two-dimensional surface.
Value or tone
relative lightness or darkness from white through gray to black. Pure hues vary in value.
Volume
1. Space enclosed or filled by a three-dimensional object or figure. 2. The implied space filled by a painted or drawn object or figure. Synonym: mass.
Closed form
A self-contained or explicitly limited form; having a resolved balance of tensions, a sense of calm completeness implying a totality within itself.
Open form
interacts with the space around it; A form whose contour is irregular or broken, having a sense of growth, change, or unresolved tension; form in a state of becoming.
Diminishing size
decreasing size of objects to imply increases distance. smaller objects appear farther away.
Vertical placement
A method for suggesting the third dimension of depth in a two-dimensional work by placing an object above another in the composition. The object above seems farther away than the one below.
linear perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface based on the fact that parallel lines or edges appear to converge and objects appear smaller as the distance between them and the viewer increases.
Vanishing point or viewpoint
With the linear perspective system, an entire picture can be constructed from this single, fixed position. place where land and sky appear to meet
One-point perspective
All major receding “lines” of the subject are parallel, but visually appear to converge at a single vanishing point on the horizon line.
Two-point perspective
Two sets of parallel lines appear to converge at two points on the horizon line.
Atmospheric or aerial perspective
A system for creating an illusion of depth on a two-dimensional surface that creates the illusion of distance by reducing color saturation, value contrast, and detail in order to imply the hazy effect of atmosphere between the viewer and distant objects. Also known as aerial perspective.
isometric
perspective parallel lines remain parallel, they do not converge as they recede
value
refers to the relative lightness and darkness of surfaces
local/object color
color that appears to our eyes as that of the object
achromatic
without the property of hue
neutrals
white, black and gray
hue
particular wavelength of spectral color
shade
black added to a hue
tint
white added to hue
intensity/saturation
refers to the purity of a hue or color
subtractive color mixtures
pigment mixtures
pigment primaries
re yellow blue
light primaries
red-orange, green, and blue-violet
subtractive
Colors that are made from mixtures of pigments
intermediate
colors are achieved by mixing a primary color with an adjacent secondary color.
Ch 4
Principles of Design
Principles of Design
Unity/Variety; Balance; Emphasis/Subordination; Directional Forces; Contrast; Repetition/Rhythm; Scale/Proportion
repetition
gives a composition unity, continuity, flow and emphasis
balance
is achievement of equilibrium, in which acting influences are held in check by opposing forces
radial balance
often in natures, centered around central axis
composition
The combining of parts or elements to form a whole; the structure, organization, or total form of a work of art.
design
The process of organizing visual elements and the product of that process.
unity
The appearance of similarity, consistency, or oneness. Interrelational factors that cause various elements to appear as part of a single complete form.
variety
Opposite of unity, counters unity; provides diversity.
symmetrical balance
A design (or composition) with identical or nearly identical form on opposite sides of a dividing line or central axis.
asymmetrical balance
Balance provided by various elements according to their size and meaning; balance is around a felt or implied center of gravity.
emphasis
used to draw attention to an area or areas; position, contrast, color intensity, and size can be used to create emphasis.
focal point
the area or areas of emphasis.
subordination
neutral areas of lesser interest that keep the viewer from being distracted from the area or areas of emphasis.
contrast
the juxtaposition of dissimilar elements: dark against light; large against small; bright colors against dull; geometric against organic; hard (sharp) edges against soft (blurred).
rhythm
The regular or ordered repetition of dominant and subordinate elements or units within a design.
scale
The size or apparent size of an object seen in relation to other objects, people, or its environment or format. Also used to refer to the quality or monumentality found in some objects regardless of their size.
proportion
The size relationship of parts to a whole and to one another.
format
The shape or proportions of a picture plane.
hierarchical scale
the use of unnatural proportions to show relative importance of figures.
Henri Matisse
French artist in late 1800’s associated with fauve movement
Ch 5
Evaluating Art
subjective
Evaluation of art is always subjective
Chinese
judged art to be good if it successfully communicated the inner spirit.
personal value
orientations lead us to make judgments about the works of art we encounter.
formal theories
focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works.
inspiration
The word museum comes from the Greek mouseion, “place of the muses.” Inferring the power of
Tyler Green
“Museum ethics have become a joke.”
“good art”
changes with mature, develop critical skills, develop an aesthetic awareness
Art Criticism
The process of using formal analysis, description, and interpretation to evaluate or explain the quality and meanings of art. Refers to making discriminating judgments both favorable and unfavorable
Museum
A place dedicated to collecting, caring for, studying, and displaying objects of lasting value and interest.
Formal Theories
Theories which focus attention on the composition of the work and how it may have been influenced by earlier works.
