PSY456 Chapters

Identify the features of a pre logical subperiod
seeing is believing, more socialized speech, beginning problem solving
Rank the 3 developmental stages identified by Maria Nagy in children’s understanding of death between the ages of 3 and 10 in order
death as a stage of ‘less alive’, death as final but as avoidable and lacking inevitability and personal reference, death as the result of a biological process that is final and personal
The causality factor of dead includes a recognition of the ___ of death
internal and external
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According to Jean Piaget, development occurs through two complimentary processess
assimilation and accommodation
___ is a fifth component of dead that makes explicit the understanding not only that all living things die but also that each living thing will die
personal mortality
rank the stages of psychosocial development devised by Erikson (psychosocial milestones)
trust vs mistrust, autonomy vs shame, initiative vs guilt, industry vs inferiority, identity vs confusion, intimacy vs isolation, generatively vs stagnation, integrity vs despair
The term that refers to the ‘uprooting and restructuring of basic attitudes, values, or identities’ when adults take on new roles that require replacing their existing values and modes of behavior is
resocialization
identify the different ways in which peer groups and other social networks exert a powerful influence on socialization through the life course
educational and work settings, clubs and organizations, leisure pursuits, friends and neighbors
According to Erison’s stages of development, the positive outcome of middle adulthood is ____
care
Identify the behaviors exhibited by late adolescents, those between age 18 to early 20s
increased self-acceptance, concern for others and an increasingly future-oriented view of the world
a phrase used by educators to describe opportunities for learning that arise out of ordinary experiences is
teachable moment
the process by which as individual becomes identified as a member of a particular culture, learning and internalizing the norms, vales, rules, and behaviors of society is known as
socialization
According to Erikson’s model, for the young child, being dead is a(n)
altered state of living or a diminished form of life
In Erikson’s model, the years from about six to the beginning of puberty correspond to the stage of
industry vs inferiority
The term used to describe the learning of new rules and behaviors when one becomes a member of a smaller group within the larger society is
secondary socialization
Like adolescents, emerging adults think they are
‘beyond death’
if the middle-aged adult is aware of mortality in a general sense, the older person can be described as
aware of his or her own finitude
An active attempt to change other people’s perceptions and behaviors about some aspect of their social world is called
tactical socialization
Identify the reaction of an adolescent toward a death in the family
denial, depression, anger, somatization, mood swings, and philosophical questioning
In the toddler hood stage, the death of a significant other affects the child’s task of pushing independence and may cause ___ to earlier behaviors, such as clinging, crying, and being more demanding
regression
According to Jean Piaget, the basic unit of understanding is a(n) _____ or
schema or scheme
Religions the world over have traditionally been a fertile avenue for contemplating one’s place in ____
the universe
Identify those words that are indicative of honest and accurate terminology for communicating death-related issues
died, dead, sorrow, and funeral
Since mature love takes the risk of commitment in early adulthood (19-40s) the death of a loved one could be
most devastating during this stage and the next
‘pet parents’ may experience feelings of guilt and direct responsibility for a companion animal’s death by euthanasia because
after all the animal cannot communicate a wish to die explicitly through language in the way humans can in a living will or other advance directive
Identify the problems usually faced by children as a reaction to grief in their middle childhood years
school and learning problems, phobias, anger, and hypochondriasis
Recent studies show that children begin to conceptualize death as a biological event at the same time they construct a(n) ________ ______ of how the human body functions
biological model
A person may not become fully aware of the impact of childhood experiences with death until _____
adulthood
In Piaget’s model, early childhood (2-7 years) is characterized as the ____ period
preoperational
Erik son characterizes the period from birth to roughly one year as predominantly a time of _____
a time of developing a sense of basic trust toward the environment
The _____ is the foundational social institution in all societies
family
The major aspect of a mature concept of death are mastered by a child in a relatively _____ between the ages 5 and 10
fixed sequential order
One of the death-related fears that might manifest in a child in his or her early childhood is ______
bodily mutilation
With respect to a child’s understanding of death, paying attention to the ____ of the child is more reliable than correlating stages of understanding to age
sequence of development
In a mature concept of death, death is ultimately caused by a(n) _____ in the functioning of the body
irreversible breakdown in the functioning of the body
The way we learn about death tends to be a result of ____ rather than a systematic instruction
happenstance
The main phases of socialization are developed
through childhood years
An adolescent’s understanding of the universality of death may be influenced by a sense of _____
invulnerability
The positive outcome of identity versus confusion is ______
fidelity
Books chosen to educate a child about death
should be appropriate for a particular situation
the nonempirical ideas about death mainly with the notion that _____
human beings survive in some form beyond the death of the physical body
a feature length story on the death of someone famous is a/an
obituary
Brief standardized printed statements following the death of an average citizen are called
death notices
In Gerber’s “mean world syndrome” the symbolic use of death contributes to
1. an irrational dread of dying 2. diminished vitality 3. diminished self-direction in life
according to George Gerbner, the “mean world syndrome” describes depictions of death in the mass media as embedded in a structure of violence that conveys
a heightened sense of danger
Avoiding words like dead or dying, instead using phrases in which loved ones “pass away,” the deceased is “laid to rest” and the corpse is “remains”, is an example of
euphemisms
What is the form of speech acknowledging the reality of death while distancing us from the dead, for example, “He was fond of music?”
indicative voice
Themes of loss and death are heard in
all types of music
What is the largest ongoing community arts project in America
AIDS
What has been called the “oil of society”
humor
Hibakusha is a Japanese word meaning
explosion affected
Which of the following are considered dimensions of thanatology?
1. psychological 2. anthropological 3. political
The largest area of empirical research in thanatology is concerned with the measurement of attitudes toward death and dying and more particularly
death anxiety
Research about death anxiety indicates that it tends to be higher among
blacks than whites
Which of the following are included in Ernest Becker’s “four strands of emphasis” in terror management theory (TMT)?
1. the world is a terrifying place 2. because the terror of death is so overwhelming, we conspire to keep it unconscious 3. the basic motivation for human behavior is the need to control our basic anxiety to deny the terror of death
The establishment of death studies, in modern times, can be traced to explorations of death by
Freud
The modern scientific approach to the study of death is usually traced to a symposium organized in 1956 by
Herman Feifel
Hannelore Wass observes that the study of death and dying will
help individuals and societies transcend self-interest in favor of concern for others
Which of the following factors does NOT affect our familiarity with death?
political decision making
Approximately how much has the average life expectancy in the United States increased since 1900?
30 yrs
__________ has the longest life expectancy of countries worldwide.
japan
What are the two leading causes of death in the United States?
heart disease and cancer
Which of the following BEST describes a “cosmopolitan” society?
ideas and practices from other historical periods and cultures are valued and examined
According to Ulrich Beck, a German scholar and observer of the “cosmopolitan society,” the human condition in the present century
cannot be understood nationally or locally but only globally
Even when curative treatments have ended, the effort to control circumstances around death and dying so that it comes out “right” is termed
managed death
T/F: The Vietnam Veterans Memorial Wall is an example of contemporary mourning art.
true
What can be defined as “all that in human society which is socially rather than biologically transmitted?”
Culture
Islam calls for the burial of the deceased as soon as possible
True
The ofrenda, found in Mexican culture, can be linked to the
Japanese butsudan
The danse macabre was originally a reaction to fear of death caused by an epidemic of
plague
In Japanese funeral rituals, all of the following rites are held EXCEPT the
belongings of the deceased are buried with the body
Human concern for the dead
predates written history
Dia de los Muertos, the Mexican Day of the Dead, blends Catholic, Spanish, and indian rituals. This celebration towards death that
views death in an open, humorous, ironic manner
A part of Dia de los Murexes, families go to the pantheon to
prepare for the return of their dead
According to historian Philippe Aries, during the period of “tamed death” was viewed as
an ordinary human experience
Which of the following are common in the practice of the traditional form of recuerdo?

