PSY101 memories

PSY101 memories

George Miller found that the average person is able to keep about ____ digits in mind at a time.
seven
When an old piece of information interferes with your
proactive
The memory problem called retroactive interference happens when
leaning new information interferes with your memory of old information.
Tim can remember what he had for lunch yesterday. This is an example of aan
episodic memory.
Explicit memory, also called ____ memory, can be clearly stated or explained
declarative
The memory of how to perform a task is
implicit memory
Endel Tulving, the cognitive psychologist, classifies memories according to the
type of information stored.
The two types of explicit memory described by Tulving are
semantic and episodic memory.
The memory of things that happen to us or occur in our life are referred to as
episodic memory.
Abe and Rose, who have been married for 13 years, are discussing the
episodic
Your recollection of the humiliating lecture you received after you were
episodic
Recall of what your professor said in class and recall of what you wore that day are
semantic and episodic
General knowledge of history, algebra, and literature refers to ____ memory.
semantic
The type of memory one would use to remember the seven wonders of the
semantic memory.
When stating “I know….” you are referring to a(n) ____ memory
semantic; episodic
In-line skating and tap dancing skills would be stored in ____ memory.
implicit
The distinction between semantic and procedural memory is
what it was and how one did it.
Which of the following is most likely to remain firmly embedded in
how to swim
Tracy took tennis lessons when she was very young but had not
implicit
Once we have learned the multiplication tables the recall of 6 times 6 is
priming
The story about a woman with amnesia who was able to dial her mother’s
implicit
____ memory is recalling information that was previously learned
Retrospective; prospective
Which of the following use prospective memory?
none of the above
The memory that tends to fail when we are feeling stressed, distracted, and
prospective memory.
Which of the following is not a type of prospective memory?
knowledge-based tasks.
Which of the following causes a decline in both prospective and retrospective memory?
aging
The process of changing information so that we can place it in memory is called
encoding.
The stages of information processing in memory are
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Jason, straining his eyes on the deck of a ship, is trying to memorize distant
visual code.
Which of the following is not a psychological format that can be
sensory code
Which of the following could be used to store “The Star Spangled Banner” song
acoustic code
What type of code represents stimuli in terms of their meaning?
semantic code
Ludwig, a cellist, is memorizing a musical composition by heart without reference to
acoustic code.
Mimi is memorizing the Bill of Rights in relation to the legal cases in
semantic code.
____ means maintaining information over time.
Storage
Mentally repeating a list or saying it to yourself refers to
maintenance rehearsal
By mentally repeating a telephone number after looking it up for the
maintenance rehearsal
While doing his homework, Joe noticed that he was having difficulty with
metamemory.
Our awareness of the functioning of our memory is defined by psychologists as
metamemory.
Extending the semantic meaning of something you already know refers to
elaborative rehearsal.
Using the phrase “Elvis’ Guitar Broke Down on Friday” to remember the
elaborative rehearsal.
The process of locating and returning information to consciousness is
retrieval.
Locating stored information and returning it to consciousness is
retrieval.
The correct order of events in memory processing is
encoding, storage, and retrieval
Sofia is taking a chemistry exam. She has not studied conscientiously for
encoding failure
Roberto is taking a physics exam. Although he has studied thoroughly
information retrieval
The process by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved is called
memory.
Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed the three stages of memory referred to as
sensory, short-term, and long-term
n the Atkinson and Shiffrin stages of memory, the progress of information
determines whether and how long information is retained.
The eyes fixate from point to point several times each second. This is called
saccadic eye movements.
While Tanya is visiting the pet store she looks down an aisle and catches
both a and b
Humans experience a “stream of consciousness” rather than discrete
sensory memory briefly holds perceptions, making them seem connected.
The stage of memory that first encounters stimuli is called
sensory.
If an image of Abraham Lincoln’s face was flashed on
memory trace.
The turn of the century psychologist McDougall found
four or five letters in a single fixation
In 1960, George Sperling modified McDougall’s method of ____
whole-report procedure; partial-report procedure
George Sperling’s experiment determined that
both a and b.
The significance of Sperling’s partial-report procedure study is
sensory
Psychologist believe that we possess a sensory register for
each of our sensory systems.
Mental representations of visual stimuli are referred to as ____
icons; iconic
Another term for “photographic memory” is
eidetic imagery.
Photographic memory involves
iconic memory and eidetic imagery.
What causes the flow of visual information to
iconic memory
Visual experience appears as a smooth and continuous
iconic memory; saccadic eye movements
You are taking notes, while listening to a lecture
echoes; echoic
Visual images are to ____ memory as auditory images are to
iconic; echoic
The sensory register that holds the mental representations
echoic memory.