Sociocultural Theories
Theories based on environmental influences such as the economic system, cultural values, and the politics of the time.
Expressive Theories
Theories which focus on the artist’s attempt to express a personality or worldview.
Ch 6
Drawing
drawing
the act of pushing or pulling a tool to make a mark or line
receptive drawing
attempt to capture the physical appearance
projective drawing
drawings that come from memory, imagination or visions
blind contour
A contour exercise in which the artist never looks at the paper
cartoon
Full-scale preparatory drawing for a fresco or mural.
graphic novel
A novel whose narrative is related through a combination of text and art, often in comic-strip form Example: Persepolis
pencil (graphite)
a thin cylindrical pointed writing implement
hatching
shading consisting of multiple crossing lines
cross hatching
cross directional lines that create depth of form
ink
black and colors, a liquid used for printing or writing or drawing
conte crayon
organic drawing material, made from earth-clays, difficult to erase, likes to be blended and smudged
cross-hatching
a technique used in drawing and linear forms of printmaking, in which one set of hatchings are drawn over another in a different direction so that the lines cross.
tooth
the surface grain of paper.
fixative
A thin varnish sprayed over a completed charcoal drawing to help bind the charcoal to the paper.
wash
transparent layer of paint or ink; ink and waters to create dark to light values
sketch
a simply, preliminary drawing
Observation Drawing
drawing by direct observation of the object; very detailed
Purpose of Drawing
1. to make a notation, sketch or record; 2. to make a study for larger, more complex works; 3. to make a complete work of art
Dry Media
Graphite / Pencil; Metal Point; Crayon, Pastel, Chalk
Liquid Media
(also called wet media); Pen & Ink; Brush & Ink
Calligraphic or Gestural Line
Line that varies from thick to thin
Ch 7
Painting
pigment
dry coloring matter (especially an insoluble powder to be mixed with a liquid to produce paint etc)
medium
a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter
glaze
coating for fabrics, ceramics, metal, etc.
impasto
the technique of applying paint so thickly that brush or knife strokes can be seen; has visible texture
tempera
egg yolk binder, vehicle water, quick dry, colors change very fine lines/details, fabrics
oil
slow dry, vegetable oil binder, on canvas or linen; Pigment; Binder (linseed Oil); Vehicle (turpentine)
acrylic
modern synthetic, water is vehicle and binder; Tough, flexible; fast drying; can mimic any other paints
dry fresco or fresco secco
repainted true fresco or dry
Watercolor
paint that uses water-soluble gum as the binder and water as the vehicle. Characterized by transparency. Also, the result of painting. Free flowing; loose; challenging: unforgiving, dries fast; Pigment (no white: white is paper); Binder (gum Arabic); Vehicle (water)
Gouache
An opaque, water-soluble paint. Watercolor to which opaque white has been added.
Encaustic
waxy substance used to protect areas of paper from watercolor; removed later to leave white area.
Fresco buon and secco
Painting technique in which pigments suspended in water are applied to a damp lime-plaster surface. The pigments dry to become part of the plaster wall or surface. Sometimes called true fresco or buon fresco to distinguish it from painting over dry plaster (fresco secco).
Binder
The material used in paint that causes pigment particles to adhere to one another and to the support, for example, linseed oil or acrylic polymer.
Vehicle
Liquid emulsion used as a carrier or spreading agent in paints
Airbrush
small paint sprayer that produces a fine, controlled mist of paint. produces even application without brush strokes.
Direct painting and impasto
executing a painting in one sitting, applying wet over wet colors.
Paint
Combination of: Pigment (color); Binder (holds pigment particles together); Vehicle (spreads the paint; hold pigment and binder)
Fresco
Wet: Pigment; Binder (wet plaster); Vehicle (water)
Ch 8
Printmaking
edition
all of the identical copies of something offered to the public at the same time
two ways printmaking differs from other art forms
artist creates the surface that makes the art work, multiples of the art work are created
silkscreen
ink forced through stencils on silk stretched across a frame
Prints vs. Mass Production
1. Limited quantity; 2. Artist oversees each print; 3. Prints numbered & signed (pencil); artist copies marked “ap”
Artist’s proof
prints made for the artist’s record or personal use (“ap”)
Relief
In a relief process, the printmaker cuts away all parts of the printing surface not meant to carry ink, leaving the design “in relief” at the level of the surface.
Original print
a print done by an artist or under his or her direct supervision. NOT a reproduction.
Etching
an intaglio printmaking process in which a metal plate is first coated with acid-resistant wax, then scratched to expose the metal to the bite of nitric acid where lines are desired. Also, the resulting print.
Woodcut
a type of relief print made from an image that is left raised on a block of wood.
Linocut
A relief process in printmaking, in which an artist cuts away negative spaces from a block of linoleum, leaving raised areas to take ink for printing.