1. Tells the story of a person’s life in a heroic manner
2. Is presented as a written narrative or ballad
3. Funeral is referred to as a “home-going” or “adios” ceremony honoring the spirits of the dead
4. Gathering at the gravesite to bid godspeed to the deceased

1 and 2
In traditional Hindu households, death is
a communal affair
Which of the following Native American practices serves the purpose of separating the dead
Ohlone avoidance of deceased’s name
A death mask was created
to provide a memento for bereaved survivors
What is the fallacy of making judgments about others in terms of one’s own cultural assumptions
Ethnocentrism
In general, Native Americans view death as
a normal part of the life cycle
Humanity received its name from the Latin root work humane, which means to
bury
According to Kellehear’s description and social history of dying, the meaning of death
has changed over time
The Dance of Death
is a recent artistic expression of loss
Around the twelfth century, simple grave markers began to appear as did elaborate effigies. This
Individualism
For the Japanese, it is quite ordinary to talk to their dead ancestors
True
The traditional african attitude towards death is essentially
positive because it is a part of totality of life
The Lakota battle cry “it is a good day to die” expresses the belief that one lives with purpose, it could all end abruptly
True
Until the 19th century, the customary deathbed scene
included family
A charnel house was a
gallery for bones entrusted to the church
One aspect of an “invisible death” is that death is
less part of common experience
When communicating a life-threatening diagnosis to a patient, a physician must consider the patient’s
personality, emotional constitution, and capacity for continued function under stress
Midway between institutionalization and independent living is a form of care for the elderly called
congregate housing
Surveys indicate that most people diagnosed with a life-threatening illness
want to be told
All of the following are associated with the mission of modern hospitals EXCEPT
care of patients with long term residential needs
Hospice programs are mandated to
provide bereavement follow-up services for the family
What is a holistic program of care for the dying
hospice
A reaction to stress in which a carer goes beyond exhaustion and depression to being “past caring” is termed
burnout
Depersonalization of the dying patients can occur when
physicians and nurses believe “nothing more can be done” and physicians and nurses avoid contact due to their own death anxiety
Most hospice care takes place in patient’s homes with family members as primary caregivers
true
What is the term describing erosion of the uniqueness of one’s personality, causing residents to become increasingly dependent on staff for mundane needs
institutional neurosis
Dr. Elisabeth Kugler-Ross wanted to
educate medical interns about dying patients
According to Norman Cousins, the style of medical communication is important because it can
play a role in the patients healing
The elements of the health care system are patients, institution, and
staff
Which country spends more on health than any other industrialized country
USA
feelings of inadequacy giving and too many demands are among the main sources of
caregiver stress
Regarding hospice and palliative care, what are the 3 C’s of high-quality care
competent, compassionate, coordinated

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