Memory traces of sounds
decay more slowly than those of visual stimuli.
The memory that enables one to hold information for
both a and b.
One will generally encode visual stimuli into auditory
both a and b
Visual stimuli are most commonly retained in short-term memory by
encoding visual stimuli as sounds that can be rehearsed
Aaron has just been given a telephone number of a
around 10 seconds
Dana can only remember a few of the first and last items on her
serial-position effect.
Information at the beginning and end of a list tends to be more easily recalled than
serial-position effect.
Jim had received driving directions to his destination from
the middle of the sequence.
Paul can only remember the conclusions of his speech. This is an example of the
serial-position effect.
Amy is trying to remember her social security number, while
Rehearse the set of numbers keeping them in the 3 chunks format.
According to George Miller
the number of pieces of information the average person can easily recall after a single exposure.
After a single presentation, Megan can recall her friend’s
chunking
The typical maximum number of chunks of information that can be held is
seven.
The telephone number of Brad’s financial services firm is
it consists of only two chunks of information that are meaningfully related to his business.
The ability to remember the letters of the alphabet or the words in the
rote memory.
Mechanical association learning used by an actor to memorize his lines
rote memory.
Preventing rehearsal can ____ information contained in short-term memory.
reduce
The appearance of new information in short-term memory
limited.
The process by which new information displaces older information in
the capacity of short-term memory is variable
According to Atkinson and Shiffren, the third stage of information processing is
long-term memory.
Which of the following statements would Freud disagree with
Our ideas and perceptions may appear lost because they were never properly encoded.
The evidence for the popular idea that all of our experiences are
arguable.
The way in which we conceptualize our worlds, our beliefs, and o
schemas.
Rosalind, a forward on the women’s basketball team, has invited Bryce
She does not fit his schema of her dresses.
A person that reconstructs their experience according to their prejudices is
allowing a schema to influence their recall.
Loftus and Palmer showed people a film of a car crash and then asked them to
“smashed into”
The idea that long-term memories are
recollections of a car crash can be influenced by the way in which it is labeled.
All of the following are problems with eyewitness testimony EXCEPT
Children make better witnesses because they are less suggestible than adults.
Elizabeth Loftus research on eyewitness memory suggests that memory
All of the above
According to Elizabeth Loftus, the most significant cause of memory is
misleading information
Experts suggest that witnesses to a crime
contaminate their own memory of the event.
The Lost in the Mall study illustrated that
both a and b
Which of the following is NOT true regarding long-term memory?
There is a tendency to replace new information with old information.
Danielle, a college senior, is trying to remember the names
she has not yet found the cues that will help her retrieve the information from long-term memory
A psychology student wants to know how to remember the
elaborative
The difference between rote learning and meaningful learning is
maintenance rehearsal and elaborative rehearsal.
Some language arts teachers like to say, “Another language, another soul.” The
elaborative rehearsal.
While studying for an astronomy exam, Haley realizes that the swirling motion of
elaborative rehearsal.
Craik and Lockhart argue that memory storage and recall depends upon the ____
depth
The ____ model of memory proposes that memory consists of
levels-of-processing
Henry learned that the word diplomat originates from two Greek stems
elaborative rehearsal
What is meant by the word “deeply” in the statement
All of the above
Which of the following is an example of processing new information “deeply.”
both a and b
Susan, Judd, and Melanie work at a music store in the mall
Judd
The mnemonic device “i before e except after c” is based upon a(n)
semantic code
Benjamin can remember exactly where he was and what he was doing
flashbulb memory.
Emotionally charged events that arrest public interest, like the attacks of
flashbulb memories.
The vivid, detailed recollection of what you were doing when you learned about
flashbulb memory.
Flashbulb memories seem vivid for
Dramatic events stimulate the brain to produce exact or photographic memories.
Which of the following is true regarding long-term memory organization?
All of the above
____ is formed in long-term memory by organizing information into groups
Hierarchical structure
Using the hierarchical structure of your long-term memory of
All of the above
Evan met Lesley at a party last week. He sees her again a few weeks after
tip of the tongue phenomenon.
Zelda is trying to remember the name of the actor who played the lead in the
tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon.
One conclusion of Brown and McNeil’s classic study of the
acoustic and semantic codes.
Some of the participants in the Brown and McNeil TOT experiments proved to
incomplete or imperfect learning.