Limited edition
Only a small number of prints are made, after which the plate is destroyed
Engraving
an intaglio process in which grooves are cut into a metal or wood surface with a sharp cutting tool called a burin or graver. Also, the resulting print.
Drypoint
an intaglio printmaking process in which lines are scratched directly into a metal plate with a steel needle. Also the resulting print.
Lithography
a planographic printmaking technique based on the antipathy of oil and water. The image is drawn with a grease crayon or painted with tusche on a stone or grained aluminum plate. The surface is then chemically treated and dampened so that it will accept ink only where the crayon or tusche has been used.
Screenprinting
a printmaking technique in which stencils are applied to fabric stretched across a frame. Paint or ink is forced with a squeegee through the unblocked portions of the screen onto paper or other surface beneath. Easiest; stencil applied with fabric stretched over frame; Not a reverse image
Intaglio
any printmaking technique in which lines and areas to be linked and transferred to paper are recessed below the surface on the printing plate. Etching, engraving, drypoint, and aquatint are all intaglio processes.
Ch 9
Camera Arts and Digital Imaging
photography
Literally “light writing”; “light drawing”. The process of producing images of objects on photosensitive surfaces.
camera obscura
A dark Room (or box) with a small hole in one side, through wich an inverted image of the view outside is projected onto the opposite wall, screen or mirror. The image is then traced.
negative
photographic process resulting in a reverse (negative) image from which a positive photograph can be made.
photo essay
a set or series of photographs that are intended to tell a story or evoke a series of emotions in the viewer.
photojournalism
journalism that presents a story primarily through the use of pictures
photomontage
The process of combining parts of various photographs in one photograph.
film
photographic material consisting of a base of celluloid covered with a photographic emulsion; used to make negatives or transparencies
color photography
Color photography is photography that uses media capable of representing colors which are produced chemically during the photographic processing phase. It is contrasted with black-and-white photography, which uses media capable only of showing shades of gray.
daguerreotype
An early photographic process developed by Louis Daguerre in the 1830s, which required a treated metal plate. This plate was exposed to light, and the chemical reactions on the plate created the first satisfactory photographs.
persistence of vision
An optical illusion that makes cinema possible. The eye and mind tend to hold seen images for a fraction of a second after they disappear from view. Quick projection of slightly differing images creates the illusion of movement.
first photograph of a person
louis Dauerre, Le Boulevard duTemple
documented social issues
Lewis Hine, Coal breakers, Pennsylvania
Ch 10
Graphic Design
storyboard
graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of pre-visualizing a motion picture, animation, motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity.
graphic design
The process of working with words and pictures to create solutions to problems of visual communication.
logo
Short for “logotype”. Sign, name or trademark of an institution, a firm or a publication, consisting of letter forms, borne on one printing plate or piece of type.
symbol
A graphic design (identifying mark) based on pictoral (rather than typographic) sources. A form or image implying or representing something beyond its obvious and immediate meaning.
typography
The art and technique of composing printed materials from type.
typeface
a typeface is a set of one or more fonts, in one or more sizes, designed with stylistic unity, each comprising a coordinated set of glyphs.
font
The name given to a style of type.
illustration
An illustration is a visualization such as a drawing, painting, photograph or other work of art that stresses subject more than form. Used with symbols, type, and color to produce a visual composition to attract, inform, and persuade a given audience.
letter form
The shape of an individual letter; The design and development of such shapes.
Ch 11
Sculpture
in-the-round aka freestanding sculpture
Sculpture which is meant to be seen from all sides.
low-relief aka bas-relief
Sculpture in which three-dimensional forms project from the flat background of which they are a part. The degree of projection from the surrounding surface is slight.
high-relief
Sculpture in which more than half of the natural circumference of the modeled forms project from the flat background of which they are a part.
modeling
A manipulative and often additive process. Working pliable material such as clay or wax into 3-D forms.
manipulative/additive
modeling that uses pliable materials such as clay, wax or plaster
armature
n. something that supports a sculpture
additive
Sculptural form produced by adding, combining, or building up material from core or armature. Modeling in clay and welding steel are additive processes.
casting mold
A substitution or replacement process that involves pouring liquid material such as molten metal, clay, wax, or plaster into a mold. When the liquid hardens, the mold is removed, and a form in the shape of the mold is left. Mold is also called a pattern.
carving
A subtractive process in which a sculpture is formed by removing material from a block or mass of wood, stone, or other material, with the use of sharpened tools.
assembling
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting. Assemblage: Sculpture using preexisting, sometimes “found” objects that may or may not contribute their original identities to the total content of the work.
constructions sculpture
Sculpture creating by joining materials (often using welding) as opposed to modeling, carving, and casting.
kinetic sculpture
A type of sculpture that incorporates actual movement as part of the design.
