Prentice Hall World History

Prentice Hall World History

Strait
narrow water passage
Homer
Great poet who wrote the Iliad
Knossos
site of the palace of the Minoan ruler
Heinrich Schliemann
businessman who proved that the Trojan War really occurred
Trojan War
conflict caused by economic rivalry between the Mycenaeans and Troy.
Greek life- The Sea
the sea shapes greek civilization. proximity to sea, lack of resources encourage sea travel and trade
Greek life- The Land
mountains slow travel, divide land into regions. lack of fertile land leads to small populations, need for colonies
Greek life- The Climate
moderate climate promotes outdoor life. Greek men, especially, spend much of their time outside
Mycenaeans
Indo-Europeans who settled on Greek mainland in 2000BC. took their name from their city, Mycenae
contact with Minoans
Mycenaeans adopt Minoan sea trade and culture
Dorians replace Mycenaeans
Mycenaean civilization collapses around 2000BC. Dorians- possibly relatives of Bronze age Greeks- move into Greece. Less advanced than Mycenaeans, Dorians leave no written records
Epic
a narrative poem about heroic deeds
Epics of Homer
Oral tradition grows, especially epics of Homer- a blind storyteller. Homer’s epic the Iliad, about Trojan War, shows Greek Heroic ideal
Greeks create myths
Greeks develop their own myths- traditional stories about gods. Greeks seek to understand mysteries of life through myths. Greeks attributw human qualities- love, hate, jealousy- to their gods
Zeua
ruler of gods. presided over the affairs of gods and humans. lives on Mount Olympus with his wife, Hera goddess of marriage.
Athena
goddess of wisdom and guardian of cities, daughter of Zeus
polis
city-state in ancient Greece and its surrounding villages. the formal government. citizens gather in the marketplace and acropolis- a fortified hill top
aristocracy
rule by a land owning elite
oligarchy
power is in the hands of a small, powerful elite, usually from the business class
democracy
government by the people
tyrant
people who gained power by force. nobles and wealthy citizens win support of common people. seize control and rule in the interests of ordinary people
legislature
lawmaking body
acropolis
where temples were built
Athens democracy
Nobleman, Draco, develops legal code based on equality of citizens. ruler solon abolishes debt slavery; Cleithenes has citizens make laws. only native-born, property- owning males are citizens
Athenian education
schooling only for sons of wealthy families. girls learn from mothers and other female members of household
Spartans city-state
Sparta, isolated from much of Greece, builds military state
Sparta conquers Messenia
Messenians become helots- peasants forced to farm the land. harsh rule leads to Messenian revolt; Spartans build stronger atate
Spartan daily life
Spartan values: duty, strength, individuality, discipline over freedom. Sparta has the most powerful army in Greece. Males move into barracks at age 7, train until 30, serve until 60. Girls receive some military training and live hardy lives. Girls also taught to value service to Sparta above all else
phalanx
a massive formation of heavily armed foot soldiers. long hours of drill were required to perfect the fighting method. feared by all, formation of soldiers with spears, shields. armor becomes cheaper and leads to new kind of army; includes soldiers from all classes
Battle of Marathon
Persian Wars- between Greece and Persian empire- begin in Ionia. Persian army attacks Athens, Athens win Marathon
Delian League
city-states of combining resources to protect against threats from Persia led by Athens and Sparta
Age of Pericles
leads to a Golden Age in Athens
Themistocles
urged Greeks to build stronger defenses after Marathon. encouraged the cultural growth of Athens through public festivals
direct democracy
citizens take part in the daily affairs of government
Peloponnesian War
ended Athenian greatness
Aspasia
leader who urged Athens to build warships
Aristotle
founded the Lyceum
Herodotus
wrote The Persian Wars
Plato
wrote The Republic
rhetoric
the art of skillful speaking
tragedy
play that told a story of human suffering that usually ended in disaster
classic
style in literature set by the Greeks based on the elegance, harmony, balance of Greek works
comedy
humorous plays that mocked people or customs
ostracism
being banished from Athens
Macedonia
kingdom of mountain villages north of Greece. Macedonians call themselves Greeks; rest of Greece does not. Built by Philip
King Philip II
ruler, brilliant general; dreams of controlling Greece. PHILIP CREATES WELL-TRAINED PROFESSIONAL army; plans to invade Greece. 338BC Macedonians defeat Greece; 336BC King Philip murdered. His son named king of Macedonia– becomes “Alexander the Great”
Alexander’s early life
tutored by Aristotle; inspired by the Iliad; has military training. becomes king when 20 years old; destroys Thebes to curb rebellion
Alexander invades Persia
quick victory at Granicus River. Datius III- king of Persia, assembles army of 50,000- 75,000 men. Alexander defeats Persians again, forces King of Persia to flee
Conquering the Persian Empire
Alexander marches to Egypt, crowned pharaoh. at Gaugamela in Mesopotamia, Alexander defeats Persians again. Alexander captures cities of Babylon, Susa and Perseplois. Persepolis, Persian capital, burned to the ground
Alexander in India
Alexander fights his way across the deserts of Central Asia to India. Alexander conquers Indus Valley area. Reluctantly returns to Babylon, dies
Alexander’s Legacy
Alexander melds Greek and Persian cultures; wife is Persian. Empire becomes three kingdoms: a)Macedonia, Greek city-states b) Egypt c) old Persia, also known as Seleucid kingdom
Hellenistic culture in Alexandria
result of Alexander’s policies- a new vibrant culture. Hellenistic culture- Greek blended with Egyptian, Persian, Indian
Alexandria
Egyptian city becomes center of Hellenistic civilization. Attractions: 1)lighthouse, called the Pharos, stands over 350 feet tall 2)Museum contains art galleries, a zoo, botanical gardens, dining hall 3) library holds masterpieces of ancient literature; supports scholars- preserve Greek and Egyptian learning
assimilated
absorbed