Research suggests that our memories of the past are
people tend to seek out positive events and avoid negative ones
Evidence from a number of studies demonstrates that recall is ____
worse; context-dependent
Jill prefers to study for tests in the classroom where the tests are
context-dependant
Jennie returned to her elementary school when she was visiting her
context-dependent memory
Detective Rawlings asked Harry, a witness to a mugging, to mentally reconstruct the
context-dependent memory
Déjà vu is an example of ____ memory.
context-dependant
One afternoon Amanda could not remember where she left her purse. In the
state-dependent memory
In the effects of mood on memory, a happy mood may evoke
state-dependent memory.
Brooke drinks so much coffee that she
Drink enough coffee to give herself the jitters again
The classic studies that first made use of nonsense syllables in the study of
Hermann Ebbinghaus.
Remembering nonsense syllables is difficult because they are
acoustic coding and maintenance rehearsal.
A student taking a multiple-choice exam generally relies on the ____
recognition
n preparing for the 40th high school reunion, Jill and Ed correctly identified
recognition.
In taking the position that only fill-in-the-blank tests are suitable for
recall
The memory task for most of the items in a multiple-choice test, such as
recognition.
Nonsense syllables are sometimes arranged as paired associates,
recall.
The paired associates task is used to measure the ____ memory task.
recall
Peter, a participant in a paired associate learning experiment, noted that
both semantic and acoustic encoding
The difference between the number of times required to learn
savings.
The concept of method of savings was developed by Ebbinghaus to study
relearning
In Ebbinghaus’s classic curve of forgetting, the greatest memory loss occurs
most rapidly just after the material is initially learned
Forgetting that occurs because new information inhibits the retrieval of
interference theory.
According to interference theory we forget material because
a and b only
Joy just learned to speak French, but she notices
retroactive interference.
Beatrice took four years of Spanish in high school. In college she studied
retroactive interference
At college Jim is learning to speak French, but he keeps using
proactive interference.
George just bought a new laptop computer after years of using a
proactive interference.
Which of the following statements is true regarding Freud’s concept of repression?
All of the above
Psychoanalysts believe that dissociative amnesia involves
repression.
Fred’s history professor exhibits traits similar to those of
repression.
Bill recently found out that when he was a child his dog, which he thought was
repression.
The lack of support for the existence of recovered memories is based on
Both a and b
Freud discovered that many patients could not recall episodes that
infantile
The text presents several methods to improve memory skills. Which
Avoid using familiar associations.
In the Method of Loci, the material to be learned is associated with
familiar images.
The memory strategy called ____ relies on forming associations by linking two items
mediation
Mnemonic devices can incorporate chunks of information into a format such as
all of the above
A psychoanalytical explanation of infantile amnesia would include
a and b only
Which of the following is a physiological factor contributing to infantile amnesia?
both b and c
Jessica was upset because she was unable to remember her 4th birthday party
a or b
In ____ amnesia, there are memory lapses for the period following a trauma
anterograde
Anterograde amnesia interferes with many memory processes such as
all of the above
One of the symptoms of anterograde amnesia is
a failure to establish memories after the injury, but a preservation of memories prior to the injury.
Bill was in an automobile accident. The events just prior to the accident are still a
retrograde
Which of the following is a cognitive factor associated with infantile amnesia?
Infants do not reliably use language to symbolize or classify events.
In ____ amnesia, the trauma prevents patients from remembering events that
retrograde
The surviving bodyguard in Princess Diana’s car was unable to recall
retrograde amnesia.
The clinical effects of head trauma suggest
a period of consolidation
____ are viewed as electrical circuits in the brain that correspond to memory traces.
Engrams
In searching for the engram, Karl Lashley was in reality looking for the biological
memory.
Which of the following are thought to be involved in the biochemical process of
both a and b
Research on the biology of memory involving the visual cortex of
memories may have neural correlates at specific sites
When sea snails, such as Aplysia and Hermissenda, are conditioned,
serotonin
The enhanced efficiency in a synapse after brief rapid stimulation that makes
long-term potentiation.
Low levels of ____ are correlated with memory loss in Alzheimer’s disease.
acetylcholine
All of the following naturally occurring chemical substances have been
adrenaline and noradrenaline.
The structural changes in the brain that take place with the formation of
hippocampus.
Joe is a long-term alcoholic who has great difficulty storing new information in
hippocampus
After a stroke destroyed a large area of his frontal lobe, Dwight was less able to integrate
place and time.
It appears that storage bins for long-term memories are located in
different brain areas.
What part of the memory system is the prefrontal cortex thought to play?
executive center
After an industrial accident in which he experienced a penetrating
hippocampus.
Damage to the ____ disrupts the formation of ____ memories
thalamus; verbal