Alexander Calder
first to explore kinetic sculpture
mobile sculpture
A type of sculpture in which parts move, often activated by air currents.
installation
A type of art medium in which the artist arranges objects or artworks in a room, thinking of the entire space as the medium to be manipulated. Also called environments.
site-specific
Site-specific art is created to exist in a certain place. Typically, the artist takes the location into account while planning and creating the artwork.
Ch 12
Clay, Glass, Metal, Wood, Fiber
potter
a craftsman who shapes pottery on a potter’s wheel and bakes them it a kiln
ceramics
clay hardened into a relatively permanent material by firing.
ceramist
a craftsman who shapes pottery on a potter’s wheel and bakes them it a kiln
firing
the process of increasing the temperature in a kiln until desired temperature is reached, effecting a chemical change in the clay body
kiln
a large oven for firing or burning or drying such things as porcelain or bricks
glaze
a vitreous or glassy coating applied to seal and decorate surfaces. Glaze may be colored, transparent, or opaque.
earthenware
ceramic ware made of porous clay fired at low heat (1100-1150C)
stoneware
ceramic ware that is fired in high heat and vitrified and nonporous (1200-1300C)
porcelain
ceramic ware made of a more or less translucent ceramic (1350-1500C)
throwing
forming objects on the potter’s wheel using a clay body with plastic qualities.
slip
potter’s clay that is thinned and used for coating or decorating ceramics
glass
brittle transparent solid that’s nearly 4000 years old
warp
yarn arranged lengthways on a loom and crossed by the woof
weft
the yarn woven horizontally across the warp yarn in weaving (aka Woof)
Loom
A device for producing cloth by interweaving fibers at right angles
Ch 13
Architecture
key concepts of architecture
function, form, structure
purposes of architecture
practical, aesthetics, symbolic
round arch
the first true arch in Western architecture, it displaces most of the weight, or downward thrust of the masonry above it to its curving sides
barrel vault
the simplest form of vault consisting of an unbroken series of arches; it forms a tunnel like shape
gothic arch
Pointed arch that started to be used in Middle Age churches
flying buttress
A free-standing support attached to the main vessel (nave, choir, or transept wall) by an arch or half-arch which transmits the thrust of the vault to the support attached to the outer wall of the aisle. Consists of a strut or segment of an arch carrying the thrust of the vault to a vertical pier positioned away from the main portion of the building. An important element in Gothic cathedrals.
Louise Sullivan
first great modern architect known for the skyscraper
Frank Lloyd Wright
radical innovator open planning to the outdoors
post-and-beam
a structural system that uses two or more uprights or posts to support a horizontal beam (lintel) that spans the space between them.
vault
A masonry roof or ceiling constructed on the principle of the arch. A tunnel or barrel vault is a semicircular arch extended in depth; a continuous series of arches, one behind the other. A groin vault is formed when two barrel vaults intersect. A ribbed vault is a vault reinforced by masonry ribs.
colonnade
A row of columns usually spanned or connected by beams (lintels)
arcade
A series of arches supported by columns or piers. Also, a covered passageway between two series of arches or between a series of arches and a wall.
arch
A curved structure designed to span an opening, usually made of stone or other masonry. Roman arches are semicircular; Islamic and Gothic arches come to a point at the top.
beam
The horizontal stone or timber placed across an architectural space to take the weight of the roof or wall above; also called a lintel.
buttress
a support, usually exterior, for a wall, arch, or vault that opposes the lateral forces of these structures.
truss
a structural framework or metal based on a triangular system used to span, reinforce, or support walls, ceilings, piers, or beams.
curtain wall
a non-load-bearing wall
cantilever
a beam or slab projecting a substantial distance beyond its supporting post or wall; a projection supported only at one end
lintel
The horizontal stone or timber placed across and architectural space to take the weight of the roof or wall above; also called a beam.
dressed stone
stone used for building that is cut to fit into a masonry wall
elevation
a scale drawing of any vertical side of a given structure
setback
the legal distance that a building must be from property lines.
Visual elements
Line, Shape, Mass, Space, Time, Motion, Light, Color, Texture
Line
paths of action; indicate directions, define boundaries of shapes and spaces, imply volumes or solid masses, and suggest motion or emotion.
Shape
A two-dimensional or implied two-dimensional area defined by line or changes in value and/or color.
Geometric shape
precise and regular shape; circles, triangles, squares
Organic shape
An irregular, non-geometric shape. A shape that resembles any living matter. Most organic shapes are not drawn with a ruler or a compass.
Mass
Three-dimensional form having physical bulk. Also, the illusion of such a form on a two-dimensional surface.
Space
2D: the size of the picture plane plus implied depth